used to identify variables to target in interventions. Given strong support for the TPB's application to drivers' compliance with speed limits was provided by the present study, it seems feasible that desirable changes in drivers' attitudes, subjective norms and perceptions of control might lead to corresponding changes in their intentions and behavior. Specifically, the results of the present study suggest that road safety interventions may be most successful if they focus on the perceived control component of the model given this component was the most important predictor of behavioral intention as indicated by the size of the standardized beta weights in the regression analysis. A large body of work has shown that promoting perceived control increases the likelihood that an individual will successfully perform a number of social behaviors. To date, effective strategies for increasing perceived control have included: sub-tasking, modelling, and guided performance of behavior (for a review see Bandura, 1997). These strategies might be useful for promoting road safety behavior.
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Signs of hope in challenging speeding cultures emerge from Wells’ (2012, ch.2) review of the history of speed limits in the UK which clearly showed that attitudes to laws change over time, while McKenna (2007 p174) noted that ‘the perceived legitimacy of [road safety] interventions [laws] can change considerably over time and interventions that were not considered legitimate at one point in time may be considered uncontroversial in another point in time’. At the moment, non-compliers regard speeding as ‘legitimate’, that is, as a socially acceptable way of behaving. Simultaneously, attempts to strictly enforce speed limits are often regarded as not legitimate, for example with speed cameras regarded as revenue raising ‘scams’ for local authorities. Ideally, from the perspective of compliance, these perceived legitimacies need to be reversed so that speeding is regarded as unacceptable, and speed enforcement is regarded as justified. These twin tasks create a possible long term role for educational campaigns about the dangers of speeding that have been criticised as generally ineffective at directly changing behaviour (Roberts and Kwan 2008, McKenna 2010b). Instead, an indirect (that is, long term, facilitating other more direct approaches) role for educational campaigns could be to facilitate the perceived legitimacy of speed limit enforcement. Improving the perceived legitimacy of enforcement may also be achieved by increasing the
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Speeding is considered one of the principal determinants of traffic safety affecting not only the risk of being involved in a road accident but also the severity of the consequences of these accidents [19, 22, 27, 28]. The establishment of safe speed limits has contributed to the reduction of fatal accidents and accidents with serious trauma, nonetheless speeding re- mains on the top of the accidents’ causality list [17, 32]. It is also reported that compliance with speed limits is positively related to improvement of traffic safety [7, 23]. In addition, the understanding of the behaviour to exceed speed limits may be also useful for the development of the necessary regulations to reduce inappropriate speed choice [4, 20, 21]. The factors that compose the speeding issue are related to social attitudes and road behaviours as well as the road and vehicle characteristics [8, 11, 29]. The establishment of speed management measures and their enforcement is also related to the problem of speeding. The appropriate driving speed is set for each type of road or road section according to the road design . But speed is also affected by the drivers’ social and psychological situation on driving time and other human factors . Consequently, the opinion and self-reported behaviour of drivers on speeding is a serious matter that must be taken into account in setting and enforcing speed limits.
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A range of analysis techniques have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of speed control measures in work zones (see Debnath et al., 2012 for a review of related literature). In an evaluation study of perceptual countermeasures using traffic cones, Allpress and Leland Jr (2010) analyzed before and after free flow speeds at three points in a New Zealand highway work zone using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference post hoc tests (HSD) without distinguishing between vehicle types. Bai and Li (2011) analyzed the speeds of the first two vehicles in a traffic queue using ANOVA and two-sample t-tests to measure the speed reductions associated with using an Emergency Flasher Traffic Control Device. The effects of police and photo-radar enforcement in two Illinois work zones were examined using t-tests, Chi Square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, and Least Significant Difference tests (Benekohal et al., 2010). Temporal and spatial effects of the measures were evaluated using two indicators: mean speed and degree of speeding (at four levels: percentage of vehicles exceeding speed limits, exceeding up to 5 mph, exceeding by 5-10 mph, and exceeding by more than 10 mph) for each vehicle type. Bai et al. (2010) analyzed speed reductions in response to temporary signage in two Kansas highway work zones using descriptive statistics of speed change and ANOVA tests. Brewer et al. (2006) analyzed speed data collected from six points in two Texas highway work zones using mean, 85 th percentile, and standard deviation of speed, and percentage of compliant vehicles. Wang et al. (2003) also analyzed speed data from three Georgia work zones using t-test, Bartlett’s test, ANOVA, and Tukey’s HSD test.
