Composite Thin Film

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Characterization Study of Conducting Polymer PANI-GO Nano Composite Thin Film Supercapacitor

Characterization Study of Conducting Polymer PANI-GO Nano Composite Thin Film Supercapacitor

solution and pure graphene rot as a reference electrode. The comparative current density of CV curve indicating that the pure PANI thin film as a less current density then PANI-GO composite thin film. The Current density curves of composite thin films gradually increasing by increasing a weight percentage of GO material. So here large current response and CV curve area are obtained with the increasing graphene ratio in PANI-GO composites, showing specific capacitance generally increasing. The specific capacitance of the electrode can be calculated according to the following equation from CV curves 26 .
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One step synthesis of PbSe ZnSe composite thin film

One step synthesis of PbSe ZnSe composite thin film

from multiple sources [9,10]. However, it is generally found that sputtering techniques often damage a film due to contamination of the fed gas and high-energy bombardment of the film surface. Thermal evaporation in a high-vacuum atmosphere seems to be better as a preparation technique from the point of view of film quality. In addition, the present study focuses on the insolubility of the material system, since simultaneous evaporation from multiple sources often provides a solid solution [11]. The PbSe-ZnSe system is a candidate for the composite. In the bulk thermal equilibrium state, the mutual solubility range is quite narrow, less than 1 mol%, at temperatures below 1283 K [12]. In addition, a composite thin film of PbSe nanocrystal embedded in ZnSe matrix is capable of exhibiting the quantum size effect because of the relatively large exciton Bohr radius of 46 nm in PbSe [13] and the relatively wide band gap of 2.67 eV in ZnSe [14]. Hence, the optical gap of PbSe nanocrystals will probably be tuned to the maximum solar radiation spectrum. The dendritic PbSe nanostruc- ture [15] and ZnSe nanobelt array [16], for instance, are hitherto investigated, but there is no report for one-step synthesis of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin film. Further- more, an evaporation technique should be carefully selected, since the techniques involving a thermal non- equilibrium state, such as molecular beam epitaxy, increase the solubility limit [17]. The use of hot-wall deposition (HWD), which can provide an atmosphere near thermal equilibrium, is therefore indicated here [18]. Based on these considerations, one-step synthesis
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Development of MoS2 CNT composite thin film from layered MoS2 for lithium batteries

Development of MoS2 CNT composite thin film from layered MoS2 for lithium batteries

Single-walled carbon nanotube (arc-discharge SWNT pur- chased from Iljin Nanotech Co., Seoul, Korea) dispersions were prepared by adding the nanotubes to a 10-mL cylindri- cal vial containing an aqueous solution of 5 mgmL 1 PEDOT:PSS (Baytron PH500, purchased from H.C. Stark), such that the nanotube concentration was 1 mgmL 1 . This dispersion was subjected to 5 min of high-power tip sonica- tion (VibraCell CVX, 750 W, 20% amplitude, 60 kHz) before being placed in a sonic bath (Branson 2510-MT) for 1 h and subjected to another 5 min of high-power sonication. These dispersions were blended in the ratio required to give the desired SWNT/PEDOT:PSS mass fraction. The mixtures were then sonicated for 15 min in a sonic bath to homogenize. The resulting dispersions were vacuum-filtered using 0.45 lm polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) filter membranes (MF-Millipore membrane, 47-mm diameter) to produce thick films. The thickness of these films was controlled by the volume of dispersion filtered and hence the deposited mass. Deposited films were washed with 200 mL of deionized water, dried under vacuum for 24 h at 60 C, and peeled from the filter membrane to give a robust free standing film.
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Titania-sliver Composite Thin Film Coating On Glass For Photocatalsis And Potential Antimicrobial Application

Titania-sliver Composite Thin Film Coating On Glass For Photocatalsis And Potential Antimicrobial Application

5 Table 2.1: Aluminum Alloy Series and Description Source:www.matsci.ucdavis.edu/matsilt/HT_aluminum Major alloying element General properties General Uses none Excellent corrosion resis[r]

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Search | Preprints

Search | Preprints

loop shapes observed in GOC-based all-garnet multilayer structures are also presented. %) composite thin film layers prepared on glass substrates.. 116.[r]

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Calix[4]Arene and Calix[8]Arene Langmuir Films: Surface Studies, Optical and Structural Characterizations

Calix[4]Arene and Calix[8]Arene Langmuir Films: Surface Studies, Optical and Structural Characterizations

