Complex Adaptive Social-Ecological Systems

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Adaptive management of social-ecological systems:  a review from Social Network approach

Adaptive management of social-ecological systems: a review from Social Network approach

The use of social network metrics and graphs to analyse management processes and systems’ capacities involves complex variables which require from investigators to combine different qualitative approaches and theoretical research, as structures are frequently dynamic in response to changing social and ecological contexts. Besides, structural characteristics have inherent juxtapositions (Bodin et al., 2006). A research with diverse actors including users of ecosystem services, associations, government, NGOs terrestrial and marine ecosystem revealed poor correlation of linkages between actors and the existing connections between actors that manage the same ecosystem services. The cohesive, centralized networks of governance did not necessarily represent, in this case, adequate connections between users governance processes that could hinder tacit knowledge necessary to adapt. However, authors make theoretical speculations that such network centralisation could represent an opportunity for institutional strengthening, promoting interactions to create more decentralised structures and exchange specialised knowledge (Alonso, Villasante, & Outeiro, 2015). In another study, bridging nodes of a fisher co-management network in Chile paradoxically connected local organisations to existing opportunities and, at the same time, made those opportunities more inaccessible due to the excessive number of nodes supplying different types of information. The complicated bridging ties with middlemen, governmental institutions and agencies provided all but valuable horizontal linkages of fisher organisations with each another (Marín & Berkes, 2010). The role of individuals
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Tourism and water inequity in Bali: A social ecological systems analysis

Tourism and water inequity in Bali: A social ecological systems analysis

A third dimension of social organisation, of particular importance to water management, is the Subak, headed by a pekaseh. These are self–governing, adaptive, democratic associations of farmers who have managed the apparently just and efficient system of sharing Bali’s water Lansing (2007). While neither homogenous nor harmonious, with internal workings which are complex and contested (MacRae and Arthawiguna 2011); the subak is a religious as well as administrative community, which carries out the necessary rituals and ceremonies related to the capture and use of water, itself a sacred substance (McTaggart 1988, Hauser-Schäublin 2011). The water temples of Bali are still actively used and maintained by local populations, but the subak system is endangered (Lorenzen and Lorenzen, 2011). Wet rice cultivation is both a productive activity and a sacred one, it symbolizes the “Balinese lifestyle” (Straus, 2011), is part of the Balinese “ecological identity” (Gossling, 2003:9), and is important for thinking about cultural identity (MacRae, 2005).
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COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS

COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS

ideas have so far had little impact on the social sciences and urges “a fuller engage- ment with the issues raised by the new ecological thinking” (Scoones 1999, p. 496). May’s paper is now seen as a milestone in the first phase of nonlinear analysis, the discovery of chaos. Most of the ecological research discussed by Scoones is also concerned with chaotic dynamics and nonequilibrium systems (it should be noted, however, that a good deal of contemporary research in ecology makes little use of nonlinear methods). More recently, the study of spontaneous order and self- organizing properties in ecosystems has become a major new theme of research. As Levin (2003, p. 3) observes in a recent review article on the mathematics of complex adaptive systems, studying antichaos “involves understanding how cooperation, coalitions and networks of interaction emerge from individual behaviors and feed back to influence those behaviors.” Although nonlinear approaches have spread to many areas of ecological research, the aspects that may be of greatest interest to anthropologists have to do with the emergent properties of social and behavioral systems. Here one often encounters broad theoretical pronouncements, such as Schank’s contention that “most animal social systems are self-organizing” (Schank 1998, p. 1). But specific applications of nonlinear models to animal behavior have also begun to appear. For example, Bonabeau has investigated the foraging behavior of various species of ants and concludes that they are “a clear example of adaptation to the edge of chaos” (Bonabeau 1997, p. 29). The ants use multiple systems for communication and for recruiting foragers to newly discovered food sources. Species at the edge of chaos, like Tetramorium caespitum, can adaptively switch to newly discovered food sources if they are of higher quality, whereas other species do not take advantage of the higher-quality food until the first source is exhausted. Bonabeau’s mathematical model shows how the global decision- making processes of the ants emerge from the local interactions between individual foragers (Bonabeau 1997).
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Building Resilience in Trans-boundary Social-Ecological Systems: Adaptive Governance in the Lake Champlain Richelieu River Basin

