The paper describes the classical and generalized Luneburg lens in bulk and waveguide implementa- tion. The link between the focusing inhomogeneity of the eﬀective refractive index of the waveguide Luneburg lens and the irregularity of the waveguide layer thickness generating this inhomogeneity is demonstrated. For the dispersion relation of the irregular thin-ﬁlm waveguide in the AWM model the problem of the “mathematical” synthesis and computer-aideddesign of the waveguide layer thickness proﬁle for Luneburg TGWL with a given focal length is solved.
Second cycle comprises structure determination of the protein in complex with the most optimistic lead of the first cycle, the one with minimum micro-molar inhibition in-vitro, and shows sites of the compound which can be optimized for further increment in the potency. After several additional cycles like synthesis of lead, further optimization of lead through complex structure of protein with lead compound, the optimized compounds generally show marked increment in the target specificity and binding affinity 6 .
IMPORTANCE Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is the prototypic rhabdovirus in the order Mononegavirales. A wide range of hu- man pathogens belong to this family. Using a unique computer algorithm and large-scale genome synthesis, we attempted to develop a live attenuated vaccine strain for VSV, which could be used as an antigen delivery platform for humans. Recombinant VSVs with distinct codon pair biases were rationally designed, constructed, and analyzed in both cell culture and an animal model. One such recombinant virus, L1 sdmax , contained extra overrepresented codon pairs in its L gene open reading frame
85 implementation are inevitable and need to be adequately addressed in their conditions of contract in order to obtain the full benefits of BIM. Many recognised that BIM is closely related to collaborative working, which therefore requires collaborative contractual model to address contractual issues unique to its use (Hurtado & O’Connor, 2009; Winfield, 2015a; Manderson, Jefferies & Brewer, 2015; Klein, 2015). Even though radical changes to the current legal model may not be required in Level 2 BIM (Glover, 2012; Currie, 2014), as it is not supposed to alter the original roles and responsibilities of the project team members and client, most legal commentators agreed that Level 3 BIM requires far greater changes to cater to the need of extensive sharing of information as well as horizontal cooperation and collaboration in a project delivery (Sinclair, 2012; Claremont, 2014; Savage, 2014; Golden, 2015). Considering the legal and contractual implications of BIM, some efforts have been done to revolutionise the existing standard contractual documentation and practice in order to make them BIM-enabled. Some examples of the contractual documents are Joint Contracts Tribunal (JCT) Public Sector Supplement; NEC Guidelines: How to Use BIM with NEC3 Contracts; CIOB Complex Project Contract 2013; and CIC BIM Protocol. At the time of writing this thesis, all of the current contractual documents were mostly designed for design and build project. However, only CIC BIM Protocol was claimed to be suitable for use on all Level 2 BIM projects.
The main aim of this paper is to attempt to automatically capture the knowledge of an engineer, generated during a design session, by logging every action that is performed. Not only will this make it more time and cost-effective when compared with manual methods, but it will also allow this knowledge to be embedded into a PLM system or design rationale log, for example. This formalised storage of knowledge can then be applied in many applications to aid other users. For example, if a subsequent user were to carry out a particular design task, the system would interrogate the knowledge store to ascertain whether any of the information in it would be useful to the user. If relevant information is found, it can then be ‘pushed’ to the user, who can then decide whether to use that information, or not. By logging the user unobtrusively in the background, the engineer is not interrupted and their creative process will not be disrupted. There has already been some research in the area of user logging and knowledge capture. In the paper by (Wyatt et al, 1999), users who are carrying out a soil mechanics experiment in a VR environment are logged. By analysing the log files, an interactive help tool is attempted to be created that will aid the user in design tasks. Similarly, (Brough et al, 2006) uses the data that is logged, generated while users are performing an assembly task in a 3D immersive environment, so ‘hints’ can be generated to help subsequent users.
Actually, most of manufacturing industry have material handling device in order to transfer part and machined equipments to the maintenance places. One of examples material handling device that is widely used in manufacturing industry is cradle. The cradle mostly used as a material handling device for aircraft maintenance when the service under valley side of aircraft is needed. Appropriate design of cradle is useful to improve the work quality and reduce injury risks to technicians. All the parts on the aircraft are critical and need attention during the maintenance session. To increase the work quality and achieve the maintenance schedule, the technicians should try to complete the work as per schedule, and at the same time, meet the terms of instructions from the engineers.
The title of this project is Design and Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbine. The objective of this project is to gather the design data to competently design an offshore wind turbine, which is composed of three main structures comprising of the rotor/blades, the tower nacelle and finally the supporting structure. This project is important because wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy in the world and major gains in terms of energy generation are achievable when turbines are moved offshore. For the purposes of this Bachelor project, in-depth analysis of rotor/blades will not be the focus. Design will focus on the nacelle and supporting structure. The completed final design is analyzed using commercial finite-element modeling tool ANSYS to obtain the structure‟s response towards loading conditions and to ensure it complies with guidelines laid out by classification authority Det Norske Veritas. Finally, a model of the structure will be fabricated using Rapid- Prototype technology.
