Dengue communitycapacity (DCC) is important for developing a sustainable approach to over- coming the problem of dengue. The objectives were 1) to develop and 2) evaluate a dengue communitycapacitybuilding model for the leader and non-leader group in three communi- ties selected by purposive technique. A mixed method research design was used employing both qualitative and quantitative methods with qualitative studies conducted for communitycapacitybuilding model: assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. DCC level was assessed by the Dengue CommunityCapacity Assessment Tool (DCCAT) including larval in- dices, and morbidity and mortality rate. To ana- lyze the differences of the leader and non- leader’s DCC levels both pre and post-inter- ventions in each model, the Mann-Whitney and Independent T-test were used and to analyze the difference of the DCC level among the three models (Ban Mon, Ban Nangpraya and Ban Kang), the Kruskal-Wallis Test, ANOVA, and ANCOVA were used. The findings showed that there were some differences among the three models in dengue communitycapacitybuilding in terms model. The participants consisted of leader (n = 26, 24 and 28) and non-leader groups (n = 200, 215 and 176 respectively). The DCC levels of both leader and non-leader groups in- creased post-intervention in each model (p < 0.001) and in all three models, showing a statis- tically significant difference between pre and post-intervention (p < 0.001). Ban Kang model demonstrated the highest DCC levels of leader
4. This document presents, in detail, a project of work on ‘CommunityCapacityBuilding: Fostering Economic and Social Resilience’, its methodology, objectives and outputs. The specific focus of the project is to enhance local and national governments’ capacity to design and implement strategies to build, rebuild and sustain communitycapacity – especially in deprived communities and in towns, cities and regions suffering from economic decline, worklessness and benefits dependency. To this end the project will identify the current approaches to CCB, the obstacles to designing effective CCB strategies, together with the drivers to more effective empowerment at local level. Emphasis will also be put on the skills and institutions needed in a community to actively build or rebuild local social and economic life. Recommendations will be developed and international examples of good practice (‘learning models’) will be provided.
In contemporary health and education literature, communitycapacity-build- ing is increasingly advocated as important to sustain wellness-based change in targeted populations. Hawe, King, Noort, Jordens, and Lloyd (2000), in a comprehensive literature review, identify three distinct dimensions of capaci- ty-building. First, infrastructure building refers to the establishment of structures, skills, and resources. Second, creating sustainability refers to the ability to maintain a program or service or build on it. Third, problem-solving capability refers to the ability of a community to address issues appropriately as they arise. Programs that are based in a communitycapacity framework are complex because each community is unique and brings with it different con- texts. Increasingly, schools are targeted as sites for wellness-based programs with “creating communitycapacity-building” as a preferred approach to sus- tainable change (Bond, Glover, Godfrey, Butler, & Patton, 2001).
The population is aging rapidly and physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour are on the rise, a trend noticed at a northern Ontario retirement home looking to improve the choices for, and attendance at, physical activities provided for residents. A communitycapacitybuilding (CCB) approach using an asset-based, partnership methodology was utilized to create internal and external asset maps. These maps were used to inform potential partnerships within the community. Partnerships were recommended with a university, college, and two high schools, whose staff and students could help to implement new physical activities. Walking and gardening clubs were presented as examples that could be implemented using identified assets. An adapted model was then presented that the home could use in the future to explore other partnerships and continue to build capacity for its physical activity program.
Community food security (CFS) is a compli- cated topic that includes three layers of food access issues: geographic, economic, and informational (McEntee & Agyeman, 2010). CFS means having continuous access to adequate food for a healthy life (Nord, Andrews, & Carlson, 2009) and to food that is affordable, safe, nutritious, and culturally appropriate (Anderson & Cook, 1999; Kendall & Kennedy, 1998). Research has indicated that there are issues associated with many community-based food-related programs offered by NPOs, including but not limited to spatial mismatch of needs and services, social exclusion, and lack of coordination among NPOs (Meenar, 2012; Meenar & Hoover, 2012). While most studies related to NPO-driven communitycapacity-building efforts were focused on actual programs such as community gardens, few have focused on the NPOs who administered those programs. This paper attempts to contribute to such literature.