Building Resilience in Trans-boundary Social-Ecological Systems: Adaptive Governance in the Lake Champlain Richelieu River Basin

Their framework seeks to categorize thresholds of the social-ecological system, defined as, “levels of controlling variables where feedbacks to the rest of the system change- crossing points that have the potential to alter the future of many of the systems that we depend on” (Walker & Salt, 2012b, p. 53) as well as the thresholds of potential concern, which are yet to be established levels. The resilience thinking described by these authors provides a series of assumptions essential to the analysis of social-ecological systems. They include the fact that the systems are self-organizing, and that there are limits to a system’s self-organizing capacity. The systems have linked social, economic, and biophysical domains, move through adaptive cycles, and function across multiple scales (Walker & Salt, 2012). Adaptive cycles are heuristic models that pass through four phases, two of which, growth and exploitation, are considered to be fast moving, a slow-moving conservation phase, and a chaotic collapse and release phase. Panarchies are adaptive cycles operating at multiple scales, which is indicative of the complex nature of social-ecological systems (Walker et al., 2004
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Bottom-up adaptive management and stakeholder participation for clean water and healthy soils in a complex social-ecological system

Bottom-up adaptive management and stakeholder participation for clean water and healthy soils in a complex social-ecological system

systems in a variety of lot sizes and landscapes ranging from highly urbanized to sparsely developed to provide provisioning and regulating ecosystem services from the local to watershed scales (Pagella and Sinclair, 2014; Qiu and Turner, 2013; UNEP, 2014; U.S. EPA, 2000). GSI includes a variety of practices such as bioretention, pervious pavement, green roofs, tree box filters, infiltration trenches, rain barrels, and constructed wetlands, to slow runoff and treat pollutants including sediment, nutrients, bacteria, and heavy metals (Dietz, 2007; Hathaway and Hunt, 2007; UNEP, 2014; UNH, 2012; US EPA, 2015). As described by UNEP (2014), green infrastructure including grassed bio-swales, riparian buffers, and floodplain and wetland restorations that extends beyond urban stormwater contexts, provides multiple ecosystem services and water management benefits. Additional direct and indirect ecosystem services from GSI can include erosion control, temperature control, carbon sequestration, pollinator habitat, food production, as well as aesthetic, recreational, cultural, and social benefits (Dietz, 2007; UNEP, 2014; U.S. EPA, 2000; US EPA, 2015). Effectiveness of GSI and its potential for secondary benefits depends on the specific practice implemented and the surrounding context.
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Computability and Evolutionary Complexity: Markets As Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS)

Computability and Evolutionary Complexity: Markets As Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS)

The purpose of this Feature is to critically examine and to contribute to the burgeoning multi disciplinary literature on markets as complex adaptive systems (CAS). Three economists, Robert Axtell, Steven Durlauf and Arthur Robson who have distinguished themselves as pioneers in different aspects of how the thesis of evolutionary complexity pertains to market environments have contributed to this special issue. Axtell is concerned about the procedural aspects of attaining market equilibria in a decentralized setting and argues that principles on the complexity of feasible computation should rule in or out widely held models such as the Walrasian one. Robson puts forward the hypothesis called the Red Queen principle, well known from evolutionary biology, as a possible explanation for the evolution of complexity itself. Durlauf examines some of the claims that have been made in the name of complex systems theory to see whether these present testable hypothesis for economic models. My overview aims to use the wider literature on complex systems to provide a conceptual
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ITG practices in telecommunication companies: A Complex Adaptive Systems Perspective

ITG practices in telecommunication companies: A Complex Adaptive Systems Perspective