To standardize the preparation, a custom-made device was attached to the surveyor, and a rotary instrument was used during the preparation (Fig. 1). In addition, the occlusal convergence was measured by using photographs and Adobe Photoshop CS2 image processing software (version 9.0, Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA, USA) (Fig. 2). Impressions of all the specimens were made by using a polyvinyl siloxane impression material (Regular Body, Lot 95503, Elite, Zhermack, Marl, Germany) and a custom- made tray (Tray Material, Major, Moncalieri, Italy). The impressions were poured with a type IV dental stone (GC Fujirock EP, GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan). The dies on the master models were scanned by using an inLab CAD/CAM Optical Scanner (Tizian, Schütz Dental GmbH, Rosbach, Germany), and the zirconia copings were fabricated from pre-sintered blank blocks of partially stabilized zirconia. For the pull-out test, four wings were included in the coping design as described by Ernst et al  (Fig. 3). The internal surfaces of the copings were abraded by using 110-µm aluminum oxide particles at a distance of 10 mm and a pressure of 0.4 MPa for 20 seconds. The copings were adjusted to their corresponding teeth by using a disclosing silicone material (Fit Checker, GC Co., Alsip, IL, USA). The teeth were then randomly assigned to three groups (n=10) according to the cement type: Panavia F2.0 (PAN group; Kuraray, Osaka, Japan), hand-
The raw data of measurement for the core and cavity then will be used in CAD (ComputerAidedDesign) software to develop 3-D solid modeling for the core and cavity. The software that will be used during this research is SolidWorks and CATIA (ComputerAided Three-dimensional Interactive Application).
A Prime 9750 mini computer using Medusa  software is typical of commercially available CAD systems. The work station consists of a graphics screen and keyboard, and a graphics menu. The screen displays the drawing, as it is being developed or modified. The menu is d ivided into segments, each labelled with the name of a frequent ly used command. A command is activated by moving a pen to the relevant entry in the menu and pressing the pen. The screen cursor can be moved by means of a joy-stick. The keyboard can also be used to enter commands, instructions and data to the system, and to input any text, labelling, titles or notes which are to be appear in the drawing. Completed drawings are stored as a data file on magnetic tape and paper copies made on plotters or printers.
The integration paths of these tools started some years ago. In the production management area, the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) is the umbrella, bringing together under the same roof, MRP, APS, SCM, MES (and much more). On the other hand, PDM (Product Data Management) is the management tool connecting CAD, CAPP and CAPE in the design area. More recently, CRM (Customer Relationship Management) allowed linking of customer related data to production management and product reengineering (even if more than one person says that CRM and SCM will disappear in the future), encapsulated in ERP and PLM software suites for their execution and engineering contents respectively.
Microsoft Excel,which comes as part of the widely-distrbuted Microsoft Office software, is is a general-purpose spreadsheet application that is usually taught to junior engineering students within an introductory course in computer application. Although Excel is an extremely versatile application,itismostly used only for data analysis and presentation. However, Excelis equipped it with the necessary tools that allow students to perform design optimisation analyses. Moreover, the computational capabilities of Excel as a modelling platform for engineering analyses can be extended significantly by taking advantage of Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), which is a well-equipped programming language that also comes as part of Microsoft Office. VBA can be used for developing additional user- defined functions as required by thermal analyses . With the wide availability of personal computers nowadays, Excel can be a useful modelling platform for mechanical engineering students and practicing engineers alike. Ithas already been used as an effective educational tool for introducing the basic concepts of thermal sciences[5-8]. The present paper focuses on using Excel for design optimisation of thermal systems. By means of relevant examples, the paper demonstrates the adequacy of Excel, together with its Solver add-in,as a modelling platform for thermal design optimisation. The paper also highlights the advantages of computer-aided optimisation compared to analytical optimisation of thermal systems design.
retrained y-displacement was applied at the left support. To validate the model and hence gain enough conﬁdence in using it in a performance design, its predictions are compared to the experimental test results obtained by Tan- imura and Sato (2005) as shown on Fig. 4. To study the mesh sensitivity, different element sizes, 25, 40, and 50 mm, were tried. The results from the coarse meshes show better agreement with the experimental results. This corroborates the ﬁndings of Malm (2006) who also noticed that in ABAQUS coarse meshes give slightly better results. As a result, the 50 mm element size is adopted for the remaining of the analyses because it is also computationally less expensive.
Currently, what is essential for preserving the competitiveness for manufacturers, is rapid re- sponse to market demand. Therefore, it is impor- tant to decrease the time of designing a new prod- uct to the minimum. This should not, however, have the effect on product quality. This has led to the need for rapid prototyping, automation of various design stages and development of com- puter-aideddesign techniques. Advanced CAX systems allow to design, model and simulate working products. Each production company is equipped with necessary elements of the system. Computeraided teaching is becoming more com- mon in the educational process. The traditional process of designing on drawing boards, although very important and manual skills developing, is supplanted by computer techniques. This happens both in companies and education. In the field of machining it is possible to design complex cut- ting tools from design to execution stress analy- sis, visualization and simulation finished tools.
Knowledge based engineering or also known as KBE stands at the cross point of diverse vital disciplines, such as artificial intelligence (AI), computeraideddesign (CAD) and computer programming. Nowadays, it is hard to find scientific books or journal that can be related to KBE. In addition, this topic did not enter into the mainstream academic research yet. To date, knowledge based engineering may become the potential asset where it can save the engineering cost and reduce the time for the product to be developed. Based on the literature survey, knowledge based engineering is defined in many ways, and in order to relate to this final year project’s topic, knowledge based engineering can be defined as a technology based on the use of dedicated software tools called KBE systems, which can record information and systematically reuse the product and process, with the final goal of reducing time and costs of product development by several means (Rocca 2012).
A shape controlling piecewise rational quadratic interpo- lation scheme, to design 2D and 3D objects, has been proposed. The scheme offers a possible and feasible way in which the shape of the objects may be altered by the user. Such a scheme can make a useful addition to an interactive design package in a CG/CAD/CAM/CAE environment. It provides the users complete control over the curve segments and surface patches to modify the shape to achieve a model object. The changes will be local and that the shape will change in a stable manner. The scheme is quite simple, easy to implement and computationally economical as compared to its cubic and bi-cubic counter parts. The authors are thinking to extend the scheme for various applications including font de- signing, image outline capture, modeling animation paths, and others.