Community Economic Development Law

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Community Development Law, Economic Justice, and the Legal Academy

Community Development Law, Economic Justice, and the Legal Academy

The full impact of the 2008 recession will not be known for years; how- ever, its debilitating effect on state and local governments is clear. While the Great Recession materialized differently in different states, state and local governments suffering from financial anemia decimated their com- munity and economic development programs. Compounded by cuts in spending at the federal level, shrinking philanthropic resources and prop- erty tax revenue, and dormant housing and construction industries, state and local governments froze or reduced spending on redevelopment proj- ects and economic development programs. In an extreme case, California shuttered its redevelopment agencies. In many instances, private indus- tries behaved similarly. Along with the consequences of the foreclosure crises, these shifts or cessations in spending led to devastating effects on the funding of small business development programs, the availability and new construction of affordable housing, and the operation of job and workforce training programs—all traditional arenas for community eco- nomic development (CED) projects. Some state and local governments, however, are beginning to creep out of shell shock to respond to the crisis in innovative ways, and they are not isolated in their efforts because many community advocates are boldly leading the way. Most importantly, how- ever, these advocates are doing so in ways that seek to cure the inequities that have historically run through public programs. As the economy be- gins to stabilize, the arousing of such programs necessitates a renewed vigilance against inequity through the implementation of novel mecha- nisms designed to alleviate poverty. While there are myriad ways to ap- proach these outcomes, this presentation focuses on a transactional law approach to poverty alleviation by exploring the potential of collective im- pact, particularly collective impact agreements, to facilitate economic de- velopment throughout metropolitan regions.
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HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS COMMUNITY & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT

HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS COMMUNITY & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT

Federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act: The Federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act prohibits creditors from discriminating on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, marital status, whether all or part of the applicant’s income is derived from any public assistance program, or if the applicant has in good faith exercised any right under the Consumer Credit Protection Act title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968. Fair housing, likewise, prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The Federal Agency which administers compliance with this law is the Comptroller of the Currency, Consumer Affairs Division, Washington, DC 20219.
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Index terms - ASEAN Economic Community, International Trade, International Law, economic growth.

Index terms - ASEAN Economic Community, International Trade, International Law, economic growth.

The problems associated with legal issues in the trade International in principle is not much different from the legal issues faced by the parties in domestic business transactions. This is regulated in the international trade law as a guideline in international trade. In international trade practice, however, International Chamber of Commerce (INCOTERM) has determined INCOTERM 1990 as the guidance towards "sale-contract" abroad. This suggests that an international trading activity cannot be separated from all actions of government, either directly or indirectly. International trade policy has far-reaching implications not only in volume and composition of imports and exports, but also in investment patterns and development direction, competitive conditions, cost conditions, business attitudes, consumption patterns and so on. Therefore, international trade policy is very important in economic policy decisions of a country and this policy is only one part of macro- economic policies that should be combined and encouraging economic development of a country (Www.kemendag.go.id).
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Community Development Finance and Economic Justice

Community Development Finance and Economic Justice

policy arena, lawyers play a pivotal role in translating innovative ideas and best practices into workable laws and regulations and in arguing for their enactment. Many legislators who pass these laws or government agency leaders who administer them are trained in the law, as are many staff and board members in CDFIs. With respect to legal practice, structuring and negotiating a LIHTC or NMTC transac- tion requires specialized skill and training and lawyers with deep expertise. The practice implicates corporate law, tax, securities, contracts, land use, real estate, intellectual property, environmental law, regulatory compliance, and more. The National Economic Development and Law Center – founded in 1969 in Oakland, CA, and still operating today as the Insight Center for Community Economic Development – was an early mover in practicing and shaping law in this realm. Along with direct legal assistance, it served as a back-up center for community development lawyers nationwide in the emerging field. Such legal expertise today is widely dispersed in private law firms, CDFIs, local development organizations, public agencies, and law schools.
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Department of Commerce, Community, and Economic Development

Department of Commerce, Community, and Economic Development

For a copy of the proposed regulation changes, contact Jun Maiquis at the address or phone number above, or go to http://commerce.alaska.gov/dnn/portals/5/pub/bev-0814.pdf. In accordance with the provisions of law, additional questions and answers received about this proposal will be posted on the division’s web site at http://commerce.alaska.gov/dnn/cbpl/home.aspx.

