Community Sport Organizations

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Emotions and the sustainability of community sport organizations

Emotions and the sustainability of community sport organizations

The contemporary analysis of community sport organizations (CSOs) has emphasized its differences with professional sport ones (Cuskelly 2004, Gray 2004). Missions, resources, structures, and management systems show clear differences between these organizational types that operate both within the sport realm. Maybe the bigger difference is related to the strong dependence that CSOs has on volunteering. So, CSOs has been frequently ascribed to the voluntary sector (Allison 2001), and are the grassroots, or “foundation stones” of national sport systems (Cuskelly 2004). But amateur and professional sports share some goals. One of them is sustainability. Professional sport organizations (PSOs) look for financial support within a competitive environment where victory is a must to attract a fandom that, directly or indirectly, guarantees a sustained income flow. CSOs have a mission (usually linked to the local community where the organization is rooted) that requires some capacities to be properly fulfilled (see Misener and Doherty 2009 for a revision). These capacities (financial, organizational, etc.) derive from the ability of its members and managerial team to gather enough people. In this case, members provide time, effort, and money (or can draw money from public bodies) to maintain the project.
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Diversity work in community sport organizations: Commitment, resistance and institutional change

Diversity work in community sport organizations: Commitment, resistance and institutional change

The resistance faced by diversity champions in community sports organizations provides insight into this tension within diversity work. The transformation of diversity into an institutional end was experienced as an ongoing challenge that inevitably involved working through resistance. Individuals seeking to promote diversity within their organization often faced a brick wall, which reveals both diversity work itself as resistance and the resistance diversity champions face in their follow-up actions, which other members often considered as being at odds with their own attitudes or, more commonly, as infeasible initiatives that could (and should) not be resourced. This resistance indicates that in community sport organizations diversity is typically not an institutional commitment in the strong sense of the term, as something the organization wholeheartedly supports and embodies. Yet, the ability of champions to advance change initiatives was also mediated by their power and status within the organization. Similar to Melton and Cunningham (2014), we found that those who held power in the club as ‘institutional insiders’ (Ahmed, 2012), such as the president, were often in a better position to advocate for diversity and to overcome resistance.
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Capacity Building in Community Sport Organizations

Capacity Building in Community Sport Organizations

Participants were 66 presidents (or their representatives) of CSOs in one Canadian province. The 66 survey participants represent 11 sports across the province, with soccer (19%) and hockey (17%) representing the largest groups and ringette (2%), lacrosse (3%), and rowing (3%) representing the smallest groups of participants. The majority of participants were presidents (67%) or directors at large (12%) of their organizations. Participants had been with their organization for an average of 11.59 years (SD = 7.39) and in their current role for an average of 4.94 years (SD = 5.31), ranging from less than a year to 23 years. The clubs had been in existence for an average of 37.70 years (SD = 29.48). The longevity witnessed here is consistent with Gumulka et al. (2005) who found that 63% of all Canadian community sport organizations have been in existence for over 20 years. The average number of registered members in the CSOs was 578.33 (SD = 1021.28) and the average number of board members in the CSOs was 9.28 (SD = 6.05). Because there were only a few clubs (n = 5) with over 2,000 registered members, the median (284.50 members) is likely a more representative indicator of club size within this sample. Each of the participants rated the readiness of their CSO to implement up to three capacity building strategies, resulting in a total of 144 data points or cases. Subsequent analysis pertaining to capacity building readiness was based on those 144 cases. A summary of the CSO and participant profiles are provided in Table 2.
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Sport-For-Youth-Development (SFYD): A Capacity Building Model.

Sport-For-Youth-Development (SFYD): A Capacity Building Model.

