For the purposes of economic evaluation is an important indication of the cost spreader and tractor, driver’s salary, the range of annual deployment of the tractor and spreader etc. From the technical parameters of the most important is achieved performance, which is inﬂ uenced by the loading capacity and applied dose (the performance of compost application in a row cultures is also inﬂ uenced by the relief of the terrain and length of rows). The spreaders performance is signiﬁ cantly aﬀ ected by the acreage of fertilized area. For high doses application of compost is very important the transporting distance to land, which respects rightly acreage of fertilized area – for example, a square of
A field trail to examine the response of Glossy nightshade (Solanum americanum) to Poultry Manure Compost application in the Northern Guinea Savanna.Agroecological Zone of Nigeria was conducted in the Teaching and Research farm of Crop Science Department of the Taraba State college of Agriculture, Jalingo (Latitude 80 50”N and Longitude 11 50”E) during the 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. The treatment evaluated consisted of five rates: O(Control), 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 t/ha of poultry manure compost. Each treatment were replicated four times and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Parameters measured included plant height, number of branches, leaf length and width, and leaves yield/ha. Parameters measured were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Mini tab and means difference were separated using least significant difference (LSD) at P = 0.05. the result obtained indicated that poultry manure compose application improved the performance of glossy nightshade. The application of 8.0 t/ha gave a superior yield over the other treatments in both cropping seasons (2017 and 2018) with means of 49.600 and 49.925 t/ha respectively. Application of Poultry Manure at 8.0 t/ha could be adopted to enhance and maximize the productivity of Solanum americanum for yield benefit to farmers in the Northern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone of Nigeria.
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Compost application to K. anthoteca had a significant effect on the height growth of the species. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested at α ≤ 5% showed a significant effect (P<0.001) of compost on the mean height increment. There was no significant effect (P>0.05) of mycorrhizae treatment as well as the interaction between both factors (Table 1). Compost composition from a mixture of S. natans and that prepared from rice hull (herein known as paddy husk compost) recorded the highest increment in height of 9.31 cm while compost from S. natans only (C1), paddy husk compost (C2) and control (C0) had increments of 9.00cm, 5.78 cm and 4.47 cm respectively. However, there was no difference between increments of C3 and C1 (Table 4). An increment of between 29.31-100.22% of the compost treatment over the control was recorded. The use of compost to enhance the growth of plants has been reported and figure 1 shows the final heights of the plants at the time of termination of this study with the various compost treatments. Compost application significantly enhances mitigate the negative effect of a delay in sowing. The use of compost, therefore, is a sound technology for combating soil degradation and often leads to humus accumulation in the soil and thereby supplying nutrients in several binding forms to the soil matrix. Compost also has dynamic impact on exchange processes between root system and sorption complex. This has mainly been attributed to the humified OM and the colloid properties of the humic substances .
Mushroom cultivation has recently become very popu- lar in Turkey and is a promising new industry with many new businesses developing every year. Mushroom produc- tion in Turkey is separated into two components: compost production and mushroom cultivation (Erler and Polat, 2008; Tui˙k, 2015). Compost application to agricultural soil has been widely practiced as one approach to improve crop pro- ductivity and soil fertility (Jaiarree et al., 2014). Spent mush- room compost is either spread on land or dumped in land- fills, and only a small proportion is used as a soil amend- ment or as potting material (Ko et al., 2005; Zhang and Sun, 2014). Thus, this type of compost can be used in organic farming to improve soil water infiltration, water holding ca- pacity, permeability, and aeration (Uzun, 2004). Composts provide a stabilized form of organic matter that improves the physical properties of soils by increasing both nutrient and water holding capacity, total pore space, aggregate stability, erosion resistance, and temperature insulation (Shiralipour et al., 1992). SMC possesses many beneficial characteristics in- cluding a relatively low bulk density, a low level of heavy metals, and an absence of plant pathogens and weed seeds (Curtin and Mullen, 2007; Zhang and Sun, 2014).