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spring 2012 Environmentally Sound Economic Development Business Law & Leadership Gala

spring 2012 Environmentally Sound Economic Development Business Law & Leadership Gala

“Going Green” has been embraced as a strategy for spurring innovation and job growth. Government funded initiatives encourage weatherization, building retrofits, and other forms of energy efficiency. Nonprofit organizations take a holistic approach to community development: creating energy efficient and financially stable residential buildings, implementing health and safety measures for residents, and developing employment opportu- nities. Lawyers Alliance’s longstanding focus on economic development in low-income communities includes nonprofits engaged in green activities. New York State has the second highest number of jobs nationwide (248,500) in “the production of goods and services that benefit the environment.” Statewide program Green Jobs – Green New York (GJGNY) supports sustainable community devel- opment by promoting energy efficiency and the installation of clean technologies to reduce energy costs and greenhouse gas emissions. In New York City, PlaNYC 2030 sets forth ambitious goals for reduction of energy consumption and carbon emis- sions. This includes the Greener, Greater Buildings Plan, a suite of laws enacted in December 2009. Case Example: Legal Review of Operations and Risk Management Assessment
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ECONOMIC AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Budget Review

ECONOMIC AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Budget Review

Oregon is one of only five states in the nation that have been grandfathered under federal law to allow a state veteran home loan program (the others are Alaska, California, Texas, and Wisconsin). These states want to provide an enhanced housing benefit to their veterans, which has historically resulted in significantly lower home loan rates than are normally available in the marketplace. The low rates are achieved through issuance of tax-free state General Obligation bonds. Of these state veteran home loan programs, Texas – with its large population of veterans and ability to make loans to active duty service members – is faring best; California just completed a fairly significant downsizing of its loan program, and Wisconsin has suspended its loan program altogether, opting to concentrate on paying off
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Economic Community Empowerment Through Tourist Village Development

Economic Community Empowerment Through Tourist Village Development

Bleberan is categorized as poor village because 54 percents of the total population occupying this area belong to poor category, with numbers of 730 households out of total 1,347 households. The poverty problem in Bleberan Village is due to geographical condition. Most populations of this village, with 16,262,170 ha area width, have farming as their livelihood with dry field and rain-fed farm. Meanwhile, only 150,000 ha farmland relying on irrigation channel. These farmlands are located around the waterfall. In addition, a geographic condition also makes Bleberan Village community often encountering clean water crisis. During the dry season, nearly all households buy 1 (one) to 5 (five) tanks of clean water per month with price of IDR 100,000 (a hundred thousands rupiahs) per tank for daily life. On the other hand, Original Village Income (PAD) of Bleberan village is, on average, less than IDR 1,000,000,- (one million). It is very difficult to alleviate poverty (Bleberan Village’s Document, 2009).
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International Economic Law and Policy: A Comprehensive and Critical Analysis of the Historical Development

International Economic Law and Policy: A Comprehensive and Critical Analysis of the Historical Development

Much of the developing world found itself in a state of confusion during much of the mid-1980s, as many countries realised that their old economic and politi- cal ideologies were not improving their economies. Third World solidarity was disintegrating and developing countries now found themselves competing with each other for a trickle of foreign direct investment that was flowing from de- veloped countries. Consequently, the late 1980s became a period of political un- certainly and economic confusion in many developing countries. As the devel- oping world began to embrace the capitalist agenda, the communist world in Eastern Europe came under tremendous pressure to open up its doors to the outside world. A realisation on the part of the Soviet Union that it could not go on shouldering the huge economic burden of the Cold War while other coun- tries (including its giant next-door neighbour, China) pursued economic pros- perity led to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the fall of the Berlin Wall.
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I. Unit Title: Center for Community and Economic Development

I. Unit Title: Center for Community and Economic Development

The Center for Community and Economic Development was established in August of 1994 to create a proactive stance in the University to address major development issues facing the region. The Delta State University Center for Community and Economic Development pursues excellence in its programs and activities as it seeks to improve the quality of life for the citizens of the Delta. The Center encourages faculty and staff of Delta State University to develop and conduct practical research projects, to provide public service educational programs, and to provide technical assistance to public and private sector organizations. The Center emphasizes on-campus teamwork and collaboration and seeks to develop partnerships with other private and public sector organizations and agencies with vested interests in leadership development and in community and economic development in the Delta region. The Center staff believes in the importance of education and in the power of all individuals, families, groups and institutions to act collectively to meet the needs of their communities.
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Community. Commerce. and. A Survey of Aboriginal Economic Development Corporations. In partnership with

