There has been continuous debate about the Esping-Andersen typology (for reviews see e.g. Abrahamson, 2003; Arts and Gelissen, 2002). Despite a number of criticisms, it seems that recent research on welfare reforms inevitably comes back to this three-fold distinction. Indeed, most collective books either refer to the ‘three worlds’ in their choice of countries (see Scharpf and Schmidt, 2000 or Pierson, 2001), or organise the comparison explicitly through groups of countries that reproduce this division (see Esping-Andersen, 1996 or Sykes, Palier and Prior, 2001). Moreover, findings usually suggest that there are ‘three worlds of welfare reforms’, with comparativestudies concluding that there are different processes of welfare state adaptation that can be associated with each world of welfare (Scharpf and Schmidt 2000; Pierson 2001b). The three paths for welfare state change result from the three different contexts of historical and institutional constraints in each welfare system. Scharpf and Schmidt (2000) convincingly show that the three worlds do not experience the same kinds of vulnerabilities in the face of the new global and European environment. Examining the implementation of several policies, Pierson proposes that - besides cost containment which is common to all welfare reforms - a specific type of reform is predominantly pursued in each world of welfare capitalism: ‘re-commodification’ in the liberal welfare states, ‘rationalising re-calibration’ in the Nordic countries and ‘up-dating re- calibration’ of the Continental systems (Pierson, 2001b: 455).
There are many studies of sickness certification by doctors (e.g. Letrilliart and Barrau, 2012). These studies show that certification forms an important part of the work of doctors especially GPs but that, generally speaking, doctors often have limited knowledge or training in relation to the role and/or do not attach a high degree of importance to the task. The studies also look at the views of doctors in relation to certification and there are a number of common themes including a lack of clarity about certain aspects of the role, difficulties in certification in the absence of clear medical symptoms, difficulties in predicting the likely duration of absence, etc. It is clear that in all countries, there is a certain degree of ‘negotiation’ between the doctor and patient (Monneuse, 2015; Nilsen et al., 2015; Wainwright et al., 2015) and that certificates are sometimes given even though the doctor may have doubts about whether a person is incapable. In the countries considered here, these types of studies are most common in Sweden and the UK although they are also to be found in Australia, Finland and France. These studies are discussed in more detail in the Annexes. As discussed in Chapter 3, the Netherlands adopts a different approach to certification: separating treatment from control (i.e. certification).
In Nova Scotia, the authorities use the InterRai Minimum Data Set-Home Care (MDS-HC) assessment tool. This is a widely-used tool which involves completion of a detailed form concerning the person’s patterns concerning cognitive, communication/hearing, vision, mood and behaviour, social functioning, physical functioning, disease diagnosis, health status, etc. It also includes an environmental assessment (e.g. living arrangements) and an assessment of the informal supports available and services used. Studies have found that, where carried out by trained staff using recommended protocols, the MDS-HC assessment provides ‘a valid measure of function and cognitive status in frail home care patients’ (Landi et al, 2000). These findings point out the overall validity of the functional and clinical data contained in the MDS-HC assessment.
Continued electrification of traditionally mechanical loads, such as, power assist steering, etc. As well as the introduction of new loads, like seat heating, electric air conditions and AC power points will overburden the traditional 14 Volt power generation and distribution system. With this growing of electrical power demand in modern vehicles, a higher voltage electrical system becomes mandatory. The vehicle industry is currently pursuing a 42 volt system that selected by wide research consortiums as a new standard. Although the switching to the 42 volt system will revolutionize the automotive industry but this switching can not be easily achieved in a short period due to the huge industrial infrastructure of the traditional 14 volt became mandatory to study the power semiconductor switching devices that constitute the heart of modern vehicle electronics systems. However, In this paper, theoretical and practical comparative study of three semiconductor switching devices are demonstrated. The performance of these devices have been analyzed and compared from the view point of power electronics. Moreover, for completeness, a brief review of other power devices have been incorporated.
