inventory and material composition. The characterization is checked by technical safety organizations and supervisory authorities. For the material description in principle, hazardous substances shall be quantified by traceability and quality controls performed during waste production and conditioning. However, for legacy waste poor or even no documentation with sufficient detail is available. Therefore, in most cases the documentation of legacy waste does not facilitate the retrospective characterization in order to fulfill the acceptance criteria. If the documentation is not sufficient, the characterization of waste packages by destructive or non-destructive analysis becomes mandatory. Until today, a review of legacy waste for the complete characterization usually involves an opening of the drums. Large quotas of legacy wastes are property of the public sector such as research institutions or waste from the early nuclear technology. In Germany, the opening for visual inspection or sampling leads to the waste being considered as new waste, which in contrast to legacy waste is subject to much more restrictive requirements. Furthermore, destructive testing methods demand repackaging of the waste, which consequently results in an increase of the volume. Therefore, non-destructive methods are to be preferred because the radiation exposure of the operating personnel and the waste volume is less. Based on this issue, there is an increasing need for a metrological characterization and plausibility check for the material composition of waste packages additional to the radiological characterization.
A good understanding of waste generation and composition is important for sound decision making that will lead to efficient solid waste management. The success of waste management requires accurate data on the generation and composition of waste which are pivotal for decisions with regard to an appropriate waste management system as reported in Thenmozhi et al. . Data have been reported that an analysis of solid waste generation and composition is a critical first step towards developing a successful and effective plan for waste management services and strategies by several researchers -. Hence, for integrated solid waste planning, it is indispensable to indicate the generation of solid waste from the communities and its composition. A solid waste management system (SWMS) needs to be updated to suit the quality, quantity and composition of the waste. Special attention should be paid to the updated composition of the waste which differs according to their source as researched by Shadi et al. . The lack of systematically updated data available on the composition of MSW suggests that there is a need to research and to document waste characterization in order to propose better handling and management alternatives for the generated MSW. Thus, this study was conducted with the intention of providing baseline data for improving the solid waste management system.
In most developing countries, solid waste management remains essentially traditional. Waste is either disposed in uncontrolled and/either controlled land- fills or simply burned. This way of managing waste entails enormous risks to the environment and consequently the health of the populations. According to a World Bank  report, the use of some technologies of solid waste treatment such as incineration in developing countries failed due to the overestimation of the energy content of waste in these countries, which is rich in organic matter. Then, it is essential to know the physical composition of waste by characterizing it.
Currently, the system of municipal waste management in Lubelskie Voivodeship includes selective waste collection, waste treatment in order to prepare them for reuse or safe storage and disposal of unprocessed waste in a landfill. Waste processing is carried out in the so-called segregation installations, so called dry waste frac- tion in installations for mechanical treatment of mixed waste in composting anaerobic facilities for waste treatment. In some installations, me- chanical treatment of mixed municipal waste is focused on the production of alternative fuel with simultaneous production of the organic fraction directed to composting. To increase the level of waste recovery, works aimed at the expansion of existing and construction of new installations for this type of waste are carried out. Moreover, in the municipality of Lublin there are plans to build an incineration plant and the construction of MBP [Szyszkowski et al. 2012], which according to the assumptions, will play an important role, along- side selective collection, in fulfilling the obliga- tion to obtain level of recycling and preparation for reusing paper, cardboard, plastics, glass and metals by at least 50% by weight by the end of 2020. To fulfil this obligation, it is equally nec- essary to implement efficient sorting installa- tions for separately collected waste fractions to ensure the acquisition of high quality, mainly for recycling and to run the installations which will
Biodegradable municipal waste (BDMW) is a highly heterogeneous mixture of different organic materials, which can be varied e.g. by the sorting criteria specified by the municipality, collection system (including types of collection bins), the efficiency of sorting by citizens, socioeconomic factors, etc. [Castagna et al., 2013; Puig-Ventosa et al., 2013]. In order to meet the EU recycling target, municipalities are obligated to separate and recover BDMW from gardens of family houses in Slovakia. BDMW is then processed in the mu- nicipal composting plants, creating compost. The BDMW is collected in brown bio-bins, which are usually emptied in two-week intervals. The source segregation of BDMW is also recommended by Montejo et al.  because of high probability of physical contamination in the municipal solid waste (MSW) derived composts. The composition and purity of the collected BDMW affect the qual- ity of the compost. Composting is a process highly valued in waste management, creating a valuable product with soil amendment potential [Cerda et
Abstract— Abstract— Composting of municipal solid waste is one of the means of diverting organic waste from the waste streams thus eliminating the use of landfills. This process will ensure availability of cheaper materials which can enhance soil fertility thus leading to reduction of pollution and increasing life span of the landfill site. Availability of reliable data on wastecomposition and characterization studies will be invaluable to policy makers for formulation of policy on proper waste management. Also, quantification and characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) are vital tools for decision making for adequate planning on sustainable solid waste management (SSWM). The objective of this paper is to evaluate the physical composition of the various waste components and the chemical composition of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) that originate from Florida that are disposed at the Marie Louise landfill site (LS) in order to make a proposition on the complete diversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) from going to the landfill. A composition study was conducted during the winter in June 2016 at the site. From the results, organic was 11% for Dailies and 27% for Round collected refuse (RCR) collection services. Food waste sample was taken from the site to the testing facility and was analyzed for both the elemental and proximate analysis. From the elemental analysis; carbon was found to be 45.03%, hydrogen 6.20%, nitrogen 1.90%, oxygen 41.16%, the C: N ratio was 22.74 and from the proximate analysis; moisture content was 63.47%, ash 5.56%, volatile matter 22.63%, fixed carbon 8.77% and the empirical formula developed was C 28 H 46 NO 19 .
