Community music therapy

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Performing Identities, Performing Possibilities: A Music-Centered and Relational Perspective on Performance in Community Music Therapy and Music Education

Performing Identities, Performing Possibilities: A Music-Centered and Relational Perspective on Performance in Community Music Therapy and Music Education

Ruud (2017) recognizes the feelings of achievement and mastery that can stem from participation in performance, while also noting that performing can lead to “ambivalence, the loss of self-confidence, and finally a sense of defeat" (p. 595). Certainly, even music therapy’s most outspoken proponents of the clinical use of performance “[do] not suggest that this is always the right move (Wood, 2016, p. 57). Staff members in this study recognized the risk that a youth might internalize a sense of failure or find the anxiety associated with performing overwhelming. Though this did not seem to have occurred for performers at the event I witnessed and researched, many staff members were able to recall isolated times when these risks had indeed become reality. For example, the music therapist recalled a youth who had backed-out of playing with the band right before the Coffee House started, and several staff members recalled a youth who had made self-deprecating comments on stage following her performance. In both of these cases, the treatment milieu, in particular, the event’s coordination by the music therapist, was integral. With support and realistic goal-setting, both of these youths were able and willing to participate in a subsequent performance at the facility, and to experience success their second time around.
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QUALITATIVE INQUIRIES IN MUSIC THERAPY: A MONOGRAPH SERIES

QUALITATIVE INQUIRIES IN MUSIC THERAPY: A MONOGRAPH SERIES

The two other studies in Volume Ten are welcome additions to the body of research in music therapy in which user perspectives are more prominent. Lucy Bolger has contributed to the ongoing discourse of Community Music Therapy with an action research study. Proponents of community music therapy (Stige & Aaro, 2012) and resource-oriented music therapy (Rolvsjord, 2010) value collaboration by all participants—therapists, people formerly called clients or patients, and other community members. Bolger’s study is noteworthy for several reasons. Bolger engaged people normally considered marginalized in society in a collaborative music project, leading to a high level of participation in both the project and the research process. The level of engagement shown in this study is highly unusual, simply because of the difficulties inherent in reaching marginalized people. The themes that emerged from the project challenge some tendencies in broader society to see people on the margins as a homogenous group. Finally, Bolger’s description of the cyclical nature of the action research is a helpful resource for other researchers interested in this approach.
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Community music: history and current practice, its constructions of ‘community’, digital turns and future soundings

Community music: history and current practice, its constructions of ‘community’, digital turns and future soundings

There was a confident early statement of practice by the International Society of Music Education’s (ISME) newly-established Community Music Activity commission in 1990: ‘Community music is characterised by the following principles: decentralisation, accessibility, equal opportunity, and active participation in music-making. These principles are social and political ones, and there can be no doubt that community music activity is more than a purely musical one’ (Olseng 1990). Yet we were surprised to identify the following question: how far is there yet a solid body of academic writing that tells, problematises and theorises the development and practice of community music? (This may be changing—some academic monographs are now appearing (Higgins 2012), and with the International Journal of Community Music (established 2008) there is one dedicated academic journal.) It was notable in comparing the situation with that of community music therapy, which has both a narrower remit and a shorter history, but has recently produced a fairly confident body of academically informed writing (see 1.7).
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Music therapy with adults with learning difficulties and 
‘severe challenging behaviour'

Music therapy with adults with learning difficulties and ‘severe challenging behaviour'

Heron identifies the need to keep out ‘distorted reactions to current events driven by the unprocessed distress of earlier years’. The reference to psychoanalytically- informed theory is obvious and the skill referred to is clearly an ideal, because, even after years of therapy, no-one could claim to be totally free of reactive patterns. I am concerned about the implication that people who have not had an opportunity to explore the impact of their emotional history would not be able to undertake co-operative inquiry. If this were the case, it would exclude rather a large number of people. However, Heron’s skills are required of the initiating researchers, and an inquiry of this sort should be able to provide opportunities to challenge other participants who might be in danger of projecting their own fantasies on others.
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The impact of music on the bioelectrical oscillations of the brain