The dissolution data of batches J1-J3 revealed that, batch J1 i.e. optimized batch containing Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Linn shows same drug release when compared with batch J2 and J3. Which indicate that Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Linn can be use as novel superdisintegrant in development of pulsatile drug delivery system. Table no. 13 summarized percent drug release of comparative batches J1-J3. Dissolution profile of the batches J1-J3 shown in figure 5.
This paper attempts to describe the market for welfare-friendly foodstuffs within larger retailing trends in six study countries in Europe (Norway, Sweden, Italy, France, the Netherlands and the UK). This is based on the findings to date from the work carried out by the work package 1.2 whose aims are to study the current and potential market for welfare-friendly
First, only five studies compared efficacy explicitly be- tween age-groups [25, 26, 38, 52, 54]. Secondly, age trends could not be calculated reliably because age categories as reported in the papers are often broad and inconsistent across studies, so that the calculated median age may not reflect the range of responses within each individual group. Following the WHO age classification for PC, the preschool-aged children age-group should include 1–4- year-olds and the school-aged group 5–14-year-olds. Thirdly, preschool-aged children are under-represented: 11% of all subjects treated with PZQ 40 mg/kg. Lastly, and importantly, methodology was insufficiently stan- dardized: studies differed in terms of diagnostic approach used (number of samples and smears), outcome measures (CR, ERR using geometric or arithmetic mean), duration of follow-up, and safety reporting. ERR was predominantly calculated using geometric means, which are less apt to identify outliers (patients responding less well) and tend to show higher efficacy, compared to arithmetic means or individual-patient response distributions [3, 69]. It is therefore difficult to apply the WHO-recommended threshold of 90% ERRam  to the results of these studies and meta-analysis. Moreover, when the geometric mean egg count was used, some studies calculated the ERR using the geometric mean as the difference between egg counts on all the patients, pre-treatment, and only the positive subjects at the time of the endpoint assessment. This method is inappropriate and biases the result be- cause the denominator changes from the baseline to the endpoint time, overestimates the egg counts post- treatment and underestimates efficacy (in our calculations here by ~ 24%).
the children are eligible for federal foster care payments; (2) A Navigator Program to help link relative caregivers (both informal and formal) to a broad range of services and supports that they need for their children and themselves; (3) Allows states to establish separate licensing standards for relative foster parents; (4) Requires state child welfare agencies to provide notice within 60 days of the removal of a child from the custody of the child‟s parents to all adult grandparents and other relatives of the child; and (5) Expands eligibility for the education elements of the Chaffee Foster Care Independence Program to include “youth exiting from foster care to adoption or legal guardianship.” The Senate and House forms of this bill have been modified several times throughout the past four years. As of March 23, 2008, this senate bill is still in the first stages of the legislative process where the bill is
Another interesting study was that undertaken by Salter and Doupnik (1992). They used as a sole determinant of accounting systems and therefore accounting differences internationally a country’s legal system. In fact, this is one of the factors that are mentioned virtually in all of the studies related to accounting practices. However, it was the work of Salter and Doupnik that established a relationship between world-wide legal systems and accounting practices. They used the work of David and Brierly (1985) on legal systems and tried to classify countries under two major categories of legal systems: Code law and Common law. Code law is European in origin and is characterised by rules of law being formulated by legal scholars based on ideas of justice and morality (Nair and Werner, 1980). On the other hand, Common law was developed primarily by judges as they resolved specific disputes. Common law legal rule seeks to provide solution to the case at hand rather than formulate a general rule of conduct for the future. The implications for accounting practices are as follows: in code law formal codification of accounting standards is found whereas accounting rules are established in a non-legalistic manner in Common law countries. The degree to which accounting rules are legislated can impact the nature of the accounting system. Meek and Saudagaran (1990) argue that in Code law countries, laws stipulate minimum requirements and accounting rules tend to be highly prescriptive and procedural. Compliance with the letter of the law is expected. On the contrary, in Common law countries, laws establish limits beyond which is illegal to venture and within those limits experimentation is encouraged and judgement is required. Within this institutional framework accounting rules tend to be more adaptive and innovative. Their test of the relationship between legal systems and accounting practices proves that a relative strong relationship does exist between legal and accounting systems.