phonological growth of corn with higher rate of compost may have increased water holding capacity, nutrients availability and may have soften the rhizosphere for the development of roots (Imran and Khan., 2015). This also might be due to late sowing of maize which leads early to initiate the reproductive stage and complete early the vegetative stage (Imran. 2015). These results were supported by Imran and Khan (2015) they concluded that compost application may enhance the growth parameters of lately sown maize crop. These findings were confirmed and supported by those of Imran et al. (2015) they reported that compost application along with different plant population and seed rate influenced phonological characteristics of maize crop. Substantial influence was observed with the application of various seed rates. Earlier silking was observed in seed rate treated with 30 kg ha -1 while others have comparable not significant influence
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Soil organic carbon (SOC) was re-analysed 10 years after application of source-segregated green waste compost at a 1 ha previously-developed UK site to compare with the increases suggested by the 4 per mille initiative pro- posed at COP21 in Paris. Compost prepared to PAS100 standard had been incorporated once at rates of 250, 500 and 750 t·ha −1 in 2007 in clay subsoil prior to planting of perennial energy crops. Our results show statistically signiﬁcant differential increases in SOC, total nutrients N and P, or contaminants Zn, Pb, Cu, As and B, remain from the compost application after a decade. For the 500 or 750 t·ha −1 compost rates the SOC increments in the upper 10–15 cm were 0.85% or 1.6% over the 4.9% developed from a baseline of 1.8% in control areas by a de- cade of natural regeneration. Calculation of the elemental loadings from the compost analyses compared to the present-day levels suggests SOC declines after application at an average annual rate approaching 10%, compared to 5% for the nutrients or contaminants, roughly equivalent to half-lives of 5 or 10 years respectively. The study demonstrates the long-term soil organic matter (SOM) additions, fertility beneﬁts and technical feasibility of a one-off, high-rate application of waste-derived compost to improve urban soils, compared to the potential trade-off of adding to PTE loadings. This longevity of SOC addition, previously unrecognised in brownﬁeld soils, may be inferred for other areas where further cultivation is precluded, as is typical after landscape restoration or under perennial energy crops for the production of biomass. This unprecedented result has wider implications for marginal land use for bioenergy and the opportunities therein for SOC management using anthropogenic or- ganic wastes to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.
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The effect of sludge, compost, and biofertilizers on nutrient content of wheat grain is illustrated in Table 4. Concerning sludge effect, the obtained results revealed that sludge application induced higher nutrient content of most elements as compared with mineral fertilization. Such promoting effect of sludge on nutrient uptake is confirmed by the findings obtained by Warman and Termeer (2005) and Vacai Rocio et al. (2011). Regarding compost effect on nutrient uptake by wheat grains, the data presented in the same table (Table 4) showed that compost application also induced enhancing effect on most studied nutrients (NPK and Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) as compared with chemical fertilization. These results supported the views of Akbarinia et al. (2003) who showed that increasing municipal compost application increased the concentration of Fe, Zn, and Cu in the plant. Soumare et al. (2003) also added that using 50 t/ha of compost leads to higher levels of nutrient absorption in the plant.
The tomato want to seeds were shown to the different pots containing different concentration of the compost and Phosphobacteria sterilized soil without application of compost or Phosphobacteria are maintained as control.When the sampling were 45 days old the morphometric parameters, above and below ground biomass, biomolecules were analyzed to find the effect of application of compost and Phosphobacteria on the growth of the plant. In this context the present study aims to increase the vegetable crops production with the application of Bio fertilizer and compost application to avoid chemical pollution. The next phase of the study the soil were sterilized completely with stream sterilization, compost and Phosphobacteria were mixed with different concentration to compare the effect of compost and Phosphobacteria on the growth and development of plants.