Inter-organizational networks are becoming the new shape of governance as they bring more opportunities to increase the capacities of communities (Gazley, 2008; Koliba, Meek and Zia, 2010; Provan and Kenis, 2007). Large scope services such as health care delivery, disaster preparedness and response, or disease control exceed the capacity of single organizations and require communitycapacity for collective action (Bryson, Crosby and Stone, 2006; Stone, Crosby, and Bryson, 2010; Provan, Nakama, Veaize, Teufel-Shone, and Huddleston, 2003). Improving communities’ capacity to achieve service delivery goals increases their well-being. Fostering involvement of community stakeholders, especially nonprofit organizations, and other actors for service provision distributes the overall burden of individual organizations and benefits them (Bryce, 2005; Cruntchfield and Grant 2008). Developing communitycapacity, establishing strong networks, increasing the capacity of existing ones, and adapting them to changing environmental conditions remain important tasks. A broad range of literature discusses the experiences and methods used to foster communitycapacity, network adaptive capacity, and network effectiveness. Chaskin (2001) defines communitycapacitybuilding as “the interaction of human capital, organizational resources, and social capital existing within a given community that can be leveraged to solve collective problems and improve or maintain the well-being of a given community” (p. 295). Organizational success and effectiveness is closely related to the effectiveness of the network that the organization participates with. In some cases the effectiveness of a network may be given precedence over effectiveness of the individual organizations since some organizations reach their goals through the success of the networks they are part of. Provan and Milward’s (1995, p.2) following statements highlight this point: “effectiveness must be assessed at the network level, since client well-being depends on the integrated and coordinated actions of many different agencies.”
Teachers play an important role for implementing educational programmes at various levels. Although their main role is teaching and guiding pupils, they have to promote research, experimentation and innovation. They are to play an important role in extension activities. Regarding the role of teachers the document “Challenge of Education: A Policy Perspective (1985) states that “Teacher performance is the most crucial input in the field of education. Whatever policies may be laid down, in the ultimate analysis, these have to be interpreted and implemented by teachers as much through their personal example as through teaching learning processes”. The National Policy on Education (1986) states that “the status of the teacher reflects the socio-cultural ethos of a society; it is said that no people can rise above the level of its teachers. The government and the community should endeavor to create conditions which will help, motivate and inspire teachers on constructive and creative lines. Teachers should have freedom to innovate, to devise appropriate methods of communication and activities relevant to the needs and capabilities of and the concerns of the community”.
Changing national boundaries, migration and mobility, multinational resi- dence, and the cross-border flow of refugees are challenging traditional views of citizenship. The term “intercultural citizenship” is coined to refer to a defi- nition based more on affiliation with a cultural group than on legal ascription to a nation state. The implications of citizenship based on belonging carry some of the same rights and responsibilities as legal citizenship, but in addi- tion they include 1) conscious identification with chosen groups; 2) accep- tance of responsibility for sustaining the commonweal in a variety of ways; 3) development of flexible perceptual boundaries that allow for multiple group identifications; and 4) participation in the group coordination of meaning and action that constitutes the maintenance of a living culture. Three major fac- tors in buildingcapacity for intercultural citizenship are explored: 1) capacity for empathy, which involves overcoming the golden rule and its assumption of similarity to embrace the platinum rule and the assumption of difference; 2) capacity for mutual adaptation, which generates virtual third cultures, or forms of communicative intersectionality; and 3) capacity for intercultural ethicality, which demands that judgments be made among viable alternatives revealed by empathic perspective-taking.
