In this paper a computeraidedscreeningsystem for the detection of bright lesions or exudates using color fundus images is proposed. The proposed screeningsystem is used to identify the suspicious regions for bright lesions. A texture feature extraction method is also demonstrated to describe the characteristics of region of interest. In final stage the normal and abnormal images are classified using Support vector machine classifier. Our proposed system obtained the effective detection performance compared to some of the state–of–art methods.
Figure 3.3c shows that incorporating more views in the architecture allows the network to achieve better performance. When all nine views are used, the FROC curve approaches the plateau at above 4 FPs/scan. This suggests that combining multiple views can be an effective approach for classifying 3-D objects, since simpler ﬁlters and fewer voxels are used compared to the isotropic 3-D volume (64×64×64 voxels). Following this trend, we expect that adding more views may slightly im- prove performance further. Experiments on different methods for fusing multiple 2-D ConvNets streams show that optimizing the combiner together with other parts of the network gives the best performance. This strategy allows the network to bet- ter learn the morphology of candidates from different perspectives, reducing errors caused by ambiguous information. As an example, vessels may be classiﬁed as nod- ules when the CAD system only processes one of its views. As a consequence, committee-fusion, which is commonly used in other works 69,77 , is sub-optimal for
Acquiring and processing PCM images in cell imaging and high-throughput screening applications is still a challenge as the frameworks and algorithms used must be fast, simple to use and involves minimal intrusive (Juneau, 2015). Various challenges are identified in cell segmentation in PCM images. Overall, the drawbacks of PCM imaging can be categorized into 1) Low Image Contrast (Shade-Off); 2) Overlapping Cells and 3) Halo Region as shown in Figure 2.11. PCM converts small phase shifts in the light passing through a transparent specimen into amplitude or contrast changes in the image (Xiong et al., 2011). Thus, the specimen is visible with medium or dark grey features, surrounded by a bright halo and higher intensity of background for positive PCM.
Proposed Method: Four machine learning methods were used to predict the case of Chronic Kidney Disease with the aid of WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) software, written in Java, developed at Waikato University (Hall et al., 2009). The work methodology is shown in Figure 1.Figure 1 show which WEKA software was used to perform the classification experiments. The experiments consisted of two steps: training and testing of the classifiers using the respective 90% and 10% databases. After the classifier training phase, the 10-fold cross-validation method was used for (2012), for example, aided diagnostic tool based on ultrasound imaging used to detect and classify different stages (2014), have suggested a distributed approach for the management of alarms related to the monitoring of patients with CKD within the eNefro project. Rosmani et al. (2015), care guidelines for patients with CKD, and implemented a communication channel that assists patients in have developed a system that evaluates in real time the patient's ultrasound images in order to verify the probability of having CKD. Other ) techniques, Singh et used hierarchical methods for assessing CKD and heart failure through high dimensional data. Chiu et al (2012), proposed an intelligent model using artificial neural networks that detects and evaluates the severity of renal disease. obtained high accuracy in the early detection of CKD using Decision Tree as the herefore, it is verified that ML methods are a solution to classification problems such as screening of patients with CKD. For, they offer a more accurate prediction about the health of the individual (Lenart, In the field of health care, this work aims to construct a on model to assist in the early diagnosis of CKD invasive clinical data, low cost and easy application,
produce classified output. In this section, we apply Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to successfully classify the input rows. The proposed methodology is composed of multiple stages as illustrated in figure 16. Initially we have chosen tumor detection methodology from MRI slices of brain. Then they are normalized to an acceptable range before being fed to feature extraction process. In the classification step, the model is first trained using training dataset obtained from the image database which also defines the class labels being used. After the classification model is trained, it is used to classify the testing dataset into appropriate classes that will help us in correct medical decision making and diagnosis of brain tumor. After getting the predicted output we compare them with practical values to get the performance measurement of the model being used. The detailed implementation of the proposed methodology can be given by the following subsections.
The desire to acquire and maintain competitive advantages in the market place have encouraged manufacturing companies to benefit from the introduction of advanced technologies such as Just-in-Time Manufacturing (JIT), Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS), and Computer Integrated Manufacture (CIM). Whilst these system offer the promise of enhanced competitiveness through improvements in quality, flexibility, costs and inventory reductions, their success is closely linked to tooling. This is mainly due to the fact that tooling is the fundamental aspect of manufacturing life. Irrespective of the type of operating systems, unavailability of right tooling can result in production stoppages. Therefore, effective utilisation of manufacturing facilities and continuous flow of production relies heavily on the availability of right tooling at the right place. Little et al (1988) suggests, Tool management is a critical issue when meeting the highly flexible requirements demanded, and Gray et al (1988) argues that, the way that tools are managed largely effects the productivity of manufacturing facilities, and there is evidence that lack of attention to structured tool management has resulted in poor performance of numerous production systems.
B. The subsystem “Equipment”: In this theory the term “Equipment” is used for a wide range of various production equipments, such as: premises (the manufacturing halls, workshops, offices, ...), equipments for the energy production and energy distribution, machines, tools, jigs and fixtures, equipments for the manual operations, equipments for assembly, measuring and testing equipments, equipments for storage, other devices (for example computer techniques, ...).