The role of livestock in many tropical countries is to contribute to the ecological and environmental sustainability of these systems, e.g., in nutrient recycling (Herman- sen 2003; Powell et al. 2004). Tropical smallholder livestock keepers represent about 20% of the world population (McDermott et al. 2010), and livestock play a significant role in household food and income (Funes-Monzote 2008; Deschee- maeker et al. 2010), serving cultural and traditional purposes, as well as supplying the household members and local communities with products like meat, milk, eggs, skin, and bones (Wilson 2009; Powell et al. 2004; Devendra and Thomas 2002), and finally providing draft power (Powell et al. 2004; Descheemaeker et al. 2010). In the farming system, the integration of livestock can give longterm benefits in terms of compost and utilization of marginal areas, in this way helping to prevent land degradation and erosion and contributing to resilient and robust, diversified, and intensified agro-ecological systems (Funes-Monzote 2008; Pretty 2006; Halberg et al. 2009; Vaarst 2010). Dixon and co-authors (2001) stated that generally, the diversified farming systems play a major role in reducing poverty, and well- balanced organic farms are generally based on diversification. However, dilemmas and pressure on the livestock farm exist, such as the aim of letting animals range freely outdoors, where their manure is needed for compost or other redistribution of nutrients, and at the same time, land is very scarce and must provide food for many people. In many such farming systems, the change from traditional farming to organic/agro-ecological farming has led to keeping animals indoors to a much higher degree because of newly gained awareness of the value of manure (Muwanga et al. 2010). Araya and Edwards (2006) and Edwards et al. (2010) give a illustrative example of one of the major dilemmas in organic or agro-ecological livestock production in the tropics, namely that a severe land degradation problem in arid areas in Ethiopia was solved mainly by creating zero-grazing systems for the small ruminants in the area. This conflict between ‘‘ecology’’ (preserving soil quality by not letting animals roam and at the same time, produce sufficient amounts of manure to improve soil quality), and on the other hand animal welfare, including naturalness, allowing animals to carry out their natural behavior, and having access to water and foraged feed in accordance with their needs.
“Some people (Advocates) are dying in penury for lack of financial assistance in the old-age. I cannot tell you all that as you are too young to understand these things. But since you are working on the topic, so let me tell you the fact, there are some advocates who are not eligible to join the Death Benefit Welfare Fund Scheme at an age of 37 years and above. Who will look after them at that age as the earnings you know in legal profession is not sufficient to meet those contingencies? The young budding advocates are in a more pitiful state as they are too naïve to earn enough through the profession and the law requires every advocate to devote their full time to the profession unlike in the medical profession where they can work with the Government hospitals and at the same time run their private clinics. The Government of Maharastra in fact, allows part-time jobs apart from earning through legal profession. A young apprentice hardly earns Rupees Three thousand per month (roughly Sterling Pounds Thirty) which is not sufficient enough when we look at the rise in the prices in the markets”.
At present, through correct and adequate using of a historical-comparative method the kinship of the Kartvelian and mountain Caucasian languages is finally and clearly confirmed, also the kinship of Basque language with these languages is substantiated and a place of Basque in the family of the Iberian-Caucasian languages is defined. Two fundamental works of the latest period give me base to say this. These are: Merab Chukhua’s monograph “Comparative grammar of the Iberian-Ichkerian languages (2008) and Mikheil Kurdiani’s “Fundamentals of the Iberian-Caucasian linguistics” (2007).
caries risk assessment models [3, 13]. The only exter- nally validated model was the Cariogram ; the accur- acy of the standardized model was found to be limited in pre-school children, based on two papers [15, 16]. The search literature contained a time frame from 1966 to 2006 with a refresh in 2011, so the most recent papers were not included in the review. Otherwise, Tellez et al.  aimed to appraise the evidence in caries prediction of two standardized CRA models, Cariogram, and Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA), and two guidelines of the American Dental Association (ADA) and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD), taking into account six longitudinal studies. In this review, the literature search was also stopped in 2011. Senneby et al.  evaluated the association between previous caries experience, microbiological tests, buffering capacity, salivary flow rate, oral hygiene, dietary habits, socio-demographic variables and the fu- ture caries lesion development. The evidence was con- sidered of low quality and was lacking in regards to the studied methods. The literature search was stopped in January 2015.