The study was carried out with six different components of food waste as described above with SRT of hydrolysis reactors (reactor 1) of 15 days and of methanogenesis reactors (reactor 2) of 30 days. Everyday, the input materials was taken from the reactor 1 and fed into the reactor 2 with amount equivalent to 1/30 total amount of the incubation mixture needed to control the SRT of the methanogenesis reactors of 30 days. Biogas generated was stored in biogas collection bag. Volume of biogas and concentration of methane gas were measure every four days at 9 a.m. in the morning. By subtracting amount of biogas generated from septic sludge, amount of biogas generated from the food waste is determined. Changing of volume of biogas generated from different experiments containing different food waste components in this case is described in Fig. 4.
The practice of collecting, treating and management of solid waste prior to disposal has become a necessity in developing and modern societies. Over the years, it is known that most wastes that are disposed have a second hand value. However, the construction cost for conventional Material Recovery Facility(s) (MRFs) has been a major barrier for implementation. These technologies require considerable technical expertise, which is often not available in developing nations to successfully operate the MRFs. Covenant University; a private mission institution through her waste to wealth scheme is focused on managing and processing used materials to reusable products. These include Pet bottles, Paper wastes, Food wastes from cafeteria, plastic food packs, nylon, tin cans and others. Specific areas chosen for the Survey include the residential areas for staff and students and the two cafeterias. The waste generated was characterized based on the waste stream so as to quantify the amount of recyclable waste generated and most occurring. The survey involved the use of structured questionnaires, on-site observations and measurements. The study reveals an average amount of recyclable waste generated per day in the institution as 13.46% pet bottles, 4.03% paper, 55.56% food waste, 12.64% plastic, 9.63% nylon and 4.68% tin cans. The study established that adequate waste characterization is a requirement for effective integrated solid waste management which would boost resource recovery, reuse and recycling.
Part of the reason for carrying out the research was to try to identify factors that drive waste production. It was acknowledged from the outset that this would be difficult to draw conclusions on because of the many interacting factors that are likely to play a role in why households waste food. This chapter provides information on the average financial cost and weight of the uneaten food produced at a household level, presented according to key demographics such as household composition and age. The chapter describes the average weight and cost of all food waste (including unavoidable food waste) and the avoidable food waste (food that could have been eaten if it had not been allowed to go mouldy or spoilt or if it had not been left over on a plate at the end of a meal, for example). Avoidable food waste excludes items that could not have been consumed such as used teabags and meat bones, as well as items that some people choose not to eat such as potato or carrot peelings or bread crusts. The figures presented in this chapter are an estimate of the food waste that households produce, i.e. waste that is thrown away via all methods of disposal or treatment including home composting, feeding to pets and down the sink. It should be noted that the weights have been converted from grammes to kilogrammes and annual costs have been rounded to the nearest £10, so rounding anomalies may occur.