The broad application of this term has led to a variety of contrasting theoretical perspectives that emphasize different dimensions (Simmons, Reynolds, & Swinburn, 2010). As a result, attempts to measure and assess community capacity have been largely field- specific and difficult to compare across disciplines (Chaskin, 2001). While there is consensus on a set of core domains, other components are largely dependent on the context and purpose of the capacity building processes under study. (Liberato, Brimblecombe, Ritchie, Ferguson, & Coveney, 2011). While some have suggested these incongruences have undermined attempts to formally define community capacity and generalize measurable outcomes, such inconsistencies should be expected. Societies, communities, institutions, groups, and individuals vary considerably in their interactions, access to resources, and needs, so prescriptive approaches to cultivating capacities and achieving outcomes would be unlikely to produce similar effects across such a broad spectrum. As Labonte and Laverack (2001) suggest, these qualities “only ever exist in relation to specific people and groups, specific issues and concerns, [and] specific activities or programs.” (p. 114). Thus, capacity building is increasingly understood in more transferable terms, with a set of key guiding principles that are adapted to specific populations for specific purposes (Labonte & Laverack, 2001). As such, rather than undertaking capacity building as a program in its own right, it is typically integrated as a “parallel track” to other programmatic goals (Chaskin, 2001). Youth Sport and Community Capacity
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Promoting physical activity among adolescent girls : the Girls in Sport group randomized trial

Promoting physical activity among adolescent girls : the Girls in Sport group randomized trial

Schools identified through the qualitative data that ad- equately training all staff who would be supervising sport was key to successful implementation of this pro- ject. In government high schools in NSW, sport is usu- ally structured so that all staff are timetabled and allocated workload to supervise a sport. This works well when students are supervised by teachers who are inter- ested in, and who have the skills to supervise school sport in a way that fosters a motivating environment for the students. A major challenge is when staff are un- motivated and not adequately trained. Intervention schools sought to overcome this by providing profes- sional development for all staff but this was not well attended, was not a large enough ‘dose’ (only a ‘one-off’ session ranging from 1-5 hours), and was rarely sus- tained beyond the initial session. Intervention schools then sought to only assign teachers who were motivated and trained to the classes that involved girls in the inter- vention. However, this was not always possible.
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Understanding Institutional structures and their role on climate change adaptation: A case of Mara River Basin, Kenya

Understanding Institutional structures and their role on climate change adaptation: A case of Mara River Basin, Kenya

Overall all the institutions in the Mara River Basin have structures that enhance their capacity to foster climate change adaptation. The capacity of local institutions to foster climate adaptation responses in the Mara River Basin varies and relates more to their internal governance structures as opposed to being solely guided by the laid down international and national mandates. This capacity requires the institution to act on policies set up at different levels – international, regional, national, county and institution‟s - in order to operate efficiently and deliver the best adaptation practices. The existence of strong institutional structures is a prerequisite for sustainable adaptation to climate change. It entailed the existence of efficient and accountable systems, entrenched procedures and rules that promote participatory development, quick decision making, stakeholder confidence and ability to respond to change quickly. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) had the highest score of seventy five percent making them the best placed category of institutions to foster climate change adaptation, NGOs have all their structures being supportive of adaptation action and scored fifty eight percent and more in all the structural elements under assessment. NGOs will need to work more on their perceived legitimacy as their stakeholders‟ confidence is at a low of fifty eight percent only comparable to that of the private sector that stands at fifty percent. NGOs show dynamism in exchange of ideas with its external environment and this openness has led to them accessing increasing financial and material support. Community based organizations with an overall score of seventy percent are a close second, this can be attribute to their high enabling score of ninety percent in positive interpersonal relations and effective
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Lights out, let’s dance! An investigation into participation in No Lights, No Lycra and its association with health and wellbeing

Lights out, let’s dance! An investigation into participation in No Lights, No Lycra and its association with health and wellbeing

There is an emerging trend towards modifying sports and physical activities to remove barriers to participation and get more people active [15, 16]. The public health outcomes described earlier are most likely to be achieved through this sport for all approach, rather than sport for athletes [7]. Some sports have demonstrated how modi- fications can engage populations in their activity who might typically not have participated without the modifi- cation [10]. Some football clubs have reported adapting their sport offering to low-intensity or shorter activities to engage a new community group, often spectators or parents, in being more active [17, 18]. New physical ac- tivity organizations have also emerged such as parkrun which provides free, weekly 5 km events for people to run, walk or jog, focusing on health and happiness ra- ther than high performance [19]. Other examples of modification trends in the sector include 24 h gyms, flexible rules in team sports, casual memberships and training using technology [15]. Dancing is an activity which lends itself to an inclusive format, due to its vari- ous styles and intensities of movement.
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Managing and monitoring equality and diversity in UK sport: An evaluation of the sporting equals Racial Equality Standard and its impact on organizational change