Abstract: Quantum dots (QDs) have been considered to be promising probes for biosensing, bioimaging, and diagnosis. However, their toxicity issues caused by heavy metals in QDs remain to be addressed, in particular for their in vivo biomedical applications. In this study, a parallel comparative investigation in vitro and in vivo is presented to disclose the impact of synthetic methods and their following surface modifications on the toxicity of QDs. Cellular assays after exposure to QDs were conducted including cell viability assessment, DNA breakage study in a single cellular level, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) receptor measurement, and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate their toxicity in vitro. Mice experiments after QD administration, including analysis of hemobiological indices, pharmacokinetics, histological examination, and body weight, were further carried out to evaluate their systematic toxicity in vivo. Results show that QDs fabricated by the thermal decomposition approach in organic phase and encapsulated by an amphiphilic polymer (denoted as QDs-1) present the least toxicity in acute damage, compared with those of QDs surface engineered by glutathione-mediated ligand exchange (denoted as QDs-2), and the ones prepared by coprecipitation approach in aqueous phase with mercaptopropionic acid capped (denoted as QDs-3). With the extension of the investigation time of mice respectively injected with QDs, we found that the damage caused by QDs to the organs can be gradually recovered. This parallel comparative investigation suggests that synthetic methods and their resulting surface microenvironment play vital roles in the acute toxicity profiles of QDs. The present study provides updated insights into the fabrication and surface engineering of QDs for their translational applications in theranostics.
vitro cytotoxic studies were performed using Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell line by Trypan blue dye exclusion assay and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell proliferation assay. The IC 50 values of the 8-(4′-/2′-methoxy/unsubstituted phenylcarbamoyl)bicyclo[3.3.1]nonanes were found to be 110.65 µg/ml, 148.23 µg/ml and 151.71 µg/ml, respectively. Thus (4-methoxyphenylcarbomyl)bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane was more potent compared to other two bicyclic adducts.
In conclusion, here comparative functional nano-bio analysis was performed. A change in fluorescence intensity was observed in the presence of all NPs tested. The largest change in both these parameters was seen with Cu NPs and B 4 C NPs. These NPs in particular also greatly impact the enzyme kinet- ics and bioluminescence output of the enzyme, with Cu NPs prolonging the kinetics and B 4 C NPs greatly inhibiting biolu- minescence. Furthermore, trypsin digestion studies show that B 4 C NPs protect Luc from degradation, whereas the presence of Cu NPs increases the rate of degradation with virtually no intact enzyme remaining after only a short period of incuba- tion. These data suggest that these two NPs in particular have very different conformational effects on the enzyme. The increase in UV absorbance seen in the presence of Cu NPs, as contrasted with all other NPs where sedimentation of the
The confidence in estimates for healthcare professionals’ emotional burden related to the practice of CDS was low. The main reasons for downgrading the confidence in esti- mates were due to study limitations and heterogeneity of results. Healthcare professionals’ burden related to the practice of CDS was assessed using single item questions and heterogeneity was already given within studies. Fur- thermore, outcomes from different care settings and pro- fessional groups, e.g., oncologists and palliative care specialists, were analysed jointly. The assessment of CDS- related emotional burden differed between overall burden levels independent of patient conditions and patient- specific emotional burden of healthcare professionals. In case of patient-specific burden there might be recall bias. Across eligible studies healthcare professionals’ emotional burden was self-reported and might be influenced by con- founders leading to emotional distress in general. Where CDS-related burden was high it seems possible that Table 3 The prevalence of healthcare professionals ’ emotional burden associated with the practice of CDS