Both, C4 and C8 monolayer were attached on the quartz substrate through vertical dipping method in LB trough to formed 9 layers of Y-type LB deposition thin film. Deposition pressure of 30 mN/m was applied for the monolayer as at this specific pressure, the monolayer has started to develop a solid-like state. Upward and downward dipping stroke speeds of 5 mm/min were used with a drying period of 10 minutes for the thin film. The work using LB technique has been carried out in a constant temperature cleanroom (22 ± 1 °C).Several optical properties of the C4 and C8 were characterized using an Agilent 8453 UV-Vis Spectroscopy with a 1cm path length of the cuvette for the solution analysis. The calixarene solutions have a serial dilution from 0.10 mg/ml to 0.02 mg/ml with a decrement of 0.02 mg/ml since the more diluted solution has less noise on the absorbance spectra. The surface topography of the thin films also being observed using FESEM in different magnification scale.
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Giesbrecht, Nadja
  

(2018):


	Methylammonium lead halide thin film crystallization for optoelectronic applications.


Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Chemie und Pharmazie

Giesbrecht, Nadja (2018): Methylammonium lead halide thin film crystallization for optoelectronic applications. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Chemie und Pharmazie

excitation at 540 nm with 1 J per pulse, 20 Hz repetition rate with a power of 20 W. The laser system consists of an optical parametric oscillator (LeCroy), pumped by a solid-state Nd: YAG laser (Innolas) with a repetition rate of 20 Hz and a pulse width of 7 ns. Perovskite thin films, contacted with a lateral electrode architecture (see Figure 9 - 1) and top-coated with a thin PMMA layer to prevent moisture-induced degradation, were illuminated from the semi- transparent glass/gold side at the edge of one contact by focusing the laser through a microscope objective (spot diameter approximately 2 µm). An external DC field was applied through the Au electrodes exclusively during the measurement of the transient (time frame of approximately 1 s). Photocurrent transients at bias voltages between 1.2 and 3.0 V were recorded in steps of 200 mV to confirm the applicability of Equation 9 – 2 to the determined transit times.
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Role of structure and composition on the performances of p-type tin

Role of structure and composition on the performances of p-type tin

transparent flexible thin-film transistors using amorphous oxide semiconductors. ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors[r]

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Formation of thin film composite nanofiltration membrane: Effect of polysulfone substrate characteristics

Formation of thin film composite nanofiltration membrane: Effect of polysulfone substrate characteristics

In this work, polysulfone (PSf) substrates with different properties were made by varying the polymer con- centration in the dope solution in the range 12 – 20 wt.%. Polyamide (PA) thin layers were then formed via interfacial polymerization between piperazine and trimethylchloride over the PSf substrates. Both top PA thin layers and bottom PSf substrates were characterized with respect to physicochemical properties, structural morphology, and water fl ux/salt rejection to investigate the in fl uence of substrate properties on the characteristics of PA thin layers. Physical properties of the PA layers were reported to be altered using different PSf substrate properties and were in good agreement with the change in water flux. From the FESEM pictures, it is found that the thickness of PA layer increased as the surface pore size of sup- port membrane decreased. The change in the membrane structural properties in particular pore size is found to portray significant contribution to the changes of formed PA layer. Interestingly, only slight changes on Na 2 SO 4 and MgSO 4 salt rejection were reported on any TFC membranes. Considering both
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VERSATILITY OF THIN FILM AND THIN FILM DEPOSITION TECHNIQUES AND PARAMETERS

VERSATILITY OF THIN FILM AND THIN FILM DEPOSITION TECHNIQUES AND PARAMETERS

atomic (molecular / ionic species of matter onto a substrate. A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness. Thin film technology is the basic of astounding development in solid state electronics. The field of material science and engineering community’s ability to conceive the novel materials with extraordinary combination of chemical, physical and mechanical properties has changed the modern society. Thin film studies have directly or indirectly advanced many new areas of research in solid state physics and chemistry which are based on phenomena uniquely characteristic of the thickness, geometry and structure of the film. The thin film of some substance, it has a situation in which the two surfaces are so close to each other that they can have a decisive influence on the internal physical properties and processes of the substance, which differ, therefore in profound way from those of a bulk material. The decrease in distance between the surfaces and their mutual interaction can result in the rise of completely new phenomena. The one dimension of the material is reduced to an order of several atomic layers which creates an intermediate system between macro systems and molecular systems, thus it provides us a method of investigation of the microphysical nature of various processes. There are many techniques to deposit the films, e.g. - CVD, PVD, ion plating, sputtering, electroplating, ECD, etc. However, all these techniques require sophisticated instrumentation and high vacuum system. The SPT on the other hand can be used to deposit thin film at relatively less vacuum level. The deposition unit is also very simple and thin film can be prepared in few minutes. Thin film can be classified accordingly to their thickness as Ultra thin films (UTF), Thin
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A recent progress in thin film composite membrane: A review

