compensatory evolution

Top PDF compensatory evolution:

Parallel compensatory evolution stabilizes plasmids across the parasitism-mutualism continuum

Parallel compensatory evolution stabilizes plasmids across the parasitism-mutualism continuum

demand within the cell. Moreover, it appears that loss of GacA/ GacS function also resulted in downregulation of a large set of plasmid genes. As newly acquired plasmid genes are likely to be poorly adapted to the host cell, it is possible that some of these plasmid gene products may have had cytotoxic effects on the bacterial cell [30], which were alleviated by downregulation of their expression. Further research will be required to determine the precise mechanism of the cost of plasmid carriage in this sys- tem and specifically whether any of the downregulated plasmid gene products were cytotoxic [30]. Loss-of-function mutants in gacA/gacS have been isolated both in nature [31] and in the lab- oratory [22]. Indeed, elevated mutation rates and frequent rever- sion in gacA/gacS have been reported in Pseudomonas sp. PCL1171 [32] and associated with Xer site-specific recombinase activity in P. fluorescens F113 in the rhizosphere [33]. The gacA/ gacS two-component system may therefore represent contin- gency loci, where an elevated mutation rate is adaptive, allowing rapid phenotypic switching in response to environmental unpre- dictability [34]. In natural communities, where bacteria are likely to frequently encounter novel mobile genetic elements that impose increased translational demand upon the cell, the high evolvability of gacA/gacS may be advantageous, offering an evolutionary solution to the immediate costs of plasmid carriage. We demonstrate that rapid compensatory evolution can stabi- lize plasmids by reducing the cost of plasmid carriage. We observed exceptionally parallel evolution, including multiple in- stances of nucleotide-level parallelism, due to the requirement for just a single bacterial regulatory mutation of large effect to completely ameliorate a 425-kb plasmid. This extends the importance of parallel compensatory evolution in understanding plasmid stability [8, 14] by showing that this evolutionary process can occur in parallel across a wide gradient of environmental con- ditions comprising the entire parasitism-mutualism continuum.

7 Read more

Parallel Compensatory Evolution Stabilizes Plasmids across the Parasitism-Mutualism Continuum

Parallel Compensatory Evolution Stabilizes Plasmids across the Parasitism-Mutualism Continuum

demand within the cell. Moreover, it appears that loss of GacA/ GacS function also resulted in downregulation of a large set of plasmid genes. As newly acquired plasmid genes are likely to be poorly adapted to the host cell, it is possible that some of these plasmid gene products may have had cytotoxic effects on the bacterial cell [30], which were alleviated by downregulation of their expression. Further research will be required to determine the precise mechanism of the cost of plasmid carriage in this sys- tem and specifically whether any of the downregulated plasmid gene products were cytotoxic [30]. Loss-of-function mutants in gacA/gacS have been isolated both in nature [31] and in the lab- oratory [22]. Indeed, elevated mutation rates and frequent rever- sion in gacA/gacS have been reported in Pseudomonas sp. PCL1171 [32] and associated with Xer site-specific recombinase activity in P. fluorescens F113 in the rhizosphere [33]. The gacA/ gacS two-component system may therefore represent contin- gency loci, where an elevated mutation rate is adaptive, allowing rapid phenotypic switching in response to environmental unpre- dictability [34]. In natural communities, where bacteria are likely to frequently encounter novel mobile genetic elements that impose increased translational demand upon the cell, the high evolvability of gacA/gacS may be advantageous, offering an evolutionary solution to the immediate costs of plasmid carriage. We demonstrate that rapid compensatory evolution can stabi- lize plasmids by reducing the cost of plasmid carriage. We observed exceptionally parallel evolution, including multiple in- stances of nucleotide-level parallelism, due to the requirement for just a single bacterial regulatory mutation of large effect to completely ameliorate a 425-kb plasmid. This extends the importance of parallel compensatory evolution in understanding plasmid stability [8, 14] by showing that this evolutionary process can occur in parallel across a wide gradient of environmental con- ditions comprising the entire parasitism-mutualism continuum.