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Perceptions of norms may also be influenced by the use of so called ‘social norms campaigns’, social marketing techniques that would entail publicising the high levels of support for 20mph limits, hence countering the pluralistic ignorance and spiral of silence effects discussed in the vicious circle model earlier. If successful, such campaigns would help compliance becoming self-policed by the public, with little input required from the authorities. However, comparisons with attempts to change cultures in other spheres reveal typically long lead times before changes are accepted; for instance the British ban on smoking in public places would not have been possible without decades of patient health education on the perils of second hand smoking. In contrast to the settled consensus on the dangers of smoking, the perils of speeding are still contested by individual drivers whose self- enhancement bias leads them to the belief that their driving is ‘safe’, and speed limits are ‘for others’, and their everyday experience of breaking speed limits without penalty reinforcing non- compliance. It seems there is some way to go before a consensus on normative compliance will be reached.
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limit should be coherent and consistent so that most drivers drive according to the set speed limit. Speed limits represent one of the elements actual conditions, in order to maximize the capacity and level of service of the observed road section, or to minimize the costs and risks of traffic accidents. Speed limits must define safe speed, which maintains the function of the road, the ongoing traffic conditions and road design characteristics (ERSO, 2015). Otherwise, it may result in a mismatch between the driver’s perception of the appropriate speed on a particular road section and the set speed limit. The perception of safe travelling speed is very important and depends on the road geometry and environment, the land use in the immediate vicinity of the road and weather conditions (Wilmot & Khanal, 1999). Generally, drivers drive at higher speeds on wider roads, roads without curves, roads with good road conditions (Elliott et al., 2003; Martens et al., 1997) and in the presence of fewer buildings, trees and vegetation along the road (Elliott et al., 2003). A credible speed limit is defined as a speed limit that matches the image evoked by the road and traffic conditions (SWOV, 2012). It is important that the speed limit is neither too high nor too low given the road design speed, as its validity is then negated. However, setting speed limits will not automatically lead to the compliance with the required speed. In all road categories, exceeding the speed limit is very common. It is generally found that 40-50% of drivers drive faster than the set speed limit (OECD / ECMT, 2006). In a survey conducted by BRAKE (2004), 68% of the drivers stated that they had exceeded the speed limit in the year before the survey, and 85% acknowledged that they sometimes did not
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VSL strategies can create a more uniform distribution of traffic density over freeway links preventing the high traffic density that leads to breakdowns in traffic flow. Alessandri et al. (2002) reported that VSL controls were able to prevent congestion and improve flow using segment throughput as a measure of effectiveness, but that it had little impact on the reduction of total travel time (TTT) in the network. Hegyi et al. (2005) evaluated the impact of using VSL controls on the total travel time (TTT) as a measure of effectiveness using a hypothetical network. Their results showed a 21% saving in TTT could be achieved when using a VSL control strategy. Kejun et al. (2008) investigated the effect of VSL on a hypothetical 5 km work zone model. The study did not find any significant improvement in TTT. Lee et al. (2006) reported that VSL controls used in highly congested locations, reduced the potential for crashes and increased the safety by 25%, but that they also increased TTT. This finding was supported by Allaby et al. (2007). In contrast, Abdel-Aty et al. (2008) found that VSLs achieved a significant reduction in crash potential during non- congested periods, but had no significant influence during the congested periods. VSL controls are widely used in European countries and the United States. The key difference in the use of VSLs in those areas is enforcement, where within Europe automated speed enforcement was used to achieve high driver compliance rates in European countries. For example, Transport For London (TFL) (2004) reported a 9% reduction in flow breakdown (escalating vehicles speed) and a 6% reduction in stop- go driving conditions (reducing number of vehicle stops). The VSL applications resulted in traffic headways becoming more uniformly distributed within the narrow range of 0.8-1.5 seconds.