Current MSW management and improved scenarios Observation on current MSW management practices show that around 75% of MSW are transported to Air Dingin SWDS. Small quantity goes to TPST DKP and TPST Air Dingin. Meanwhile, Table-3 shows recycling activities by communities in SWB and TPS 3R are still limited, account for only 0.812 % and 0 % in 2015, respectively. Figure-2 shows the current MSW management. Simulation of the current management assumes there was no improvement of recycling rate for the next 20 years as displayed in Table-3. It suggests that total recycling rate of the current MSW management are still limited, account for only 2.178 % in 2015. Implementing the current practices result in much lower total recycling rate to just around 1.494 % of the total waste generation in 2035.
From the results of research conducted can be inferred types of moss found in the region of Surakarta Dicranella heteromalla, Funaria hygrometrica (Hedwig.),Rhodobryum giganteum (Schwaegr.) Par., Pogonatum contortum (Brid.) LC 50 value of the test animals carp 8950 ppm and LD 50 values against animal testing mice were 30.35 mg / kg of BB so it can be concluded almost non-toxic. Percentage of waste coal fly ash mixture that still meets the technical standards of building construction wall is 20-40%. The process of inhibition of growth of moss on a layer of cement is also found at a concentration of 20-40% through allelochemi mechanism. The greater the percentage of fly ash content of the moss growing on the medium then the value of accumulated heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn are also getting bigger. The process of accumulation of heavy metals will cause effects allelochemi or algae growth inhibition, but on a scale of toxic or lethal levels moss plants on the optimal concentration of 20-40%.
quantities all over the world and their management is very challenging due to the fact that they are readily biodegradable. They easily decayed as soon as they are infected with microorganism. This poses greater threat to the health of the general public and the environment when they are disposed of, at the landfill [11-15]. Studies have shown that climatic changes like bad weather; diseases and pests attack, damages during harvesting and low demand for products by the consumers contribute greatly to FVWs. Post-harvest life of farm produce is largely affected by factors such as temperature, relative humidity, gaseous composition within storage and packaging and many more [16, 17]. Recent research has shown that recycling program around the world only focuses on other MSW components but not on FVWs . FVWs are produced on a large scale by food industries and farmers globally. They have high moisture contents and biochemical processes which makes AD to be the best option to treat them. Hence, it becomes very important to carry out a composition study to determine the various compositions of FVWs that are available over a different season [19, 20].
1 . 5.2. Wet processing waste and urban waste. Wet processing waste, conveniently used in AD plants, mainly refers to agri-food industry residues (skins and waste from the processing of fruit, whey, threshing operations, vegetation waters, etc.) . Because of a VS content higher than animal waste (table XI), these organic materials increase the biogas yield. In Germany and Italy there are hundreds of AD plants fed with wet processing waste, mixed with other biomass and/or animal waste (co-digestion). In wet processing waste animal residues (blood, fat, whey, gut, stomach contents, etc.), mainly from meat industry, are also included. These residues have a high VS and fats content (which increase the methanigenic power). However, their utilization as biomass- for-energy processes must comply with strict hygienic standards, especially in relation to the high odorous power. Therefore, these residues must be carefully treated in AD plants, adequately conceived (pre-treatment section). Lastly, there are two other types of fermentable biomass, remarkable for quantity and, above all, because of their cap- illary collection network already present in the territory: i) OFMSW and ii) sewage sludge. The OFMSW (table XII) is mainly composed of food residues (kitchen waste) that have: i) high MC (70–85%) and ii) high γ (500–700 kg/m 3 ). In Italy, despite the
In general, it was observed that the quality of the Swiss composts is good. No major problems were observed in any sample. One important reason for this is certainly that only source separated organic materials are composted. Nevertheless, the characteristics of the different digestates and composts vary in an important way. Some parameters like the nutrient contents, the heavy metals contents and the salinity are influenced principally by the materials of origin. Other parameters like the density, the organic matter, the enzymatic activities, the respirometric activity and the phytotoxicity are principally influenced by the maturity of the products. The nitrogen immobilization potential is affected by maturity, by the composition of the composted materials and by the management of the composting process. The major influence of the biological quality of the composts (phytotoxicity and suppressive potential) seems to be due to the management of the composting process.