Community. Commerce. and. A Survey of Aboriginal Economic Development Corporations. In partnership with

From its humble beginnings in 1999 as a single business entity, Primco Dene, the economic development corporation of Cold Lake First Nation, now owns and operates a number of successful businesses that offer logistical services, security, management consulting, payroll service and safety auditing. While growth and profit are important to Primco Dene, the company manages to grow and stay in the black while maintaining a minimum of 80-percent Aboriginal employment. To put this achievement into perspective, Primco Dene employs approximately 400 people, with over 300 self-identifying as Aboriginal. These Aboriginal employees are not solely from Cold Lake First Nation; Primco Dene hires from over 40 different Aboriginal communities. Through supporting its staff to undergo training in administration, culinary arts, emergency medical courses, journeyman certification and safety certifications, Primco Dene upholds its competitiveness and quality. Primco Dene does not limit its community support to employment, it also works with the over 30 private enterprises owned and operated by Cold Lake First Nation members to make the community a “one-stop shop” for resources.
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The economic crisis and community development finance: an industry assessment

The economic crisis and community development finance: an industry assessment

For thirty years, the community development finance industry—banks, credit unions, loan funds, community develop- ment corporations, venture funds, microfinance institutions—has quietly provided responsible, well-designed and well- priced credit to lower-income people and communities. These entities have provided this credit with the support of the federal government, through the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, the Low Income Housing and New Markets Tax Credits, the Small Business Association, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and various housing and facilities development programs. The industry has also been supported in its efforts by mainstream institutions such as banks and insurance companies, most frequently motivated by the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) or by concern that CRA-like obligations would be imposed. Philanthropic foundations and supporters and state and local governments have also played their parts. The result: a community development finance industry that has survived and even prospered during recessions and political downdrafts. But the field, and the communities, businesses, and individuals it serves, are hurting now, and fearing bigger hurt. This paper by Mark Pinsky, Nancy Andrews and Paul Weech examines this situation and focuses attention on what needs to be done.
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St  Thomas Aquinas and the Development of Natural Law in Economic Thought

St Thomas Aquinas and the Development of Natural Law in Economic Thought

Building on the system of reason provided for by the Greek philosophers and specifically Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas built a comprehensive system and theory of natural law which has lasted through the ages. The theory was further developed in the Middle Ages and in the Enlightenment Ages by many a prominent philosopher and economist and has been recognized in the Modern Age. The natural law theory and system has been repeatedly applied to the spheres of economic thought and has produced many lasting contributions such as private property rights and individual rights. In recent times with the collapses of the financial system and rapid globalization, there has been a renewed interest in the application of natural law theory to economics to counter a certain anthropology and distortion of values created by a modern economic system of self-preservation deriving its insights from the philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and Niccolo Machiavelli.
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Economic and Community Development Open Session and Committee Meeting

Economic and Community Development Open Session and Committee Meeting

DOL PBRPC, TX MVRPC, OH COLORADO ENERGY GROUP MWH GLOBAL NARC Employer Partners SEAGO, AZ CAAG, AZ Community Colleges FBCOs Employer Partners Community Colleges FBC[r]

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Economic development and public lands : the roles of community-based organizations

Economic development and public lands : the roles of community-based organizations

We then conducted web research to determine the mission, nonprofit status, and contact information for each organization, filtering out those that were not based in rural areas, not a nonprofit, or did not appear to include both rural development and nat- ural resource stewardship in their activities. We also excluded organizations whose primary focus was offshore fisheries. We tried to contact all of the remaining 204 organizations by telephone to schedule a survey; our survey began with screen- ing questions that would help determine whether the organization met our criteria as a CBO (see text box with our criteria on page 3 of this report). Of these 204 organizations, 87 did not pass the screen- ing criteria and 54 declined to participate or did not respond after three emails and two telephone calls (see Table A1, page 11). The total number of usable surveys was 63, representing 53.8 percent of organizations that passed our screening questions, declined to participate in the survey, or did not respond to repeated attempts to make contact. All surveys were administered via telephone by trained student workers with faculty oversight, with the exception of the first four surveys which were ad- ministered directly by faculty members. The survey generally lasted between 30 minutes and one hour. The web-based survey management program Qual- trics was used for data entry and retrieval.
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The regions of the enlarged Community. Third periodic report on the social and economic situation and development of the regions of the Community

The regions of the enlarged Community. Third periodic report on the social and economic situation and development of the regions of the Community