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Data were collected once daily in our study, thus only the alarm limits at that time are known. The proportion of the time, or number of times per day, the alarm limits were correct or incorrect is unknown; only the number of times that the alarm limits were correct or incorrect at the time of data collection could be determined. Nursery staff were aware of the purpose of the study and the approximate time the observations were going to be made and had the opportunity to modify the alarm limits if they so desired; that the upper alarm limit was too high on the majority of days that infants were in oxygen suggests that they did not avail themselves of this opportunity. We speculate that the total number of times alarm limits are incorrect in a day might be worse than we have described. Time spent within the target saturation range or alarm-limit range also could not be determined. Correct alarm limits may not mean the infant’s saturations are being kept in this range, whereas
Automated speed enforcement (ASE) is a system designed to automatically detect vehicles violating speed limits. These types of systems include fixed and mobile speed cameras as well as section control (which measures the average speed over a road section). ASE has been used around the world, and positive effects on speed behavior and safety have been re- ported overall . One of the main advantages of automated speed enforcement is that it substantially strengthens speed enforcement. In the U.S., speed cameras are used only in 13 states and the District of Columbia . Many programs in the U.S. are restricted to school and constructions zones, Table 4 General BAC limit(s) (g/l) by country 
on combining the Bures line element F(ρ, H) for a uni- tary path generated by H and the Fuchs-van de Graaf inequality  relating the trace norm and the Bu- res distance (see Appendix A of ), a whole family of bounds on the distinguishability time can be con- structed by combining the the line elements of other contractive metrics  on quantum state space with appropriate bounds on the trace distance in terms of these contractive metrics. This leads to a family of geo- metric distinguishability times, analogous to the case of geometric quantum speed limits introduced in Ref.. In our analysis of the unitary distinguishability time for a qubit in Section 3, we focus on the distinguisha- bility time defined by the Bures distance because the choice ∆(ρ, σ) := p err (ρ, σ) allows one to make use of
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First, as in many previous studies (Abel et al. 2011, Mukheiber et al. 2013, Marshall and Stokes 2014b), many barriers and soft limits to adaptation arise from processes that occur across scales and spatial domains. Upstream uses of water reduce flows for maintenance of ecological values of the wetlands and the social values they support. Local decision makers seeking ways to adapt have little power over the institutions and industries that create demand and influence the management and use of water upstream. This is true too for inland towns and small farming communities: farmers report frustration at their inability to influence the design of water markets, at the uncertainties associated with the constantly changing rules of these markets, and at the activities of large institutional players in these markets. The processes that constrain adaptation are sometimes global. The limits to adaptation in tourism in the Great Barrier Reef and alpine areas partly arise from global competition from emerging tourism destinations and the higher costs associated with visiting Australia. These processes reduce demand and affect profitability, constraining investments in adaptation actions. These processes, which are often beyond the control of local actors, are not practically mutable and are better conceived of as soft limits to adaptation.
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As the backbone of the city road network, urban expressway shares large proportion of the traffic. In Beijing, major urban expressway accounts for only 8% of the total length, but carries nearly 50% of the traffic flow ; in Shanghai, only 5% bears more than 35% of the city traffic traveling. Urban expressway plays a vital role in the urban road network which gradually shifted from the large- scale infrastructure construction to refinement traffic management. With the traffic demand rapid growing, much more congestion and traffic accidents, integrated active traffic management should be introduced in the background of coordination between road and vehicle. As an important part of the active traffic management, the speed guidance control has certain positive significance to improve the expressway capacity, reduce the accident risk and decrease even eliminates traffic congestion.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 3 are two prominent examples of major legislation that has added—and will continue to add—to compliance obligations for broad swathes of industries. Meanwhile, the financial crisis has spurred profound transformations in legal employment, including cutbacks in entry level hiring by large law firms and a concomitant surge of “JD plus” jobs in corporate compliance. 4 In response, law schools have pirouetted (sometimes ungracefully) to establish compliance courses that position their graduates to compete for such jobs.
Another issue is cable twist: repeated circular motions of the device about its tethering point would eventually damage the electrical power cable, which must necessarily follow the route of the main cable to the sea bed. The aforementioned yaw mechanism could provide an unwind function, or a slip-ring style electrical coupling could be employed – the life-cycle duty of such a mechanism being very small compared to that used in high-speed machinery.
ABSTRACT: This paper provides Internet of Vehicles (IOV) based on intelligent traffic management system, which is featured by high compatibility, easy to upgrade to replace traditional traffic management system, low cost and the proposed system can improve road traffic tremendously. The IOV is based on the internet, detection technologies and network wireless sensors to recognize traffic object, monitoring, managing and tracking & processed automatically. In recent years, popularity of private cars is getting urban traffic more and more crowded. As a result, traffic I becoming one of the important problems in big cities in all over the world. Some of the traffic concerns are congestions and accidents which have caused a huge waste of time, property damage and environmental pollution. The proposed system is mainly based on the concept of Internet of Things (IOT). IOT is a world-wide network connecting all the smart objects together, enabling them to talk with each other. Whenever those smart things are restricted to connected vehicles only, then it can be named as Internet of Vehicles (IOV). The basic functionalities of this proposed system include monitoring of speed limits, pollution checks, and emergency response to road accidents and providing security to the server, etc., should also be taken care to make life easier.