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Regarding the study of references and researches done, it can be concluded that the use of organic fertilizers improve soften physical and chemical properties of the soil. Although compost application generally increases soil organic matter content, it is important to determine other parameters in order to better understand the effects of compost on soil organic matter quality. Organic matter is recognized as one of the soil fertility pillars due to the fundamental effects on the physical, chemical, biological and fertility properties of soil. These parameters provide information about soil organic matter component evolution after compost application. Finally it has been proven the advantages of using compost to improve some soil conditions such as: betterment of soil physical structure, correction of soil pH, soil fertilization, plant nutrition, moisture absorption and maintenance, increase and penetration of water, as well, increase of porosity and air-to-soil penetration, improvement of the quantity and quality of agricultural products and etc. the highest amount of soil organic materials and soil reaction are related to the treatment with application of 60 tons per hectare of cow manure(T13). Implementing of 30 tons of urban waste compost plus 30 tons of sheep manure per hectare(T15)caused the highest increase of soil EC as compared to the control, additionally, has had the most and greatest
Leaf production as the most important marketing attribute of this medicinal plant was significantly correlated to branching behaviour of this medicinal plant (r=0.90, P<0.001). RLI factor did not affect significantly the number of leaves throughout the study period of eight weeks (Table 4). Treatment with compost or inorganic fertilizer of 5 g NPK green/plant again resulted in significantly more leaf production as compared to the control plants in the second and third week after planting (Table 4). In later part of the study from four weeks onwards, interaction of RLI and fertilization treatment generally brought about highest number of leaves
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] The test results further by Duncan showed that the administration of rhizobium 15 g in 100 g of compost significantly different from those without the granting of Rhizobium (control) but not its real different with rhizobium 25 g. Allegedly giving 15 g rhizobium and compost as much as 100 g is enough to increase the pace optimum plant growth. Interaction between composting and Rhizobium real effect on the growth rate reatif with the highest value of 0,049 g of the combined treatment of Rhizobium compost as much as 100 grams and 15 g. While the lowest value was 0.043g, namely the treatment without composting and without Rhizobium. In interaction composting gave a good response to the relative growth rate of plants, it is due to that mix the soil with a mixture of organic materials to meet the needs for nutrients and nutrients to the plant. Giving Rhizobium not provide a response to the relative growth rate for the treatment of 25 g is not significantly different from the control treatment. The rate of plant growth is affected by the rate asimilai clean and leaf area index. Besih high assimilation rate and optimum leaf area index will increase the relative growth rate of plants Interaction between composting and Rhizobium real effect on the final wet weight at week 8 with the highest value of 21.37 g of the combined treatment of Rhizobium compost as much as 200 g and 25 g while the lowest value in the combination of 10 g of Rhizobium and control treatment. The greater the value of wet weight obtained also the more nutrients are absorbed by the peanut plants. This is presumably because of fertilizers is increasing will increase the nitrogen content in the soil so that the nitrogen nutrient absorption is increasing as well. According to  uptake of nitrogen will result in increasing the nitrogen content in the leaves increased as well. The nitrogen content in the leaf tissue will stimulate an increase in the rate of metabolism of plants. Value wet weight tissue affected by
In order to solve the complex problems posed by saline soils, technology is being constantly developed to enhance land productivity. A known method of soil enhancement is through the application of biological fertilisers (biofertiliser) and organic matter. Organic matter such as azolla compost can be applied to remediate soil salinity and increase crop production. Azolla pinnata is a type of fern known for its symbiotic association with the N 2 -fixing blue-green algae Anabaena azollae. Azolla pinnata can be degraded easily by soil microorganisms; therefore, its addition is expected to increase the nitrogen needed by plants (Rosiana et al. 2013).
neem based, cassava peel based, sawdust based and Tithonia based at the rate of 1.0ton/ha. Each of the compost was prepared through Rapid Composting Technology with Trichoderma harzianum as decomposer, using Windrow method. Okra plot where no treatment was applied, served as control. Manual weeding, harvesting and other agronomic practices were carried out as and at when due.
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Oil palm frond (OPF) disposal is poorly managed which leads to environmental problem. With an appropriate composting management, OPF have a potential as organic compost that can be applied as soil amendment to promote rubber plant growth. This study was aimed to observe the characteristic of OPF composting process and to investigate the optimum dose of OPF-based compost to promote rubber plant growth. The study was carried out by analysis of OPF composting process and application test of the compost as media amendment of rubber planting material. Composting temperature of the chopped OPF (3 to 5 cm), reached ambient temperature on day 75 with C/N ratio of 15.32. The highest percentage of compost particles-size distribution was > 4.75 mm in size. Generally, the quality of OPF-based compost has met the minimum standard of Indonesian National Standard for compost quality, except for K 2 O content. The application test revealed that treatment of 20 % compost + 80 % subsoil was the optimum dose to increase rubber plant growth compared to other treatments. The final cation exchange capacity (CEC) value of control decreased compared to the initial value, on the contrary, the CEC value of compost added media increased along with increased doses of compost. Media amended with compost also increase P, K, Ca, and Mg contents compared to control.