In recent years, the standardization of corporate governance practices has become increasingly important as a means for businesses to increase their control over information assets. In the wake of major corporate and accounting scandals like those of WorldCom, Tyco International, Enron and Arthur Andersen, new regulation, such as the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), has emerged, advocating auditor independence and enhanced systems of corporate governance and financial disclosure (USA, 2002). Since most financial reporting relies on information systems (IS), there is a necessity for businesses to be able to manage and report data in a secure, reliable and accurate manner as a precondition of compliance with SOX. In this environment, many leading firms have sought to devise coordinated policies for the governance of their IT assets, placing IT in the context of an effective larger scheme of corporate governance (CG). IT compliance is often perceived as highly complex due to the evolutionary development of IT systems and the unwieldiness or co-evolution of IT management structures. In standardizing IT management structures, however, leading firms have been able to minimize risks associated with the control of information by clearly defining persons and processes' IT roles and responsibilities. A recent ITG (ITG) survey of 695 organizations in 22 countries reports that 87% of participants considered IT crucial to the delivery of business strategy, further perceiving that good ITG practices would improve firm accountability, transparency and the effectiveness of IT-related decisions (ITGI, 2006).
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Modeling forward base camps as complex adaptive sociotechnical systems

Modeling forward base camps as complex adaptive sociotechnical systems

The term sociotechnical systems originated in the 1960s. Walker, Stanton, Salmon, & Jenkins (2008) established sociotechnical systems theory as being composed of two principles of managing systems that involved both sociological (human) and technical components. The first principle proposed that sociological and technical elements combine to form attributes and relationships that either make or break the system in terms of performance. These interactions include linear, predictable, planned relationships, as well as relationships of a non-linear, complex, emergent nature. The second principle is that both the sociological and technical systems need to be managed simultaneously (Walker et al, 2008). If either component is optimized without respect to the alternate subsystem, the system as a whole will not be optimized, and could in fact be reduced in efficiency due to unintended effects to the alternate subsystem. For example, a vehicle can be designed to mechanically transfer cargo from point A to point B, and the efficiency of the vehicle can be optimized and the materials in the vehicle minimized to reduce cost. However, if the design does not consider the human component, the driver, the vehicle will never make it to market. Similarly, an organization can be optimized through training and team building exercises, through practice in the area of
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Portfolios of Agile Projects: A Complex Adaptive Systems’ Agent Perspective

Portfolios of Agile Projects: A Complex Adaptive Systems’ Agent Perspective

when the practitioners were speculating what a CAS-based approach to PPM would look like, they were able to provide real examples of supporting practices. Secondly, it should be noted that some propositions appear inconsistent. For example, scarcity is proposed to aid self- organisation (SO2) whereas a plentiful supply of resources is proposed to improve diversity (RV2). However, in a CAS, relationships are rarely simple or linear and, it should be recognised that all parts of a CAS are interrelated (Stacey, 2010). If agents are lacking some of the other properties discussed above, such as common purpose to align agent behaviour, scarcity could lead to conflict or extra resources could be wasted. So while we used the individual properties of agents to explore the data, there were overlaps between them. For example, propositions highlight a complex relationship between requisite variety and adaptiveness. Thirdly, the portfolio may have to choose between conflicting objectives, depending on its circumstances. An important challenge in managing complex systems is the management of tensions between conflicting goals (Lewis, 2000).
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Decision Making Approaches for Complex Adaptive Systems in Built Environment

Decision Making Approaches for Complex Adaptive Systems in Built Environment

On the other hand, the scheduling of building maintenance will be made by applying GA. Application of GA in scheduling is not a new concept, its applications include: job shop scheduling procedure (Davis, 1985, citied by Goldberg, 1989), schedule optimisation (Syswerda, 1991), concrete sleepers production scheduling (Pérez- Vázquez et al. 2004), flight schedule planning (Adachi et al. 2004). However, it is noted that the application of GA in maintenance field is almost an untouched area. Building maintenance is a complex set of operations - it involves technical, social, legal and fiscal determinants that govern the use of the building. In general, the life span of a building is expected to be 60 years and up to 100 years. The principle behind maintaining a building is about extending its useful lifecycle. Basically maintenance works can be divided into two groups: planned works and unplanned works. Planned works which are scheduled on maintaining the building can be estimated from past records and current knowledge of the building’s condition. Contrary, unplanned works can be defined as urgent maintenance works (e.g. repairs, replace or demolish) which are statistically estimated based on estimation of potential failures. In short, building maintenance management is about managing risk as budget or timetable. Despite there are many tools to monitor and manage timetable for inspection of building, is noted here that these tools are insufficient to deliver an optimal timing for inspection. This suggests a need for a method for designing solutions for complex problems. Thus, it is suggested here to apply GA into the field of building maintenance.
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Culturally Grounded Indicators of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