7 Read more

Compensatory Evolution and the Origins of Innovations

Compensatory Evolution and the Origins of Innovations

ABSTRACT Cryptic genetic sequences have attenuated effects on phenotypes. In the classic view, relaxed selection allows cryptic genetic diversity to build up across individuals in a population, providing alleles that may later contribute to adaptation when co- opted—e.g., following a mutation increasing expression from a low, attenuated baseline. This view is described, for example, by the metaphor of the spread of a population across a neutral network in genotype space. As an alternative view, consider the fact that most phenotypic traits are affected by multiple sequences, including cryptic ones. Even in a strictly clonal population, the co-option of cryptic sequences at different loci may have different phenotypic effects and offer the population multiple adaptive possibilities. Here, we model the evolution of quantitative phenotypic characters encoded by cryptic sequences and compare the relative contributions of genetic diversity and of variation across sites to the phenotypic potential of a population. We show that most of the phenotypic variation accessible through co-option would exist even in populations with no polymorphism. This is made possible by a history of compensatory evolution, whereby the phenotypic effect of a cryptic mutation at one site was balanced by mutations elsewhere in the genome, leading to a diversity of cryptic effect sizes across sites rather than across individuals. Cryptic sequences might accelerate adaptation and facilitate large phenotypic changes even in the absence of genetic diversity, as traditionally defined in terms of alternative alleles.

12 Read more

Parallel Compensatory Evolution Stabilizes Plasmids across the Parasitism-Mutualism Continuum

Parallel Compensatory Evolution Stabilizes Plasmids across the Parasitism-Mutualism Continuum

demand within the cell. Moreover, it appears that loss of GacA/ GacS function also resulted in downregulation of a large set of plasmid genes. As newly acquired plasmid genes are likely to be poorly adapted to the host cell, it is possible that some of these plasmid gene products may have had cytotoxic effects on the bacterial cell [30], which were alleviated by downregulation of their expression. Further research will be required to determine the precise mechanism of the cost of plasmid carriage in this sys- tem and specifically whether any of the downregulated plasmid gene products were cytotoxic [30]. Loss-of-function mutants in gacA/gacS have been isolated both in nature [31] and in the lab- oratory [22]. Indeed, elevated mutation rates and frequent rever- sion in gacA/gacS have been reported in Pseudomonas sp. PCL1171 [32] and associated with Xer site-specific recombinase activity in P. fluorescens F113 in the rhizosphere [33]. The gacA/ gacS two-component system may therefore represent contin- gency loci, where an elevated mutation rate is adaptive, allowing rapid phenotypic switching in response to environmental unpre- dictability [34]. In natural communities, where bacteria are likely to frequently encounter novel mobile genetic elements that impose increased translational demand upon the cell, the high evolvability of gacA/gacS may be advantageous, offering an evolutionary solution to the immediate costs of plasmid carriage. We demonstrate that rapid compensatory evolution can stabi- lize plasmids by reducing the cost of plasmid carriage. We observed exceptionally parallel evolution, including multiple in- stances of nucleotide-level parallelism, due to the requirement for just a single bacterial regulatory mutation of large effect to completely ameliorate a 425-kb plasmid. This extends the importance of parallel compensatory evolution in understanding plasmid stability [8, 14] by showing that this evolutionary process can occur in parallel across a wide gradient of environmental con- ditions comprising the entire parasitism-mutualism continuum.

8 Read more

Rapid compensatory evolution promotes the survival of conjugative plasmids

Rapid compensatory evolution promotes the survival of conjugative plasmids

In the study described, compensatory evolution was characterized by highly repeatable, rapid evolution of a global bacterial regulator, GacA/GacS. Knockout mutants demonstrate that loss of function in either gene is able to completely ameliorate the cost of the plasmid allowing strong selection on single mutations. In addition, evidence from Pseudomonas sp. PCL1171 suggests that gacA/gacS loci may in fact have elevated mutation rates in pseudomonads, estimated to be ~100 times that of the genome-wide mutation rate 19 . The large fitness effects and high mutation rate at these loci helps to explain the high-level of parallelism observed across replicates and environments in our experiment. To explore how dependent the outcome of our evolution experiment is on the nature of these compensatory mutations we produced an individual based model (IBM) capable of capturing the dynamics of amelioration, plasmid prevalence and transposon capture by the chromosome. The IBM is adapted from Harrison et al 2015 20 and parameterized, where possible, using estimates taken from the empirical system. We first investigated the importance of the degree of amelioration. In the absence of Hg(II) selection, complete (100%) amelioration of the cost of carriage was required for plasmid survival in the population (fig. 2). Where mutations reduced the cost of plasmid carriage by only 99%, plasmid loss was slowed but not halted suggesting that the balance between the underlying processes of plasmid loss via segregation and plasmid gain by conjugation is such

18 Read more

Rapid compensatory evolution promotes the survival of conjugative plasmids.