The impact of music on the bioelectrical oscillations of the brain

ant music than does the control group (13). This might be due to the fact that people with cochlear implants hear sounds differently than the healthy population. More specifically, these subjects might be unable to discriminate between “nor- mal” and dissonant music and therefore lack an ability to appreciate the pleasantness of “normal” music (14). The knowledge of the musical sphere can also influence the impact of music on the bi- oelectrical activity of the brain. It is known that professional musicians exhibit more intense pat- terns of emotional arousal while listening to music than amateurs. Professionals also have higher cen- tral activation of beta 2 band, whereas amateurs exhibit higher right frontal alpha activation (17).
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AEC Annual Meeting. for International Relations Coordinators. Aalborg 27 September Parallel Sessions. Silvio Luigi Feliciani

AEC Annual Meeting. for International Relations Coordinators. Aalborg 27 September Parallel Sessions. Silvio Luigi Feliciani

Silvio Luigi Feliciani.. THE BACHELOR DEGREEE PROGRAM IN THE MUSIC THERAPY COURSE OF THE CONSERVATOIRE OF MUSIC IN PESCARA.. 80.[r]

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UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY PROGRAM ASSESSMENT PLAN Master of Music in Music Therapy

UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY PROGRAM ASSESSMENT PLAN Master of Music in Music Therapy

2.3. Other Assessment Resources: Assessment oversight for the music therapy program will be the responsibility of the Director of Music Therapy in conjunction with the Division Coordinator for Music Education and Music Therapy. Should further review be needed, the School of Music Assessment Committee will be consulted. 3. Program-Level Learning Outcomes

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Music in Therapy: Increasing Possibilities for Action

Music in Therapy: Increasing Possibilities for Action

functions, we need to develop an understanding of music and its role in empowering the person. This understanding may contradict medical model thinking in music therapy as well as the view of music as some sort of pharmacological substance, which can be administered by professionals in a predictable manner. We have to stop thinking about music as a stimulus leading to predictable responses in the person. In many traditional music psychology experiments, one has looked at structural elements in (classical) music, i.e. degrees of complexity, in order to make inferences about aesthetic preferences. Within this perspective, one tends to miss how personal, contextual or situational factors determine the construction of meaning in music. This situation looks similar to what happens sometimes in social psychology. To give an example: The social psychologist Kurt Lewin once noted that lay people misconceive social behaviour in much the same way as earlier Aristotelian physics was understood exclusively in terms of properties or dispositions of the object: A stone sinks in water because it has the property of heaviness, or “gravity” (Ross & Nisbett, 1991, p. 161-62). In modern physics, however, the existence of a physical vector always depends upon the mutual relations of several physical facts, especially upon the relation of the objects to its environment. In “lay personology” people have a tendency to attribute behaviour to persons, rather that to situations, or how people construe situations differently. In social psychology, this is referred to as the “fundamental or ultimate attributional error”. In much the same way “lay musicology”, in the sense that we all are engaged in the interpretation and classification of music and musical behaviour, tends to misinterpret musical behaviour in drawing conclusions based upon our own interpretations of the music in question. When it comes to our understanding of how musical meanings are created from live or recorded music, we engage in the same game as ancient physics by overlooking contextual or situational factors as different people differently entertain them.
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Enhanced Music Therapy

Enhanced Music Therapy

The music played by the system is a MIDI based version of “Let It Be” by The Beatles. The MIDI file was downloaded at midiworld.com [61]. These files were then edited using Reaper in order to make some instruments, like the piano sound better by using higher quality MIDI instruments than the standard MIDI synthesizer in windows, as well as changing the tempo. This song will be played by three instruments. The most important instrument of the music is a piano, for which the Sound Magic Piano One plugin was used [52]. The focus on piano was done to reflect the setting of conventional TIMP. Two other layers, an organ and a brass section will provide an extra layer to the music to add some dynamics without becoming too distracting. These are played by the AM Music VL-122 and the DSK music brass vst plugins respectively [53][54].
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Music Therapy Program

Music Therapy Program

improvisation, usually digging quite deeply into their pasts and helping them learn about themselves. Each session, however, was based on what emotions the patients brought with them that day; sometimes people couldn't handle loud music and would ask to keep the

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BA (Hons) Community Music at The Sage Gateshead. community music

BA (Hons) Community Music at The Sage Gateshead. community music

This innovative course is aimed at anyone who is musically skilled, from school leavers to professional musicians, who want to put their talents to work with people in a broad range of settings. The range of professional career paths for community music graduates includes youth work,

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Nursing. Music as Therapy

Nursing. Music as Therapy

Based on the data collected, exercise did have a positive effect on increas- ing heart rate and blood pressure followed by the expected decrease after exercise. However, type of music did not directly influence the decrease in heart rate and blood pressure in the given amount of time. Therefore, results may change under different circumstances. Although no statistically significant differences were found in this study, the use of music therapy on people with health issues may make a dif- ference in lowering heart rate and blood pressure.