Culturally Grounded Indicators of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

Scoring systems diff er widely between case studies (though several cases score individual indicators on a fi ve-point scale: SEPLS, Peru, Mauri Model). All indicator sets identify culturally relevant criteria to benchmark or standardize indicator scores, but some are more specifi c than others in setting these criteria. It is important to distinguish the process of developing indica- tors from the process of setting criteria used to determine where a community wants to be in relation to the indicator. Diff erent communities might set diff erent benchmarks and thresholds depending on their needs. Th us, standardization of indicators and related criteria for assess- ing the state of those indicators can inform action and policy and help communities to track changes through time, but the indicator and criteria do not have to be exactly the same across communities. Standardization can also help international agencies to identify where external input and resources can be useful to a community and facilitate allocation of resources across potential investments. Standardization of some form can allow for comparison across sites, giv- ing communities access to potentially valuable information on how other communities react to similar situations. For example, the HCA case study describes how several communities have developed and shared communication products, such as posters and presentations, to facilitate exchange of lessons learned.
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Bark beetles as agents of change in  social–ecological systems

Bark beetles as agents of change in social–ecological systems

Here, we synthesize the current body of literature to provide insights on the feedbacks and dynamics within socialecological systems (SES) affected by bark beetle outbreaks. Our synthesis is timely given that the impacts of recent outbreaks in western North America have been severe, long- lasting, and generally well- documented (Kurz et al. 2008). We view the social and ecological dimensions of beetle disturbances as inherently one entity, and not simply as the interaction of two independ- ent systems. An SES approach is a powerful model for managing landscapes because the state of a system at any given time is a function of how past events shape poten- tial future conditions (Liu et al. 2007). With bioclimatic models forecasting range expansions for several bark bee- tle species during this century (Bentz et al. 2010), our goal here is to encourage the transfer of knowledge from recently impacted SES to those located in potentially vulnerable regions. Our collective expertise centers on North America and Europe, but this work is also relevant to other regions susceptible to bark beetle outbreaks, such as Southeast Asia and Central America (Kirkendall et al. 2008; Rojas et al. 2010).
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Designing transformative spaces for sustainability in social-ecological systems

Designing transformative spaces for sustainability in social-ecological systems

was designed to create radical stories of positive futures in the region that focused on increasing the difference of these stories from the present. Reflections from the participants showed that this process was successful in creating a safe space for creativity and imagination. Difficulties with convening a diverse group of participants, artists, academics, activists, and entrepreneurs, for four days and how to overcome some of these challenges are reflected on. This paper further shows that advancing and contextualizing existing methods to stimulate transformative thinking can generate useful lessons for participants that can be applied to catalyze innovative action outside the workshop event. The next paper by Galafassi et al. (2018) does not explicitly refer to foresight processes, but used scenarios as a tool for cocreating narratives in social-ecological systems. This case aligns with the paper by Pereira et al. (2018) in its use of stories as a useful device for opening up new ways of seeing. Reflecting on a variety of tools, this paper reflects on a project in coastal Kenya and Mozambique that aims to create solution pathways toward sustainable development through participatory processes and community learning. The paper shows the power of new narratives as means to shift mental models and ideas, and to attract actors into mobilizing resources and agency toward transformative actions. It highlights the difficulties of challenging dominant narratives and the creative potential that exists in reflecting on their underpinning assumptions. In the analysis, stories and lived experiences emerged as key means shaping the construction of shared concepts and ideas and showed that transformative spaces can facilitate a change in mindsets and perceptions that can further impact radical changes in practices and institutions.
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Building Resilience in Social-Ecological Food
Systems in Vermont