Rapid compensatory evolution promotes the survival of conjugative plasmids.

To understand the dynamics of plasmids in bacte- rial populations we must therefore view bacteria- plasmid associations through both an ecological and evolutionary lens. While the initial invasion of plasmids into bacterial populations may be dependent on the specifics of the bacteria x plas- mid x environment interaction, compensatory evo- lution allows plasmids to be stably maintained in the absence of positive selection, preserving a res- ervoir of mobile accessory genes and allowing potential for adaptation by horizontal gene trans- fer. The implications of these evolutionary changes for bacterial and plasmid populations are a rich subject for future investigations. As yet we know very little about the types of mechanisms that underlie the costs of plasmid carriage and conse- quently the avenues to their amelioration. Do compensatory mutations lead to tradeoffs in bac- terial fitness in other environments, as might be expected in the case of the GacA/GacS loci? Are these adaptations specific to the coevolving bacte- ria-plasmid association? Or do compensatory mutations in the host ameliorate the cost of other plasmids in the community, producing more gen- eralist hosts? Understanding what consequences compensatory evolution might have for both bac- teria and plasmids will therefore be key in under- standing the persistence of plasmids in natural microbial communities.

6 Read more

Compensatory evolution of gene regulation in response to stress by Escherichia coli lacking RpoS

Compensatory evolution of gene regulation in response to stress by Escherichia coli lacking RpoS

The RpoS sigma factor protein of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is the master transcriptional regulator of physiological responses to a variety of stresses. This stress response comes at the expense of scavenging for scarce resources, causing a trade-off between stress tolerance and nutrient acquisition. This trade-off favors non-functional rpoS alleles in nutrient-poor environments. We used experimental evolution to explore how natural selection modifies the regulatory network of strains lacking RpoS when they evolve in an osmotically stressful environment. We found that strains lacking RpoS adapt less variably, in terms of both fitness increase and changes in patterns of transcription, than strains with functional RpoS. This phenotypic uniformity was caused by the same adaptive mutation in every independent population: the insertion of IS10 into the promoter of the otsBA operon. OtsA and OtsB are required to synthesize the osmoprotectant trehalose, and transcription of otsBA requires RpoS in the wild-type genetic background. The evolved IS10 insertion rewires expression of otsBA from RpoS-dependent to RpoS-independent, allowing for partial restoration of wild-type response to osmotic stress. Our results show that the regulatory networks of bacteria can evolve new structures in ways that are both rapid and repeatable.

9 Read more

Compensatory Evolution in Rifampin-Resistant Escherichia coli

Compensatory Evolution in Rifampin-Resistant Escherichia coli

Evolution for higher levels of rif-resistance: While we did not see evolution of increased rif resistance in rifampin-free cultures, the MICs of all mutants evolved in the presence of rifampin did increase. One explana- Figure 3.—Results of RT-PCR assay showing data represen- tion for this is that, although the level of drug used in tative of that used to determine the kinetic efficiency of mRNA these cultures (25 ␮g/ml) was below each strain’s MIC, transcript production for Rif r rpoB mutants and evolved mu-

11 Read more

The evolution of plasmid stability: Are infectious transmission and compensatory evolution competing evolutionary trajectories?

The evolution of plasmid stability: Are infectious transmission and compensatory evolution competing evolutionary trajectories?

plasmids in the population with conjugation rate is either fixed or allowed to evolve (see table for parameter ranges). This gives 38 different conditions, and we have 20 replicates of each condition – with the exception of the no amelioration conditions (conjugation with and without conjugation evolution for which 60 replicates were run.