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THE MUSIC THERAPY TRUST

THE MUSIC THERAPY TRUST

Music Therapy is an internationally recognised health care profession in which the therapist works to help beneficiaries overcome identified life challenges. Well established training and certification processes are situated in the US, UK, Canada and Australia, among many others. problems. A person who completes the approved Clinical Music Therapy training programs is eligible to practice as a Music Therapist in a clinical setting and can work in hospitals, NGOs and other settings.

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Reflections and analysis to improve clinical practice : a student music therapist's journey with a preschool child with special needs : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy at the New

Reflections and analysis to improve clinical practice : a student music therapist's journey with a preschool child with special needs : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy at the New Zealand School of Music, Wellington, New Zealand

Sutton’s (2001) PhD looked at the aspects of conversation/communication with regard to beginnings, endings, turn-taking and silence. In summary, she stated that turn- taking is ‘…essential because of the fundamental psychosocial need to communicate and receive a response to that communication…this would be impossible if everyone was to speak at once’ (pp.206-207). However, in musical improvisations, this does not necessarily have to be the case. Through simultaneous play, one can still hear the different musical parts. Sutton discussed previous literature as noting that ‘silence’ is a meaningful element of conversation. In music, where it means ‘an absence of sound’, Sutton said that silence can help to keep the listener’s attention and mark musical boundaries of beginnings and endings. She concluded that in relation to music therapy, every musical sound and silence has the potential for communication. The use of these aspects in musical improvisation is key to growing the client-therapist relationship.
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Effects of Music Therapy on Mood in Stroke Patients

Effects of Music Therapy on Mood in Stroke Patients

activation of the limbic and paralimbic systems through functional MRI, which are known as the center of feelings, but pleasant music stimulated the inferior frontal gyrus and Rolandic operculum which reflect working memory. These results show that music therapy can intervene in feelings through the stimulation and non-stimulation of these struc- tures, and we believe music can enhance functional abilities by inspiring motivation for rehabilitation treatment through the improvement of depression and anxiety.

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IMPARTING MUSICAL EXPERIENCES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD FOR HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT

IMPARTING MUSICAL EXPERIENCES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD FOR HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT

Making music is as much a basic life skill as walking or talking. Peery and Peery (1987) suggest that it is desirable for children to be exposed to, trained in, And enculturated with music for its own sake. That is, it is a birthright for all people to be able to sing in tune and march to a beat (Levinowitz and Guilmartin, 1989, 1992, 1996). To ensure a comprehensive learning experience, music must be included in early childhood. Practically speaking, the argument that music education is a frill finds no objective support. The importance of music instruction for music development during the early years of childhood has been widely investigated before independence. Characteristic music performances of young children provide a window through which music psychologists and educators can understand the sequence of the child's developing music skills.
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Music therapy intervention in cardiac autonomic modulation, anxiety, and depression in mothers of preterms: randomized controlled trial

Music therapy intervention in cardiac autonomic modulation, anxiety, and depression in mothers of preterms: randomized controlled trial

Methods: Prospective randomized clinical trial including 21 mothers of preterms admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital, recruited from August 2015 to September 2017, and divided into control group (CG; n = 11) and music therapy group (MTG; n = 10). Participants underwent anxiety and depression evaluation, as well as measurements of the intervals between consecutive heartbeats or RR intervals for the analysis of HRV at the first and the last weeks of hospitalization of their preterms. Music therapy sessions lasting 30 – 45 min were individually delivered weekly using receptive techniques. The mean and standard deviation of variables were obtained and the normality of data was analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The paired sample t-test or Wilcoxon test were employed to calculate the differences between variables before and after music therapy intervention. The correlations anxiety versus heart variables and depression versus heart variables were established using Spearman correlation test. Fisher ’ s exact test was used to verify the differences between categorical variables. A significance level of p < 0.05 was established. Statistical analysis were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20.
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Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Modulates Behavioral and Brain Responses to Social Stress

Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Modulates Behavioral and Brain Responses to Social Stress

therapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), and speech therapy, even if the patient does not need it or would be better suited to receive music therapy or horseback riding. Beth speculates these therapies are covered while other are not because they had good lobbyist or “played the game better.” If we pay for the insurance, we should get to decide what is best for us. Jennifer emphasizes an example in Kentucky other states should follow. The University of Kentucky program covers music therapy in addition to PT, OT, and speech therapy. UK recognized the benefits of music therapy, and they saw it was less expensive by decreasing the need for more expensive therapies or pharmaceuticals. By presenting this data to Blue Cross Blue Shield, the insurance company for UK, they wrote music therapy into their plan, while BCBS in Georgia and other state plans do not cover music therapy. In fact, when Georgia’s state plan switched from United Healthcare to BCBS, there was a large decrease in insurance reimbursement for music therapy. Under Western biomedical models, access to funds revolves around hard data. Since it is difficult to statistically show psychological improvement, following the UK model is a good option. By proving to policymakers that music therapy is effective and less expensive than more “traditional therapies” using hard data, BCBS was convinced and the UK program rewrote its plan. Sarah agrees that hard data would help with funding and coverage. They are currently using data showing the benefits of music therapy to setup programs in hospital NCUs.
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Promoting communication and socialisation in music therapy for children with cerebral palsy : a thesis submitted to the New Zealand School of Music in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy

Promoting communication and socialisation in music therapy for children with cerebral palsy : a thesis submitted to the New Zealand School of Music in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy

According to Bunt & Hoskyns, improvisation is the action-product of musical imagination and intuition, and Shoemark suggests that the song is created on the spur of the moment in response to the children, so as to provide an ideal medium for mutually regulated experiences (Bunt & Hoskyns, 2002; Shoemark, 2008). The use of the improvisation technique enables the freedom to express, and spontaneous musical interactions support the developing therapeutic relationship (Warren, 1997). Through improvisational techniques, the music therapist would be in a position to move to more structured musical activities as appropriate (Archer, 2004). Hence, music is used as a sort of bridge between the inner and outer world of a child, and is developed as a common language between the therapist and child (Wigram, Pedersen & Bonde, 2002). Imitation, either imitating physical movement, musical interpretation or vocal responses is very often used as an immediate way of establishing some connection with a child (Bunt, 1994b). Perry (2003) employed imitating technique in her research study to incorporate the vocalisation of two children with CP who were found to have difficulty initiating and controlling their voices. Coulson also stated that vocalisation provided the children with a confidence in their ability to cope, increased their willingness to communicate; and reciprocal and responsive behaviours emerged (Coulson, 2004). It is significant that matching, mirroring or reflecting the musical material could facilitate both the building and the reinforcement of relationships (Wigram, 1999).
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Professional Resource Pack The Education, Training and Professional Practice Forum (ETPP)

Professional Resource Pack The Education, Training and Professional Practice Forum (ETPP)

Peter was thirty eight years old. He was diagnosed with depression following a persistent period of low mood, loss of sleep and fatigue, feelings of worth- lessness and low self esteem. His wife and two young children were fully supportive through his illness which led to a period of hospitalization due to increased anxiety-related concerns and a psy- chotic episode. Music therapy was a service offered at the clinic where Peter was admitted and a refer- ral was made by the team following an initial care plan meeting. A weekly open group session was held on the ward. The session involved a variety of musical activities including active music making, listening to music, song writing and discussion. Pe- ter was initially reticent about his involvement in the group sessions. He usually enjoyed listening to mu- sic however had concerns about what he would be able contribute as he had no formal music skills. In the first session, Peter initially remained quiet as the group began a musical improvisation. He had chosen the conga and after a short period of time began to play, although tentatively at first. Gradu- ally he was drawn into an emerging rhythm which the group had created and his playing became more intense. The music therapist noted that Peter had begun to relate to another group member in his music making. In a discussion following the improvi- sation Peter described feelings of connecting with others and an ‘adrenalin rush’, feelings he had not felt in a long time. Over a period of six more ses- sions until his discharge from the clinic, Peter en- gaged in more successful group music making and discussion. It was apparent that music had contrib- uted to an overall team approach and was affective
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