Managing and monitoring equality and diversity in UK sport: An evaluation of the sporting equals Racial Equality Standard and its impact on organizational change

Criticism in this area has suggested that policy analysts draw upon a limited range of methodologies to inform decisions where issues have not been fully understood or crystallized (Chalip, 1995). The link between sport and society (and therefore politics) should be clearly established here, as it has been by many writers who argue for the maintenance of this basic axiom in the provision and control of sport (Chalip, 1995; Henry, 1993; Houlihan, 1997). For Chalip the challenge is not to continue to develop a science of pseudo-logic, but to identify points of logic and illogic so as to examine the values and assumptions implicit within, and excluded from, policy debates. Good [sport] management concerns itself with social values and the welfare of others. This indeed echoes and amplifies points raised by Saggar (1992), Cross and Keith (1993) and others that there is a clear tradition of research in the policy sciences that at the same time as including a range of ideas has excluded many issue-based critical and theoretical concerns that would have enhanced the study of “race”, ethnicity and diversity in policy contexts.
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AN EXAMINATION OF TRAINING NEEDS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PERSONNEL IN KANO STATE

AN EXAMINATION OF TRAINING NEEDS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PERSONNEL IN KANO STATE

The third finding of the study is that the attitude-based training needs of Community Development personnel in Kano State are transparency and accountability, honesty dedication and sense of responsibility as well as trustworthiness respect for ethics, codes and privileges. Anyanwu (1981) in a country like Nigeria, which has now evolved the policy of community education and rural transformation, the use of results of research in the social sciences will enable the Community Development workers to cope successfully with the challenge involved in changing peoples’ attitudes and behaviour in favour of the induction of desirable changes in their communities. This means that an important component of training of Community Development workers in Kano state should entail an attitudinal training relating to enhancement of transparency and accountability, honesty dedication and sense of responsibility as well as trustworthiness respect for ethics, codes and privileges. A good and well refined attitude can be a good asset for a community development worker who interacts with the citizens and who also encourages others to willingly participate along with others.
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Community Pediatrics: Role of Physicians and Organizations

Community Pediatrics: Role of Physicians and Organizations

INTERAGENCY ADVOCACY NETWORK The RCPCH has become closely involved with other groups active in advocacy. The Child Health Advocacy Network (CHANT), for example, is a group that was established 8 years ago with the assistance of the National Children’s Bureau (the main voluntary organization working for children in the United Kingdom). The aim of this forum is to bring child-oriented professional organizations and associations together with some of the larger chil- dren’s charities, including the Child Poverty Action Group. The mission of CHANT is to promote the mental and physical health of all children through advocacy with government. Its priorities relate to reducing the impact of poverty on health, improving access to health care for young people in public care, health care provisions for children of refugees, and child mental health and well-being. The work of this group is underpinned by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, particularly article 24, which is the article that gives all children the right to access health care and the right to the best possible care that is available.
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Correlates of sport participation among community-dwelling elderly people in Germany: a cross-sectional study

Correlates of sport participation among community-dwelling elderly people in Germany: a cross-sectional study

background, education, waist circumference, smoking, self- reported health, history of vascular events, diabetes mellitus, lipometabolic disorder, and arterial hypertension. Analysis of activities (n =1,304; median age 76 (70–94) years; 55.1% women) showed that 27.6% of participants rode a bicycle during the previous week. During the previous month, 24.9% of participants did gymnastics or strength training, and 16.5% swam. Of all participants, 53.8% were sporty. Multivariate analysis revealed several independent factors to be associated with being sporty (p<0.05): younger age, male sex, higher education, nonsmoking, better self-reported health, and not being diagnosed with diabetes. Immigration background, waist circumference, history of vascular events, lipometabolic disorder, and hypertension did not show a statistically significant association (p ≥0.05) with sport participation. Summing up, the most frequently performed sporting activities were cycling, gymnastics or strength training, and swimming. Sport participation was associated with, for example, age and sex.
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Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Sport Organizational Effectiveness Scale According Competing Value Framework