24 Read more

Compensatory cis-trans Evolution and the Dysregulation of Gene Expression in Interspecific Hybrids of Drosophila

Compensatory cis-trans Evolution and the Dysregulation of Gene Expression in Interspecific Hybrids of Drosophila

Compensatory evolution of cis- and trans-regulatory elements may be promoted by the abundant genetic variation in regulatory elements within species that has been reported. In the human population, for example, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and other types of genetic variation occur frequently in the core promoter region of genes and are known to have an impact on the level of expression, with effects as large as a 20-fold dif- ference in gene expression level (reviewed in R ockman and W ray 2002; T omso et al. 2005). Genetic variation located in trans has also been identified as contributing extensively to gene expression variation within species (e.g., B rem et al. 2002; M orley et al. 2004). A recent com- parative genomic study has also shown that transcrip- tion factors can evolve rapidly relative to other classes of genes (C astillo -D avis et al. 2004), which was perhaps unexpected given the potentially large pleiotropic effects of mutations in transcription factors (T autz 2000). Finally, experimental work has shown that amino acid changes in a transcription factor do not necessarily affect the expression pattern of all of its target genes, but are highly dependent on the particular DNA motifs that are present (I nga et al. 2002). A transcription factor can therefore coevolve with a subset of targets while leaving other interactions intact.

10 Read more

Mobile Compensatory Mutations Promote Plasmid Survival

Mobile Compensatory Mutations Promote Plasmid Survival

FIG 1 General theoretical concept. (A) The type of compensatory evolution determines the capabilities for the transmission of a compensatory mutation. (B) Plasmid persistence depends on two components characterizing plasmid fitness: (i) the vertical transmission fitness (y axis), reflecting the negative effect of the plasmid costs, ␣ , on the host cells’ maximum growth rate, ␺ , and the rate of segregational loss, ␶ (characterizing the inability to inherit the plasmid to both daughter cells by binary fission); and (ii) the horizontal transmission fitness (x axis), given by the extent of the conjugation rate, ␥. In order to enable comparability, both fitness estimates are normalized to the maximum growth rate, ␺ . Plasmids potentially persist in the absence of antibiotic-mediated selection when the combined effects of plasmid costs and segregational loss are lower than the relative extent of conjugation. By compensatory evolution, the initial plasmid costs can be reduced—for instance, by modifying the vertical transmission fitness of a notional plasmid, P, to the level of A, provided by either a chromosomal mutation or a plasmid mutation. As chromosomal mutants cannot transmit the compensatory mutation horizontally, they generate cells with the original fitness level of P when they perform conjugation. For simplicity, we neglect that the amelioration could be coupled to a reduction of the conjugation rate.

11 Read more

Compensatory Mutations, Antibiotic Resistance and the Population Genetics of Adaptive Evolution in Bacteria

Compensatory Mutations, Antibiotic Resistance and the Population Genetics of Adaptive Evolution in Bacteria

While these examples of compensatory evolution are from laboratory experiments, we believe the phenome- non is general and can be anticipated to occur for most asexual pathogenic and commensal microorganisms in natural settings. Only a small fraction of the populations of microparasites infecting a host are transmitted to and successfully colonize new hosts. Stated another way, bottlenecks are a general feature of the structure of microparasite populations in communities of infected and uninfected hosts (Bergstrom et al. 1999). If, in addition, the tenure of microparasite populations in an infected host is limited, and these populations are cleared rather than continue to replicate and evolve in an individual host, then the first-occurring rather than the overall best genotype in any given host may achieve Figure 5.—Reconstruction simulations. Invasion of uncom- dominance and may not be replaced by a better geno- pensated Str s (n00) in 10-ml d ⫽ 0.002 habitats. (a) Five ran-

13 Read more

‘Real world’ compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure

‘Real world’ compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure

Our puf fi ng topography fi ndings are consistent with our earlier laboratory-based study which also found increased puff number and puff duration with a lower nic- otine concentration e-liquid [12], supporting the notion that, as with tobacco smokers, vapers engage in compensa- tory puf fi ng in an attempt to self-titrate with a lower nico- tine concentration e-liquid. We also permitted changes to power settings to re fl ect how experienced vapers using newer-generation devices behave in real-world conditions. Participants were more likely to increase the power in the low nicotine condition, resulting in a shorter puff duration (but no change to puff number) compared with fi xed power settings. Nevertheless, nicotine intake remained higher in the high nicotine condition regardless of whether or not power was fi xed, suggesting that compensatory puf fi ng and changes to power were not adequate to raise nicotine intake to the level achieved via a high (18 mg/ml) nicotine e-liquid concentration. In fact, baseline salivary cotinine levels fell roughly mid-point between the levels achieved in the high and low nicotine conditions suggesting that, as with tobacco smoking and with vapers in our earlier study, upwards and downwards self-titration is incomplete [12,16,32].