Community policing can be instrumental in bringing neighbors together for purposes of community development and can orchestrate contributions to neighborhood improvement through a variety of public and community organizations including public schools. Community police officers are expected to develop an intimate understanding of the unique character of each neighborhood they serve and to use this understanding to guide network collaborators, including local government, in how best to tailor the use of limited resources based on this unique character. This interaction between community and police potentially narrows the divide between citizens and government and can encourage coproduction of safe neighborhoods and schools. Consistent with this idea, these findings indicate more than 90 percent of the responding citizens expected neighborhood schools to increase cooperation between neighborhood residents and between schools and community police officers.
There have been innovative and ef- fective interventions for changing practice, but interventions must ex- tend beyond traditional didactic CME to make a signiﬁcant impact. Obesity experts engaged in practice-change initiatives can reference evidence- based guidelines for the content and evaluation of these programs to im- prove obesity care. The justiﬁcation for individual providers and institu- tions to expand capacity for obesity care is strong on multiple levels, including ﬁnancial and quality concerns.
Ever since violent conflict became a matter of concern in Nigeria particularly in the past two decades, with the incessant bombings/attacks on innocent Nigerians in their homes, market places, worship centres, viewing centres, motor parks, offices like the UN office bombing in Abuja (Federal Capital of Nigeria), the massacre of school boys in Buni Yadi Yobe state, as well as the abduction of the over 200 Chibok girls in Borno 2 years ago; the government of Nigeria alongside the international community, civil society groups have been relentless in the pursuit of lasting peace as well as the search and safe return of these missing Chibok girls. Several initiatives have been taken by the government in collaboration with other countries such as the United States, United Kingdom etc, International Organisations, and the military both at home and abroad, Non-Governmental Organisations, Civil Society Groups, and Faith-based Organisations. However very little progress have been seen in terms of contending with the boko haram insurgency, nomadic pastoralists and farming communities’ clashes, ethno-religious clashes as well as the rescue of the Chibok girls from their boko haram abductors. Indeed for many Nigerians until these girls are found and brought back to their parents alive, the government is yet to win the war against insurgency in the country.
As the primary goal of the project is safety of the most vulnerable group in society, children, the project contributes towards the objective of human security which is defined as removal or reduction of vulnerability to various risks including natural disasters. Expected outcomes of the project are seismically retrofitted school buildings to demonstrate the appropriate technology, capacity enhancement of communities to adopt seismically-safer houses, educated and trained school teachers, students, and parents about earthquake-safe practices. A strong partnership has been established in all participating project countries to implement the project activities.
Nonprofits are accustomed to selling themselves to funders, justifying the potential investment they are seeking. This blurs the accuracy of some responses – an organization reporting what they would like to do as opposed to what they are actually doing. In one Cincinnati neighborhood there are two groups working with a relatively low capacity in terms of developments completed, networking capacity, and operational capacity. With better communication, these organizations can find a way to complement each other’s work, or perhaps, to maximize efficiency and combine capacity, the two could possibly merge
Community Based Organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) and Community groups were contracted/ engaged in the solid waste management business (Palfreman, 2011). In spite of the initial positive effects of the liberalization, efforts of the Government of Tanzania it has been reported that approximately 3100 tons of solid waste is generated per day but out of this only 39% of it is legally discharged (Palfreman, 2011). This deteriorating situation is partly attributed to the unplanned high rate of population increase in the city which stands at 5.6% in Dar es salaam City (URT. 2012) Population and Housing Census.
The priority of the other social movement sector focuses on food consumption by advocating for the need to improve consumers’ access to healthy, nutritious, and culturally adequate food at affordable prices. This latter priority is highly frag- mented in comparison to the sustainable agricul- tural production priority. Some of the organiza- tions pursuing this priority were formed between the mid-1960s and early 1980s in anti-poverty and anti-hunger work, including provision of emer- gency food assistance (e.g., food banks, food pantries, soup kitchens). These organizations tend to focus their effort on food access among com- munity members with limited resources. On the other hand, a newer subgroup under the food consumption priority that has proliferated in the last two decades tends to emphasize improving the adequacy of food that is available to all community members and their health behaviors (see Winne, 2008).