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Compost is an organic matter that has been decomposed in a process called composting. This process recycles various organic materials which otherwise regarded as waste products and produces a soil conditioner. The decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter, adding water and ensuring proper aeration by regularly turning. There are different types of compost available like, Vermicompost, Rural compost and Urban compost. Among all, vermicompost is widely used one in which earthworms are used to decompose the organic wastes. The feaces of the earthworms is rich in nutrients and growth promoters. 2
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The applied organic amendments proved to control the hazardous action of the heavy metals added to the soil. Elevating the dose of such treatments more efficiently handicapped the mobility of the heavy metals in soil medium to the favour of availability of nutrients and their plant absorption. This had been positively reflected on plant growth traits, namely plant height, dry mass and main macro-nutrient contents (N,P& K). Order among the organic substances used, as to diminish the passive action of used the heavy metals, was: humic acid> biogas manure> compost, at the first growth period, but compost and humic acid exchanged position later on. Faba bean relatively showed a lower susceptibility to the undesirable effect of the heavy metals than maize.
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The application of neutralizing additives to soil usually has a positive effect on the proper- ties of soil contaminated with small quantities of oil derivatives. Organic substances act par- ticularly favorably, as indicated by the studies of Riffaldi et al. , Quintern et al. , Wyszkowski and Ziółkowska . Organic substances, especially compost, have a posi- tive effect on the sorption properties of soil and
Abstract— Understanding the mechanisms underlying the availability of phosphorus (P) is important for improving soil productivity Psammentic Paleudults. This research aimed to determine the mechanism for increasing phosphorus availability due to the application of various organic matters and incubation period in the Psammentic Paleudults soil from Labuhan Batu Selatan District, Sumatera Utara Province. This research was conducted at the Research Laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara, using Factorial Completely Random Design with 2 treatment factors and 3 replications. Factor 1 was organic matters (20 tons/ha) consisting of Control, Tithonia diversifolia Compost, Durian Sk in Compost, Empty Fruit Bunches Compost, Chick en Manure, Tithonia diversifolia Compost + Chick en Manure, Durian Sk in Compost + Chick en Manure and Empty Fruit Bunches + Chick en Manure. Factor 2 was the incubation period consisting of 1 week incubation, 2 week s incubation, 3 week s incubation and 4 week s incubation. The results showed that the combination of Tithonia diversifolia compost with chick en manure was able to increase P-available soil higher and reduce Al-P and Fe-P content.Organic matters incubation for 3 week s reduced soil Al-P and Fe-P content. The interaction of compost Tithonia diversifolia+ chick en manure with 3 week s incubation was the best treatment increasing soil P-available and reducing Al-P and Fe-P content in Psammentic Paleudults soil.
Balanced fertilization is an important factor to increase the productivity of agriculture. Addition of compost is essential to provide necessary nutrients for crops and improving soil physicochemical properties (Meena et al., 2015). The combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers (INM) may reduce the demand for mineral fertilizer and soil degradation as well as save production cost. In addition, global environmental pollution can be also managed considerably by the reduction in the use of mineral fertilizer (Khaim et al., 2013). Compost application is one of the important practical measures to enhance seed yield under water stress condition as reported by EL Sabagh et al. (2015b; Figure 5). Further, it also improves soil microbial activities such as dehydrogenase and soil microbial biomass carbon (Sun et al., 2003).
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Compost is a mixture of organic wastes (decayed plant and other organic matter), converted into useful organic soils used by gardeners to provide nutrients to crops and enhance the tilth, fertility, and productivity of soils" (USDA, 1980; Encarta, 2008). The Compost undergoes natural biological process under controlled conditions; so as to hasten the decomposition of organic waste and reduces its volume, creating stable, soil-enriching humus. The compost acts as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus or humic acids, and as a natural pesticide for soil. No quality control in respect of its nutrients/heavy metals content is done. Non- decomposable materials such as big rock fragments, glass, plastic, polythene and metals are usually are removed. No
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