9 Read more

In Vivo Selected Compensatory Mutations Restore the Fitness Cost of Mosaic penA Alleles That Confer Ceftriaxone Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

In Vivo Selected Compensatory Mutations Restore the Fitness Cost of Mosaic penA Alleles That Confer Ceftriaxone Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

FIG 2 The mosaic penA41 and penA89 alleles conferred a fitness disadvantage both in vitro and in vivo, but compensatory mutants of strain FA19 penA41 can be selected during infection. (A and B) Broth cultures were inoculated with similar numbers of wild-type FA19 and either FA19 penA41 (A) or FA19 penA89 (B). The competitive index (CI) was determined in early, mid-log, and late log stages by dividing the ratio of mutant to wild-type bacteria at output by the ratio of mutant to wild-type bacteria at input. (C and D) Female BALB/c mice were inoculated vaginally with similar numbers of wild-type FA19 and either FA19 penA41 (C) or FA19 penA89 (D). The CI was determined as described for panels A and B. Each symbol indicates the CI for an individual mouse, and colors indicate separate experiments. The horizontal bars indicate the geometric mean (also shown in parentheses), and the solid line indicates a competitive index of 1. Open circles in panels C and D indicate mice from which only Cro r CFU were recovered, while open triangles indicate mice from which

18 Read more

Compensatory and Learning Strategies of Cit Students: Tools in Improving Listening Abilities

Compensatory and Learning Strategies of Cit Students: Tools in Improving Listening Abilities

The objective of this study is to determine the learning and compensatory strategies the College of Industrial Technology (CIT) students use to enhance their listening skills and the various strate- gies that these learners use to compensate their limited skills and abilities. Findings reveal that the student-respondents exhibited the (10) learning and compensatory strategies of study, con- centration, memory, learning from textbooks, learning from lectures, essays and assignments, exams, organization and time management, self-advocacy skills and disability specific strategies to a moderate degree. In addition, majority of the student-respondents were only able to obtain low scores in their listening tests. Regarding the correlations, it was found that out of the 10 com- pensatory learning strategies, four were found to have correlation with listening abilities. Study strategies and learning from lectures were found to have high significant correlation with listen- ing abilities while memory as well as organization and time management had significant relation- ship with listening abilities. All in all, these findings lead to the decision to reject the hypothesis of the study that states that there is no significant relationship between student-respondents’ com- pensatory learning strategies and their listening abilities.

7 Read more

Combined cognitive and vocational interventions after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Combined cognitive and vocational interventions after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

To date, only a couple of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have combined cognitive and vocational rehabilita- tion/SE for patients with mild to moderate TBI [20, 21]. The only study resembling our present protocol was performed by Twamley et al. [21, 22]. Their 12-week compensatory cognitive rehabilitation intervention (Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy [CogSMART]) was offered in addition to SE for U.S. veterans with mild to moderate TBI. All participants were unemployed but wished to return to work. This group was compared with a control group (CG) that received enhanced SE only. Participants assigned to both SE and CogSMART demonstrated signifi- cant reductions in postconcussive symptoms and improve- ments in prospective memory, but there were no effects on RTW. The authors noted that their study was a pilot in need of replication. Moreover, a process evaluation was not per- formed in their study, and there are significant differences between the United States and Norway regarding the labor market as well as the welfare system. There is a need to ex- plore different stakeholders ’ experiences and processes at the workplace in the RTW process. Finally, there are no RCTs in which researchers have examined the cost- effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation following TBI.

11 Read more

Functional correlates of compensatory renal hypertrophy

Functional correlates of compensatory renal hypertrophy

The functional correlates of compensatory renal hypertrophy were studied by micropuncture techniques in rats after the removal of one kidney. The glomerular filtration rate increased to roughly the same extent in the whole kidney and in individual surface nephrons, resulting in a greater amount of sodium delivered to the tubules for reabsorption. The fraction of the glomerular filtrate absorbed [determined from the tubular fluid-to-plasma ratio (TF/P) for inulin] remained unchanged in both proximal and distal portions of the nephron. The way in which the tubules adjusted to nephrectomy, however, differed in proximal and distal