Fluidized Bed reactor is a process which is now widely applied in many industrial applications. In recent studies it is evident that, fluidized bed reactors can also be an attractive procedure for treating polluted water. Waste water that is generated from many industries is highly recalcitrant and is threatening to environmental ecology and human lives. Biological and chemical processes have failed to convert the contaminants fully as, biological and chemical processes and degrade up to 60% of the recalcitrant components and in addition they require larger operation area and more chemical processes to reduce the sludge. Advanced treatment technologies that involve highly oxidizing compounds like OH has overcome the limitations of biological and chemical treatment procedures. Through review it can be said Fenton process is more productive when the reaction gets a efficient reaction platform, that is Fluidized bed reactor. Fluidized bed reactors have been used and design for different physical and chemical process for example, catalytic cracking, fluid transportation and drying. Due to increasing importance of treatment of wastewater in FBR critical examinations of the parameters that possesses the design and operation of the treatment procedure have been done on this paper. The methodology section provides the design strategy involving hydrodynamics, thermal and kinetic nature. Essential recommendation towards design calculation has been summarized in the result section. This work will focus on design of the FBR for pollutant treatment.
The problem of liquid wastes is still current not only in Poland, but also in the world. The primary source of liquid wastes are single-family and multi-family houses. To a lesser extent, public service or production facilities, mainly in urban areas, are equipped with no-outlet reservoirs. Low concentrations in liquid wastes and their high density are often some difficulty to work with not only by sewage treatment plants, but also collection points. Therefore, the knowledge of the composition of liquid wastes sup- plied to the collection points is important. The paper presents the results of research as well as variability of concentrations of selected parameters of liquid wastes supplied to the collection point in Bialystok, that accepts both municipal and industrial sewage. Statistical processing of the obtained results and those derived from The Waterworks Bialystok showed the presence of high variability of total suspended matter and elec- trolytic conductivity as well as organic impurities expressed as BOD 5 and COD.
Methanogens reside in many anaerobic environments, such as sediments, digesters and municipal waste landfill sites (Garcia et al., 2000; Song et al., 2015), and are a dif- ficult group to isolate or culture under laboratory condi- tions (Enitan et al., 2014; Pervin et al., 2013). Therefore, the development of molecular methods that are independ- ent from cultivation is gaining importance. This approach allows the genetic diversity and dynamics of methanogenic Archaea to be analysed. Methanogens may be efficiently targeted in molecular ecological analyses by using a speci- fic molecular marker, such as the mcrA gene, which encodes the α-subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) (EC 188.8.131.52). This is the key enzyme of methanogenesis, which reduces the coenzyme M-bound methyl group to methane (Shah et al., 2014). This enzyme is unique to methanogens, where the highly conserved gene mcrA is found only in this group of microorganisms, whereas other enzymes involved in methanogenesis, such as methylene
are strategies that are likely to be employed to reduce waste generation and to recycle nutrients. Organic wastes are typically the heaviest component of a waste stream, thereby costing the most money to dispose of, and have the highest potential to emit greenhouse gases, once buried in a landfill (Diaz et al., 1993). The high financial and environmental costs of improperly disposed organic wastes make this component especially important when considering opportunities for increased waste reduction and diversion (Tammemagi, 1999). Diverting organics from the waste stream has proven to be difficult, not only for municipalities but also for the regions in which they are located. Currently, Cameroon lacks a nation-wide strategy for managing compostable organics in the waste stream and as a result, policies for dealing with this material vary significantly among municipalities. For example, composting of green waste is being experimented at the landfill site for the production of organic fertilizers (compost).Unfortunately, the market is dominated by competition from chemical fertilizers. Furthermore, the city is not an agricultural area it is extremely difficult to find individuals who practice composting at home.
Soil, as one of the most important natural re- sources, is essential for human development and life. It provides available nutrients to animals and plants, filtrates water and it can effectively remove some types of impurities or kill disease agents. Rapid development of industry is, obvi- ously, very important for human beings but it can be also dangerous for the environment, especially for soil as it is the outermost layer of the Earth’s crust. Soil degradation is a great problem nowa- days which leads to a decline in the soil condi- tion. Degraded soil can be easily transformed into devastated one then it ceases to be useful for hu- man purposes. That is why, it is very important to focus on the degraded areas and try to reclaim them. The spontaneous overgrowing process in the terrain of closed industrial waste dump is a good way to observe changes that are taking place with time.
This landfill receives wastes from both Middle Governorate and Khan Younis Governorate under Joint Service Council (JSC) agreement. In addition it is recorded that about 350 tons reached the landfill every day  and the population in both governorates are 530,000  which means that the per capita production is 0.66 kg/capita/day, this value may return in one hand to the wrong practice of some municipalities which prefer to use illegal dumpsite than send the waste to the landfill, thus they don’t pay fees for using the landfill. On the other hand many of the areas using the landfill are rural which known of low waste production especially in the east of Khan Yuonis governorate.