I hereby declare that the present dissertation titled’’ EFFECTIVENESS OF CAPACITYBUILDING ON MEDICATION MANAGEMENT AMONG STUDENT NURSES’’ is the outcome of the original research work undertaken and carried out by me under the guidance of Dr. Latha Venkatesan, M.Sc (N), M.Phil., Ph.D., Principal and professor in Maternity Nursing and Mrs. Nesa Sathya Satchi, M.Sc (N)., Reader Pediatrics, Apollo College of Nursing, Chennai. I also declare that the material of this has not formed in anyway, the basis for the award of any degree or diploma in this university or any other universities.
well-being. For example, ―provides appropriate and affordable housing‖ is a goal under the basic needs component, and indicators which might be used to track progress toward that goal include the percentage of older adults who are in affordable housing (spending less than 30 percent of their income on housing) and of those who are able to age in place (Center for Home Care Policy and Research, n.d.; Feldman & Oberlink, 2003; Simatov & Oberlink, 2004a, b, & c). Hanson and Emlet (2006) described a case example of a community (Pierce County, Washington) using the AvantAge model. This case study is of particular interest because it is perhaps the first example in the peer-reviewed literature in which quantitative data related to measures of an elder friendly community are reported. The descriptive data were generated from a random sample of 514 older community residents in Pierce County, WA. These residents were surveyed by telephone to collect information about the indicators of elder-friendliness. On the positive side, findings included that 81 percent of older adults were satisfied generally with their neighborhoods and that 90 percent participated in cultural, religious or recreational activities. On the more challenging side, only 50 percent of older respondents were physically active three or more days a week, 30 percent spent more than 30 percent of their income for housing and 56 percent indicated that they had one or more unmet care needs (Hanson & Emlet, 2006).
The presence o f a researcher is not neutral for a community, and may have its positive or negative impact on the community. In particular, I was aware that raising any political questions concerning the issues o f local governance, power and authority, could provoke tension, disagreements and even conflict. I realised that such discussions could also jeopardise the success o f my research. At the same time, by its very nature this research is rather political, and completely excluding discussion of governance and power would have made the objective o f the research redundant. In order to minimise the risk, I framed the interviews so that respondents were given clear understanding o f the issues which would be addressed. I also made effort to maintain a neutral tone, and left it to my respondents to make references to political issues. As I explained earlier, Armenian communities are relatively open, and most respondents did not fear to discuss their problems and criticise authorities. Thus, most people were critical about local and national governance as far as it concerned local economic and social affairs and where it was perceived to directly affect individual livelihoods. At the same time, most respondents were reluctant to explicitly discuss issues related to formal politics o f their communities. Therefore, I decided not to accentuate politics in my interviews, which explains the limited focus of this thesis on such issues as local government elections, voting behaviour, party affiliation of community members, and relations between local governments and the Councils of Elders.
important because of the potential emergence of a new round of trade negotiations under the label of the Millennium Round and a clear indication from the developed countries as seeking increasing participation and integration in developing countries into the trading system. The difficulty with this notion of integration is that the trading system itself is unfortunately not static but is continually changing. This changing nature of the system also enters any discussion or consideration of trade policy assistance to poorer countries. At present, the trade and environment within the system which developing countries face is seemingly emerging in new directions with some variance with what we have been used to in most of the post war years. Thus, for instance, in the 1950's and 1960's, only two countries, Korea and Taiwan, pursued outward oriented trade led growth and were able to be as spectacularly successful as they were in part because this same strategy was not adopted by other developing countries. Today, following the extensive liberalizations of the late 1980's and early 1990's, we have perhaps one hundred developing countries all simultaneously pursuing this objective. This in the minds of some has raised the issue of the fallacy of composition; is the absorbative capacity of the developed countries sufficient to allow for rapid and sustained expansion of trade by this number of developing countries? In particular, there are a small number of large developing countries which potentially would come to dominate this segment of the market. China, for instance, now has well over 60% of all developing country exports of textiles and apparel, and some have suggested that with complete elimination of all textile restrictions, this number could jump up into the 90% range.