10 Read more

Evolution of the Hemagglutinin Protein of the New Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus: Maintaining Optimal Receptor Binding by Compensatory Substitutions

Evolution of the Hemagglutinin Protein of the New Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus: Maintaining Optimal Receptor Binding by Compensatory Substitutions

Here we analyzed all pH1N1 HA sequences deposited in the NCBI influenza virus database before 1 October 2012 and tested the effect of the most frequently occurring amino acid substitu- tions on HA receptor binding. To this end, recombinant soluble trimeric HA proteins were produced and analyzed using solid- phase binding and hemagglutination assays, as well as glycan array analysis (12–14). The expression of recombinant soluble HA pro- teins allows the rapid production of HAs encoded by primary isolates and circumvents the need for producing and culturing complete viruses that may incorporate additional changes during propagation in eggs or MDCK cells. In addition to analyzing the effect of single amino acid substitutions, we also identified and tested combinations of substitutions that frequently cosegregate on specific branches of an HA protein tree, especially during the latest flu seasons. Remarkably, single amino acid substitutions dis- playing opposite effects on binding (increased binding by S186P and S188T, decreased binding by A137T and A200T) occurred in combinations (S186P or S188T together with A137T or A200T, respectively) that had no net effect on binding. Thus, in the first 3 years of pH1N1 evolution, mutations in HA that increase HA receptor-binding avidity, followed by the selection of compensa- tory mutations that restore binding to the original levels, have been selected. The results strongly suggest that the HA of pH1N1 was already optimally adapted to the human host upon its emer- gence in April 2009. Furthermore, our results are in agreement with the model of Hensley and coworkers (11), in which transient increases in binding avidity precede antigenic variation.

10 Read more

Why do most Gitano/Romani students not complete compulsory secondary education in Spain? Uncovering the view of the educational community using concept mapping

Why do most Gitano/Romani students not complete compulsory secondary education in Spain? Uncovering the view of the educational community using concept mapping

Abstract. This paper describes the results of research that used Concept Mapping to study the causes of the high rates of school failure among the students of the Gitano or Spanish Romani minority. A sample of 52 members of a school community—pupils, families and teachers— participated in the research. Data were collected in focus groups. Generated ideas were sorted and rated by participants. A multidimensional scaling of sorted data resulted in a map of points. A cluster analysis with the points’ coordinates was run. The results uncovered a model of six clusters: ethnic differences, families, adolescent risk behaviours, students’ attitudes and values, curriculum gap, and finally effects of compensatory education and attention to diversity programmes. The relationships among the clusters point to three sources of concern: cultural and gender issues within the family setting that encourage girls to drop out of school; lack of motivation and educational orientation of the students; and structural problems of the educational system that contribute to maintain the educational gap between minority and majority students.

7 Read more

Compensatory health beliefs and behaviors on alcohol consumption vesus he theory of planned behavior

Compensatory health beliefs and behaviors on alcohol consumption vesus he theory of planned behavior

One goal of this study was to examine whether the compensatory health beliefs and the compensatory health behaviors are related to binge drinking or alcohol use. The results partially confirm this question. There is a negative association between compensatory health beliefs and the regular consumption of alcohol. In other words, people who hold more compensatory health beliefs tend to drink more alcohol than people who hold less compensatory health beliefs and vice versa. This seems to be consistent with Knäuper et. al (2006) and Rabiau, Knäuper, and Miquelon (2006). It was hypothesized that people use compensatory health beliefs to compensate the high consumption of alcohol and the results support this. Compensatory health beliefs indeed seem to serve as a masking factor of an inconsistency created when one goal is to abstain from alcohol – possibly due to the awareness of its negative health effects – mismatches another goal to consume alcohol – possibly due to the need for social interaction and fitting in with the group. Earlier discussions that compensatory health beliefs serve as a reduction agent for Cognitive Dissonance (see Rabiau, Knäuper & Miquelon, 2006) are therefore partially supported by the findings reported in this paper. Binge drinking was not investigated since no connection was found between compensatory health beliefs and behaviors. Further, there was no association between Compensatory Health Behavior and regular consumption of alcohol. Although, there is an inconsistency between the CHBeliefs and the CHBehavior (Kaklamanou, Artmiage & Jones, 2012) there is no evidence for a predictive value from CHBehavior to regular alcohol consumption.

41 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...