4. The overall pattern of convergent and divergent trends does, of course, mask fluctuations over time from one country to another. These reflect the impact on national growth rates of a wide range of factors of varying intensity, such as differences in the timing of the business cycle and differing responses to the two oil shocks of the 1970s. Overall developments were characterized until around 1973/74 by a process of unmistakable catching-up in all the less-developed countries (with the exception of Ireland), followed by some loss of ground in the second half of the 1970s due essentially to below-average growth in Spain, and by relatively constant disparities during the first half of the 1980s. The positions of the seven countries lying above the Community average showed a similar movement although in the opposite direction, and with sharper short-term and medium-term fluctuations. Developments in the United Kingdom and Ireland differed a little from this general picture. Up to 1980, the United Kingdom steadily lost ground, gradually falling back to the Community average, which it has since broadly maintained. By contrast, Ireland did not participate in the covergence process during the first period. However, it managed to speed up its growth rate after the first oil shock and its accession to the Community and, in so doing, to start catching up belatedly in a process that lasted until the 1980s before it came to a virtual halt.
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The Economic Analysis of the Law in the Sphere of Public Law Regulation of Activity of Economic Entities

The Economic Analysis of the Law in the Sphere of Public Law Regulation of Activity of Economic Entities

Respectively, within the closed economic system (which is not interacting with the outside world), natural deepening of division of labor can develop only to some fixed level, further an innovation cease to pay off and scientific and technical progress slows down in the beginning, and then stops. In case the economic system begins to interact with the outside world, then natural deepening of division of labor continues to develop, but also to the certain fixed level. A classical example – Singapore which became "economic miracle" only thanks to the fact that the USA opened for them the markets and also the USA and Europe in the 90th years when owing to the collapse of the USSR and disintegration of a socialist system the new, undeveloped markets in the form of several independent states trying to be built in a capitalist system were formed. This thesis about restriction of deepening of division of labor in the closed system for the first time was formulated by Adam Smith in the second half of the 18th century, then this subject within Marxism was developed at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century Rosa Luxemburg.
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The Association of the African States and Madagascar with the European Economic Community and their industrial development.

The Association of the African States and Madagascar with the European Economic Community and their industrial development.

THE TEXTS It would odmirtedly be going too for lo cloim thot the industriol development of the solient feotures which hove iust been menlioned, is the indirect consequence o{ the ossocio[r]

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Analysis of the Impact of Tourism Development on Economic and Social Culture Community Aspects

Analysis of the Impact of Tourism Development on Economic and Social Culture Community Aspects

Batu Caves is a sacred spot for Hindu people in Kuala Lumpur. It was initially only an ordinary cave which then was built an iconic statue in front of the cave that attracts tourists to come there. A statue of the Muruga God which has 42.7 meters (140 ft) tall has been launched in January 2006, attracting travellers from various parts of the world. The Malaysian government continues to develop the construction in the Batu Caves area. The construction development in each process will have the impacts, therefore there is a need for research on these impacts in order to avoid and reduce negative impacts and encourage positive impacts. This research process uses descriptive research method using a qualitative approach. The focus of this study is the implementation of tourism industry development in it includes the development of tourist objects and attractions, infrastructures, marketing and promotion of tourism, and the development of human resources. The next focus is the impact on the economic and socio-cultural conditions of the community due to the development of tourism and previous conditions. The results show that the development of construction continues to be carried out in terms of both physical and quality human resources. This tourism progress is able to improve the economic quality of the community, especially around Selangor Malaysia. Even the Thaipusam celebration has attracted 1.5 million adherents and made this celebration one of the largest meetings in 2007 in world history.
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Economic Analysis of Law

Economic Analysis of Law

Economic analysis of law seeks to identify the effects of legal rules on the behavior of relevant actors and whether these effects are socially desirable. The approach employed is that of economic analysis generally: the behavior of individuals and firms is described assuming that they are forward looking and rational, and the framework of welfare economics is adopted to assess the social desirability of outcomes. The field may be said to have begun with Bentham (1789), who systematically examined how actors would behave in the face of legal incentives (especially criminal sanctions) and who evaluated outcomes with respect to a clearly stated measure of social welfare (utilitarianism). His work was left essentially undeveloped until four important contributions were made: Coase (1960) on externalities and liability, Becker (1968) on crime and law enforcement, Calabresi (1970) on accident law, and Posner (1972) on economic analysis of law in general.
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