Explorer was utilized to estimate the possible mutagenic risks, reproductive or tumorigenic behavior, and to calcu- late the drug-like properties of novel designed molecules. Lipinski’s rule of five was analyzed by Mcule and Cresset servers. Drug-likelihood values calculated by Osiris software are positive when fragments of designed molecules are fre- quently present in the approved drugs. The Osiris program was used to estimate the mutagenesis of novel molecules, and no mutagenic risks were detected. The properties of already reported drugs (fluoxetine, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, and ethacrynic acid) of depressant, neurodegenerative disor- ders HMN2A and CMT2L were used for library screening and designing novel molecules. The energy minimization and geometry optimization of 3-D structures of designed molecules were performed by ChemDraw Ultra, Vega ZZ, and LigandScout. 75 The absorption, distribution, metabolism,
The marginal discrepancy of zirconia restoration fabri- cated from the CS3500 demonstrated a significantly larger one than that fabricated from the Trios-3 (p < 0.05), as shown in Figure 4. The zirconia restoration fabrication from both CS3500 and Trios-3 systems indicated a significantly larger marginal discrepancy than the conventionally fabricated cast metal restoration (p < 0.05), as shown in Figure 4. The marginal discrepancies for full-arch restorations were sig- nificantly larger at the canine abutment than at the molar abutment in every tested system (p < 0.05), as shown in Figure 5. The marginal discrepancies for full-arch restoration were significantly larger at the medial side of abutment than those at the lateral side of abutment in every tested system (p < 0.05), as shown in Figure 6.
The only surface texture designing support system in the 20th century was an interactive surface modelling system (ISM) which was proposed by Rosen (1995). This system was based on the traditional PST standards which utilise a symbolic language for expressing tolerances in technical drawings. ISO 1302:2002, one of the latest PST standards in the GPS framework defines the specification of PST. There is more information concerning design, manufacture and metrology in this standard, however, it has to this point not been implemented very successfully during the design stage. Many designers have not yet adopted complete surface texture specification, in order to bridge the knowledge gap in product life cycle, to reduce the product cost, and to improve manufacturing efficiency and qualification rate. The majority of manufacturing companies and commercial CAD systems are still employing old surface texture standard versions or do not completely conform to the standards, which leads to big specification uncertainty (Bennich & Nielsen, 2005) compared with ISO 1302:2002.
The virtual screening carried out on the malarial inhibitors in search of generation of novel compound, till date no proper medication available for prophylactic of dangerous disease malarial. So in the seek of novel compounds three dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship analysis (3D-QSAR) performed using k nearest neighbor molecular field analysis (kNN MFA) method on a twenty 2,4,6-trisubstituted triazines derivatives as antimalarial agent by molecular design suite. The best model generated with 7.5 dissimilarity values with 2k and 2i as test set the statistical parameters were q 2 and Predr 2 for stepwise (0.8229 and 0.674), genetic algorithm (0.699 and 0.7521) and stimulated annealing (0.7069 and 0.6901) respectively. In virtual screening analysis the steric descriptor indicates that bulky groups were required for enhancing the activity at R position and on triazine ring, while the electrostatic groups suggested for attaching the electron donating and withdrawing groups at R position on triazine ring for enhancing the activity. Inhibition of the Tyr 108 leads to discontinue the metabolic process in protein, finally the enzyme fatal. The Tyr 108 of glutathione transferase interacts with morpholino ring. Thus structural requirement predicted by QSAR analysis and docking was used to design a noble compound.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women. X-Ray mammography is an effective way to detect breast cancer. A typical mammogram contain various information that represents tissues, vessels, ducts, chest skin, breast edge, the film, and the X-ray characteristics. The computeraided systems for mammograms can be divided in two categories: computeraided detection system (CADe) and computeraided diagnosis system (CAD). CADe is able to identify the Regions of Suspicion (ROS), but CAD can make a decision whether a ROS is benign or malignant. The general process of CAD for mammograms refers to image pre-processing, defining ROS, extracting features and classifying a ROS into benign, malignant or normal.
The purpose of this project is to develop a system based on the algorithm structured by using VBA programming of Solidworks which is using Application Programming Interface (API) to achieve the recognition of the interacting features from the model which has been created on feature based modeling in the form of 3D.
cradle………………………………………………………………….…108 6.2. Redesign a propose cradle to improve the working posture of workers……111 6.2.1. Questionnaire to the workers…………………………………………111 6.2.2. Analysis Quality Function Deployment (QFD)………………………112 6.2.3. Design the propose cradle using ComputerAided Design (CAD)
The trial was run with 50 readers, experienced in breast screening, and used 180 cases (a mixture of 60 cancers and 120 normal cases) distributed in 3 sets of 60. All participating readers saw all the cases in two different experimental conditions: a) ‘unprompted condition’: without CAD; b) ‘prompted condition’: with CAD. The order of conditions was randomised across the participants. In both conditions, the participants saw two versions of each case: 1) the mammograms positioned on a standard viewing roller; and 2) a digitised version of the mammograms printed on paper. In the prompted condition, the printouts contained the prompts generated by CAD. Participants were also asked to make their decisions as whether a case should be recalled for further tests as if they were viewing the mammograms as single readers in the screening programme. More details of the procedures can be found in .
Computer-based technologies play an important role in all aspects of our daily life as well as in dentistry. Simplified interactions between human and computer have caused a profound progress in virtual reality (VR)-based dental training. On the other hand, computer-aided design/computeraided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental appliances and prostheses is now widely used around the globe . Although many dentists have become familiar with CAD/CAM subgroup of computer-based technologies in the recent years, VR and augmented reality (AR) techniques, which are going to find their place in learning and instruction of dental skills, are not as much known .
Claims that they reduce or deter crime have not been clearly borne out by independent studies; though the government claims that when properly used they do result in deterrence, rather than displacement. One clear effect that has been noted is a reduction of car crime when used in car parks. Cameras have also been installed in taxis to deter violence against drivers, and also in mobile police surveillance vans. In some cases CCTV cameras have become a target of attacks themselves. Middlesbrough council has recently installed "Talking CCTV" cameras in their busy town-centre. It is a system pioneered in Wiltshire which allows CCTV operators to communicate directly with the offenders they spot. This idea is first known to have appeared in George Orwell's famous novel Nineteen Eighty-Four  .