Building Resilience in Social-Ecological Food Systems in Vermont

Abstract: There is an expanding interest in Local Food Systems (LFSs) in Vermont, along with a growing effort to create adaptive governance to facilitate action. In this case study, we investigate how adaptive governance of LFS can provide ideas and act as a catalyst for creating resilience in other social-ecological systems (SESs). By participating in meetings and interviewing stakeholders inside and outside the Vermont LFS network, we found that consumers were highly motivated to participate by supporting environmental issues, the local economy, and interactive communities, as well as building social relationships. Farmers experienced better income and increased respect in the local community. All participants found adequate “safe space” to share new ideas and explore partnerships. Their identities and values were also place-specific, reflecting the working landscape of Vermont. Adaptive governance was built on equal partnerships, where problems were discussed and responsibilities were shared among many stakeholders across geographic areas and multiple sectors. Some skepticism was expressed towards mainstreaming local food production and sales. Challenges remain to more fully include farmers, for-profit players, and low-income consumers in the network. This might limit the resilience and sustainability of the LFS. Because SESs are held together by common culture and identities, the risk of non-adaptive social patterns exemplifies one key challenge for future adaptive management towards resilient and sustainable outcomes. There is a critical need for developing relevant theory and conducting further research on LFSs and their potential roles in local SESs.
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Polydomy : the organisation and adaptive function of complex nest systems in ants

Polydomy : the organisation and adaptive function of complex nest systems in ants

Polydomy allows colonies to create new nests without going through the high-risk bottleneck of single-queen nest foundation. Local foundation of socially connected nests provides a relatively low-risk way of spreading into a new area. For polygynous species, this also offers a method of colony reproduction, because a budded nest or group of nests can later become socially separated from the ‘parent’ colony and function independently. Indeed, polydomy is likely to have arisen from processes of incomplete budding or nest migration. Other ecological factors related to polydomy, while not necessarily having been drivers of the evolutionary origin of polydomy, may still confer current adaptive benefits. These include risk spreading, foraging advantages and ergonomic benefits (Figure 2). Below, some examples of recent advances and gaps in our knowledge regarding the adaptive function of polydomy in relation to these three areas are highlighted. Risk spreading
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Linking social and ecological systems to sustain coral reef fisheries

Linking social and ecological systems to sustain coral reef fisheries

Second, aspects of economic growth can contribute to larger-scale degradation of reef ecosystems. As societies become more affluent, they are able to extract resources from further afield [16, 35], and they contribute increasingly to larger-scale and more complex problems confronting reefs, such as coastal modification (e.g., dredging and land reclama- tion), land-based pollution (e.g., incorporating pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture), and high carbon emissions [10, 11]. To minimize the potential negative effects of economic growth on reef systems, socioeconomic development needs to be coupled with effective legislation, institutional strengthening, and regional agreements. For example, in Kenya, recent Beach Management Unit legislation provides a form of property rights to coastal fishers, which essentially restricts their ability to fish in distant fishing grounds and simultaneously provides incen- tives for stewardship of local resources. At a national level, this type of legislation may help to prevent more distant ecosys- tems from becoming degraded when there are improvements in local welfare. At a larger scale, multilateral agreements may be required that discourage wealthier countries from consuming the nearshore fishery resources of the poor. Furthermore, governments and donor agencies should make sustainability a cornerstone of development programs so that projects that aim to improve human welfare as part of reef management do not inadvertently result in increasing contributions to larger-scale threats to coral reefs [11].
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High-tech entrepreneurial ecosystems: using a complex adaptive systems framework