These numbers add to the mathematic reasoning of a maximum escape velocity for any body is |c|-speed of light-whatever its mass or radius. The GR escape velocity limit parallels the SR velocity limit and has notable implications for the mechanisms and dimensions for a Big Bang, a Cyclic Cosmology or a Steady-State reality. This writer contests almost all of the current estimates regarding the dimensions of the first Big Bang, not be- cause it would be impossible for events at such a scale to occur but rather because their occurrence is simply ex- tremely unlikely. These issues are argued much more cogently and specifically in other papers. The principal point of this paper is to argue for the existence of different equations in addition to current relativistic theory, which are exactly mathematically consistent with the originals.
And then there is the subject of artificial performance enhancement, which inevitably leads to philosophical questions pertaining to the definition of absolute maximum speed. For example, how should we define ‘male’, ‘female’ and even ‘human’ for the purposes of this study? If a woman artificially enhances the concentration of testosterone in her body, a large number of changes accrue that make her physiologically more like a man and capable of higher speeds (e.g. Holden, 2004). In this altered state, she may exceed any limits that might exist for unaltered individuals. At what point should such a hormonally enhanced woman no longer count as a woman in the analysis of maximum female human speed? Stanislawa Walasiewicz (Stella Walsh) provides an intriguing example. She was the preeminent female sprinter of the 1930s, posting times that were not matched until the 1950s. She married in 1956 and was subsequently shot and killed during a supermarket robbery, where she was an innocent bystander. An autopsy revealed that (unbeknownst to her) she was a hermaphrodite, possessing both ovaries and testes. Presumably the anabolic steroids produced by her testes contributed to her athletic success (Lawson, 1997), but had she not been murdered, we would never have known. Where should she be placed in the record books? Even more vexing questions await us in the future. For example, the potential exists to genetically engineer human athletes for enhanced performance (e.g. Vogel, 2004). At what point does a genetically altered person no longer count as human? (Similar questions can be raised regarding drugs and gender in greyhounds and horses.)
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read printed text more quickly with an optimal background color that is not white 6 . Certain individuals habitually wear colored glasses to improve reading speed and reduce visual stress 7 . In these individuals reading speed has been shown to increase when the text is illuminated with colored light. The reading speed decreases consistently with departures from optimal color, whether in respect of hue or saturation, and does so in a similar way from one individual to another. In general, there is little benefit of the color on reading speed, once the UCS chromaticity differs from optimum by a chromaticity difference of 0.076 7 . The question therefore arises as to the extent to which accuracy in the representation of the color of lighting within the visual system is playing a role in the measurement of the effects of colored light on reading speed, and the extent to which this is revealed by measurements of memory for the color of light.
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DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2019.91004 58 Journal of Transportation Technologies factors such as weather conditions, time of day, light conditions, season, day of week, and vehicle type were considered for three years before and three years af- ter speed limit increase. Crash data were analyzed by hypothesis testing and pas- sion ratio was used to compare mean crash rates during before-and-after periods. The results showed that the mean fatal crash rate for rural interstate highways had increased. Furthermore, mean injury and Property Damage Only (PDO) crash rates increased as well. The effect of the 65 mph maximum speed limit on Iowa rural interstates was assessed after speed limits increased from 55 mph to 65 mph . Authors tried to check whether a significant change in fatal and major injury crashes could be detected because of speed limit increase or not. The before-and-after comparison group method was carried out for three years before and three years after the speed limit change. Analysis results depicted a 20 percent increase in the number of statewide fatal crashes after the speed limit increase.
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Municipal traffic planners’ perspectives on speed limits and their perceived importance for municipal residents contrast strongly to the perspectives expressed by municipal politicians within the mobility perspective described above. All of these planners emphasize the significance of Vision Zero as the guiding principle for their work in shaping speed limits. This work includes making decisions about what speed limits should apply on both municipal roads and state roads in urban areas, as well as writing responses to private citizens and organizations who have requested that the speed limits be lowered on specific stretches of roads. The interviewed plan- ners thus assert that they have direct contact with many citizens who express a commitment to strong standards of traffic safety for particularly vulnerable travelers such as children, bicyclists and pedestrians. According to the planners, these citizens cannot be viewed as being opposed to “reduced mobility” but rather in firm support of measures to improve traffic safety, specifically including lower speed limits.