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Sport Organizational Effectiveness Scale According Competing Value Framework

of Information, and Stability, Skilled Workforce and Cohesive Workforce which influence the operations of the national sport organizations such as board members, paid administrative staff, technical staff, international officials, and national athletes. Although there has been some limited work in examining the psychometric properties of scales used to operationalize the CVA [7, 10, 20, 28] some research, Shilbury and Moore (2006), Balduck and Baleens (2009), Eydi et al (2012) and Ibrahim et al (2013) work has been specific to sport [1, 3, 7, 12]. In fact, studies in this area are limited. In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the appropriateness of shilbury and Moore (2006) eight-dimension model for explaining a set of effectiveness measures relevant to the Iranian national sport organizations. In the light of the limited available research of multivariate effectiveness models, especially in the sporting literature, this is considered to broaden the definition space of effectiveness in a sporting organizational setting, and to confirm the factorial validity of the newly developed scale of the sport organizational effectiveness. The CVA to organizational effectiveness has also been adopted because of its capacity to encompass both the means undertaken and the ends achieved by an organization [30].
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Faith on the field : a cultural analysis of sports ministry in America

Faith on the field : a cultural analysis of sports ministry in America

However, definitions of religion based on content are less likely to resonate with sport. Content-based definitions are theological and involve claims about the existence of the supernatural or essential aspects of religious experience. For example, Rudolph Otto argued that the concept of “the holy” contains an “overplus of meaning,” which he named “the numinous.” According to Otto, the numinous quality of religion has the power to stir in people a feeling of absolute powerlessness and holy dread in the face of absolute power. 34 While some argue that sport can have this quality, it is through definitions of content that scholars are able to challenge understandings of sport as a religion. For example, Joan Chandler’s article, “Sport is Not a Religion,” argues that religion raises questions of ultimate meaning and provide followers with answers based on the supernatural. She writes, “While sport may provide us with examples of belief, ritual, sacrifice, and transcendence, all of them take place in a context designed wittingly and specifically by human beings, for the delight of human beings.” 35 For Chandler, sport is explicitly void of supernatural content and hence cannot be considered a religion. While I agree that sport in itself is unlikely to provide access to the supernatural, I am willing to recognize that many athletes see sport as spiritually rewarding and religiously
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The Gay Games : the play of sexuality, sport and community

The Gay Games : the play of sexuality, sport and community

This includes: the social context of the society in which they are hosted; how the Games have been organised, developed and changed; how the intemational Gay Games movement has develop[r]

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Values alignment in voluntary and community sector organizations

Values alignment in voluntary and community sector organizations

working to ensure charity stakeholders have confidence in the activities run by such organizations. The study would state the characteristic details outlined for each of the participating VCS organizations, general assumptions around there governance processes as being similar. Particularly, when acknowledging each organization has been established for over 10 years and throughout this period have met the legislative requirements outlined by the Charities Commission (2014). The study would like to note, at the time the field research was carried out with the specified organizations; neither organization had any clearly stated values. Neither organization discussed or mentioned values in any internal or external documentation or materials. This is not to say values were not present in the organizations but they had not defined what values the organizations aspired to achieve. This in itself did initiate some careful thought and consideration in working within such organizations in a values based research project. However, in the end this was seen as a potential opportunity rather than hindrance in the current researcher’s perspective.
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Relations between the European Community and International Organizations

Relations between the European Community and International Organizations

Ces mesures pratiques telles que vous les énumérez, relatives à l'échange de documentation, aux consultations fréquentes et régulières entre les membres du Secrétariat des Nations Unies [r]

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Engaging_Faith-Based_And_Community_Organizations_in_the_Local_Hazard_Mitigation_Planning_Process.pdf

Engaging_Faith-Based_And_Community_Organizations_in_the_Local_Hazard_Mitigation_Planning_Process.pdf