A recent progress in thin film composite membrane: A review

modify transport properties of RO membranes by employing different types of molecular sieve nanoparticles in PA fi lm [48,49]. Fig. 5 depicts the new concept of embedding molecular sieve nanoparticles in the top selective layer in the preparation of thin fi lm nanocomposite (TFN) membrane. The new concept was fi rst started by Hoek et al. [48] in early 2007. In their pioneering work, it is experienced that the super-hydrophilic and negatively charged zeolite-A embedded throughout PA thin fi lm was able to dramatically improve the permeability of the TFN membrane and remained equivalent salt rejection when compared with the pure PA composite membrane. Since the size of the zeolite particles is designed to match the PA fi lm thickness, it thus provides a favorable fl ow path through each particle incorporated into membrane, leading to high water permeation [49]. This improved membrane water process is just as effective as current technology but more energy ef fi cient and potentially less expensive. In order to further enhance water molecules transport rate, Fathizadeh et al. [50] in year 2011 impregnated bigger pore size of zeolite NaX (7.4 Å) in the thin fi lm layer with the aims of creating larger molecular tunnels for water to fl ow. It is found that this particular pore size of zeolite offers preferential fl ow paths for water molecules of 2.7 Å in diameter but restricts the permeation of hydrated sodium and chloride ions (8 – 9 Å). Instead of differences in particles' size, controllable design in interfacial chemistry of mem- brane is also possible using other type of molecular sieves, owing to their tunable functionality with respect to hydrophilicity, charge density and antimicrobial capability. It was recently reported by Kim and Deng [51] that hydrophilized ordered mesoporous carbons (H-OMCs) modi fi ed from pristine OMCs were possible to be used as nano- fi ller in making thin- fi lm polymer matrix of improved proper- ties. According to them, the plasma treated H-OCMs could be well dispersed in the aqueous solution which were likely to minimize large
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Flexible carbon nanotube/mono crystalline Si thin film solar cells

Flexible carbon nanotube/mono crystalline Si thin film solar cells

Low-cost, high-efficiency, and flexible solar cells have attracted great attention due to the increasing energy demands [1-4]. Currently, crystalline Si-based solar cells dominate the photovoltaic market because of their rela- tively high module efficiency, high stability, and well- established process technology. Mono-crystalline Si thin films with a thickness less than 50 μm are thus expected for making a high-efficiency solar cell, so as to reduce the materials cost. However, it is difficult to manufacture crystalline Si thin films in large quantity by using trad- itional wire cutting process due to their brittleness. Recently, mono-crystalline Si ribbons and thin films with 2 ~ 50 μm in thickness were fabricated through a wet chemical etching process from bulk Si wafers [5-8]. Flex- ible mono-crystalline Si solar cells were thus fabricated by making p-n junction through high-temperature dop- ing. Up to now, the efficiency of these crystalline Si-based flexible solar cells is approximately 6% to 13.7% [5-8], which is higher than that of conjugated polymer cells and amorphous Si thin-film tandem solar cells [3,4,9] but still lower than that of commercial bulk Si solar cell modules. Furthermore, these Si thin-film solar
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Metal phthalocyanine: fullerene composite nanotubes via templating method for enhanced properties

Metal phthalocyanine: fullerene composite nanotubes via templating method for enhanced properties

shifted from 720 to 728 nm when their formation is altered from bulk heterojunction to composite nanotubes. This peak has experienced the absorption transition that occurred from the shorter to the longer wavelength by only tuning the architecture of materials. Postulation on the dependency between photon absorption and archi- tecture of materials in improving its optical properties can be rather acceptable. The second π-π* transition on the phthalocyanine macro-cycle [3] is more dominant with the composite nanotubes formation which peak

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Effect of change in trans-membrane pressure differences on the efficiency of a thin film reverse osmosis membrane.

Effect of change in trans-membrane pressure differences on the efficiency of a thin film reverse osmosis membrane.