High-tech entrepreneurial ecosystems: using a complex adaptive systems framework

Recently, governments’ intervention is becoming increasingly essential in financing research that specialises in emerging science and technology. But so far, local or regional governments have limited capacities to carry out this function. National governments, on the other hand, are more interested on nationwide economic development and as a consequence view entrepreneurial ecosystems from a wider perspective. The level and mode of government involvement are critical determinants for the success of such systems (Sheriff and Muffatto, 2015). In stressing the role of governments, Mazzucato (2011) argued that governments have not only funded research in the past, but have often been the source of radical innovation. Governments have also been key investors in early stage research and development which the private sector is sometimes reluctant to undertake. In contrast, Mason and Brown (2014) argued that it is difficult to identify any entrepreneurial ecosystem that has emerged through direct government intervention. According to Auerswald (2015), many governments have sought to implement programs to support entrepreneurs but the focus is narrowly confined on financing and training.
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The Impacts of Biofuel Expansion on the Resilience of Social-Ecological Systems in Ethiopia

The Impacts of Biofuel Expansion on the Resilience of Social-Ecological Systems in Ethiopia

Pesticide application is also reactive, depending on the specific issue. Field managers decide on the need for manual weeding or the use of a suitable herbicides and pesticides on a field-by-field basis. The main pests in this ecological sub-system include black beetles and termites. For black beetle infections, commonly between late February and May when soil temperatures increase, Ethiozenon and Basudin are applied at 3 l/ha. This is mandatory on seed-cane but only applied if observed on ratoon-cane. If termites are found, more commonly around irrigation canals, Dursupan is applied. For weeds, 2,4D- amine and Gesapax are applied in combinations of 4 – 8 litres per hectare. Finally, Round Up (a broad spectrum, low toxicity herbicide) is applied on all bare areas, but not fields due to its non-selective nature (MSF Management 2011; Séralini et al. 2012). MSF provided data regarding consumption data of 2,4D-amine, Ethiozionon and Gesapax, of which Gesapax is the most applied, as shown in Table ‎ 5.3. Teepol is a detergent that MSF use as a wetting agent to ease application of the other chemicals. Table ‎ 5.3 also contains the overall application rates, taking into account the entire area under sugarcane cultivation (10,300 hectares).
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Biomechanical cell regulatory networks as complex adaptive systems in relation to cancer

Biomechanical cell regulatory networks as complex adaptive systems in relation to cancer

Physiological structure and function of cells are maintained by ongoing complex dynamic adaptive processes in the intracellular molecular pathways controlling the overall profile of gene expression, and by genes in cellular gene regulatory circuits. Cytogenetic mutations and non-genetic factors such as chronic inflammation or repetitive trauma, intrinsic mechanical stresses within extracellular matrix may induce redirection of gene regulatory circuits with abnormal reactivation of embryonic developmental programmes which can now drive cell transformation and cancer initiation, and later cancer progression and metastasis. Some of the non-genetic factors that may also favour cancerization are dysregulation in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, in cell-to-cell communication, in extracellular matrix turnover, in extracellular matrix-to-cell interactions and in mechanotransduction pathways. Persistent increase in extracellular matrix stiffness, for whatever reason, has been shown to play an important role in cell transformation, and later in cancer cell invasion. In this article we review certain cell regulatory networks driving carcinogenesis, focus- sing on the role of mechanical stresses modulating structure and function of cells and their extracellular matrices. Keywords: Mechanotransduction, Tensional homeostasis, Complex adaptive system, Cancer
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Modeling Complex Adaptive Systems using Learning Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Modeling Complex Adaptive Systems using Learning Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

The term cognitive map (CM) appears for the first time in 1948's in article by E. Tolman [6] cognitive maps in rats and men to describe the abstract mental representation of space built by rats trained to navigate in the labyrinth. The term FCM (Fuzzy Cognitive Map) was introduced in 1986 by B. Kosko [2], to describe a simple extension of CMs by the combination of fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks. This robust combination given FCMs a structure similar to artificial recurrent neural networks (Artificial Recurrent Neural Network ARNN. FCMs (Figure 1) can describe the complex behavior of entities. They are represented as directed graphs whose nodes are concepts (classified into three types: sensory, motor and effectors) and the arcs represent causal relationships between these concepts. Each arc from one concept C i to one concept C j is associated with a weight w ij
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