While Ken Krulik was with the Kerr-Tar Council of Governments, he assisted Vance County with the development of its hazard mitigation plan. The county’s advisory team, which included the American Red Cross, United Way, and volunteer firefighters, reviewed and provided community input to the draft and final plan. Mr. Krulik believed that pre-existing relationships were used to engage these organizations. According to Mr. Krulik, the plan provided the team the information it needed to make informed decisions. In addition, the team was able to provide him (the consultant) with localized information that he otherwise would not have had. This information was vital to ensuring the plan met the community’s needs. Mr. Krulik explained that coordinating multiple schedules was often difficult so much of the review was done through e-mail and hard copy. The possibility to build on the relationships with these organizations and gain their input into countywide zoning and comprehensive planning exists, according to Mr. Krulik. 92
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PSYCHOSOCIAL CHALLENGES AND COPING MECHANISMS OF ELDERLY PEOPLE: THE CASE OF DURBETE TOWN, ETHIOPIA

PSYCHOSOCIAL CHALLENGES AND COPING MECHANISMS OF ELDERLY PEOPLE: THE CASE OF DURBETE TOWN, ETHIOPIA

Even if, these studies show some issues about elders, there are still gaps of studies about psychosocial challenges and coping mechanisms among elders. Of course, at a national level, governmental and non-governmental organizations as well as association of older persons have started to make greater efforts in tackling problems of the elderly people. However, due to the absence of networking and inability to streamline the activities of the concerned bodies in conducting in depth study, designing and implementing programs, psychosocial challenges are notwell solved. Psychosocial issues include the psychological and social aspects of person’s life influencing thoughts, feelings, behaviors, healthy functioning, well-being and quality of life. Psychological components include cognition, emotions, and personality. Social factors include socioeconomic status, religion, culture, education, social supports and job status. Psychosocial challenges are the main problems of elders in day to day activities. For instance, in our culture, while young adults and middle adults can fully participate in different social parties, such as: Idirs (social gathering formed for burial ceremony), Senbete(social gathering formed for religious purpose responsible to provide food and beverage services on Sunday after church service), Mahiber(social gathering in the name of saints for memorial and sharing their blessing) and so on, elders cannot do so due to incomeshortage, loss of physical strength and the likes.
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Fostering the social utility of events: an integrative framework for the strategic use of events in community development

Fostering the social utility of events: an integrative framework for the strategic use of events in community development

sociability, (2) to symbolically re-create social relations interpreting social conditions, and (3) to celebrate aspects of central importance for a group or a host community. The means for accomplishing these objectives are interrelated and can be used jointly in event design. The primary means for fostering social interaction and sociability is the provision of social elements/activities (Getz, 2005). These can be social ‘mixers’ for event participants or attendees (inside or outside the venue) and informal social opportunities that enable social engagement (Chalip, 2006). Events can be occasions that bring together and (re)interpret various symbolic elements of social existence of a group or community with the effect of re-creating social relations and the symbolic foundations underpinning everyday life (Robinson, Picard, & Long, 2003; Turner, 1974). To foster a sense of meaning, symbolic theming elements can be layered throughout event spaces, embedded genres may add fascination and a sense of rejoicing, while narratives that portray fundamental existential issues can be created to capture public interest (Chalip, 2006). Theming should foster and reinforce the felt sense of meaningfulness that those who attend the event obtain but also should signal and enhance the celebratory atmosphere that surrounds the event (Chalip, 2006). Moreover, the sense of celebration can be amplified through ancillary events. The arts can be useful complements to events by enhancing the celebratory atmosphere (Garcia, 2001) and adding more sophistication (Chalip, 2006).
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There are many definitions of the term ‘community’. Researchers have referred to geographic area, social attributes and interests (language, custom, class or ethnicity) and functional units considered ‘natural political units’ for the delivery of goods and services and around which collective action can be mobilised. They provide a context of physical space and are recognised as units of identity and belonging for residents. Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Australia are at the centre of these functional aspects of community and are the focus for the delivery of many government programs. For this reason, they are regarded in this study as representative of their local communities.
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