Abstract : A spiral wound thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane was tested for its efficiency for the removal of certain water contaminants and its efficiency in terms of permeate generation. The experiment was performed using solutions of known concentrations of the contaminants at two trans membrane pressure differences. The synthetic solution concentrations used exceeded the permissible limits i.e., 100ppm of nitrate, 10ppm of fluoride, 1000ppm of chloride, 30ppm of iron, 25ppm of chromium, 5ppm of cadmium, and 25ppm of copper. The efficiency of membrane towards the removal of different contaminant from the feed solutions ranged from 88.8 to 99.8%. The contaminant concentrations in permeate were well below the standard limits for drinking water. The efficiency of permeate generation was low. However the efficiency of permeate generation increased at higher trans membrane pressure difference with no decline in removal efficiency of the contaminants, rather it improved. The type of the contaminants did not have a significant difference on the permeate recovery.
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Thin film electroluminescence

Thin film electroluminescence

With the dielectric layer across each would given charge value, the therefore be the total device threshold voltage would be around 1 a 200 nm voltage dielectric layer drop for this devi[r]

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Towards Enhanced Performance Thin-film Composite Membranes via Surface Plasma Modification

Towards Enhanced Performance Thin-film Composite Membranes via Surface Plasma Modification

Advancing the design of thin-film composite membrane surfaces is one of the most promising pathways to deal with treating varying water qualities and increase their long-term stability and permeability. Although plasma technologies have been explored for surface modification of bulk micro and ultrafiltration membrane materials, the modification of thin film composite membranes is yet to be systematically investigated. Here, the performance of commercial thin-film composite desalination membranes has been significantly enhanced by rapid and facile, low pressure, argon plasma activation. Pressure driven water desalination tests showed that at low power density, flux was improved by 22% without compromising salt rejection. Various plasma durations and excitation powers have been systematically evaluated to assess the impact of plasma glow reactions on the physico-chemical properties of these materials associated with permeability. With increasing power density, plasma treatment enhanced the hydrophilicity of the surfaces, where water contact angles decreasing by 70% were strongly correlated with increased negative charge and smooth uniform surface morphology. These results highlight a versatile chemical modification technique for post-treatment of commercial membrane products that provides uniform morphology and chemically altered surface properties.
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Charge tunable thin-film composite membranes by gamma-ray triggered surface polymerization

Charge tunable thin-film composite membranes by gamma-ray triggered surface polymerization

Thin-film composite poly(amide) (PA) membranes have greatly diversified water supplies and food products. However, users would benefit from a control of the electrostatic interactions between the liquid and the net surface charge interface in order to benefit wider application. The ionic selectivity of the 100 nm PA semi-permeable layer is significantly affected by the pH of the solution. In this work, for the first time, a convenient route is presented to configure the surface charge of PA membranes by gamma ray induced surface grafting. This rapid and up-scalable method offers a versatile route for surface grafting by adjusting the irradiation total dose and the monomer concentration. Specifically, thin coatings obtained at low irradiation doses between 1 and 10 kGy and at low monomer concentration of 1 v/v% in methanol/water (1:1) solutions, dramatically altered the net surface charge of the pristine membranes from −25 mV to +45 mV, whilst the isoelectric point of the materials shifted from pH 3 to pH 7. This modification resulted in an improved water flux by over 55%, from 45.9 to up 70 L.m −2 .h −1 , whilst NaCl rejection was found to drop by only 1% compared to pristine membranes.
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Effects of Ion Doping on the Optical Properties of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Effects of Ion Doping on the Optical Properties of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

The Zn 2+ optimum doping amount is 0.05%, because then the transfer rate of carriers of the fastest, the sepa- ration of electron hole pair efficiency is the highest, the photocatalytic activity is the strongest. When Zn 2+ dop- ing amount is less than 0.05%, the defect levels and impurity levels is separating center of electron-hole pairs; When Zn 2+ doping greater than 0.5%, the defect levels and impurity levels is recombination center of elec- tron-hole pairs. carrier recombination rate accelerated, electron-hole pairs separation efficiency decreases. 3.4. UV-Vis Spectra of Different Concentration Ion Doped TiO 2 Thin Film
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NEW PATENTS: April 198396-100

NEW PATENTS: April 198396-100

In a Pt thin film resistance element for use in a temperature sensor or gas sensor, a thin metal film is formed on an insulating substrate, a kerf is formed in the film t[r]

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Plasma-induced physicochemical effects on a poly(amide) thin-film composite membrane

Plasma-induced physicochemical effects on a poly(amide) thin-film composite membrane

13. Wu, D., et al., Modification of aromatic polyamide thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes by surface coating of thermo-responsive copolymers P(NIPAM- co-Am). I: Preparation and characterization. J. Membr. Sci., 2010. 352(1-2): p. 76- 85.

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