The number of students continually increases along with a growing need for more effective student evaluation and testing methods; trends that present an enormous challenge for teachers and administrators who utilize paper-based methods. The use of ComputerBasedTesting (CBT) is currently viewed as a viable approach that provides swift and accessible results that more economically and accurately solve problems such as inaccurate test results, delays in exam feedback, and the inadequate scoring methods that attend traditional paper-based methods. The advantages of CBT and the continual increase in Information and Communications Technology ( ICT) applications for education in Saudi Arabia prompted the Ministry of Education (MoE) to develop the “Tatweer” CBT system for Saudi Arabia's secondary schools. However, the project failed when implemented due to a lack of foresight that might otherwise have produced clearer protocols for practice. Such guidelines could have been based on required criteria for successful ICT performance if an appropriate study had been undertaken prior to launch. Hence, this effort examined Saudi Arabia's CBT implementation in its secondary school system with a view to clearly stipulate process guidelines based on the integration of specific criteria that affect successful CBT implementation. The framework for the proposed CBT implementation was extracted from six prior studies of CBT implementation efforts involving Joint Application Development (JAD) and twelve CBT experts in Saudi Arabia. The proposed criteria were clearly defined after a survey was conducted with four CBT experts. Validation of the proposed framework involved a quantitative survey whereby qualified questions were distributed to 420 respondents from fifteen schools and one Educational Management Center (EMC in Jazan). All data was analyzed with the Structural Equation Model (SEM; Smart Pls Version 2.0 Beta). The result observe from Smart Pls show that the strength of the assay's results for all process paths and required criteria for successful CBT implementation of the proposed framework proved significant and were accepted as valid. T-statistic and P-statistic values of CBT processes are very significant because T-statistic value is significantly high ranking from 3.178 to 11.894. Also, T-statistic, P-statistic and R 2
90’s, when students sat for JAMB, it was kept on a pedestal of fear for most students but today it has become a norm in our educational sector. The advantages of computers are well-known and apparent. They offer student the opportunity to improve their productivity and time management when answering questions. The standardization of test administration conditions is one of the benefits offered by computer-basedtesting (CBT). No matter what the tests’ population size is, CBT helps students to set the same test conditions for all participants. It also improves all aspects of test security by storing questions and responses in encrypted databases and enables testers to create randomized questions and answers from vast question pools. Moreover, offering different exam formats and the immediate presentation of different types of feedback, either to students or testers, are also some of the great advantages of CBT.
Regarding limitations of the current study, one was its retrospective nature: responses were analyzed post-hoc rather than collecting data prospectively. However, such post-hoc simulation to establish a “proof-of-concept” is a typical first step in evaluating potential computer-basedtesting procedures [14,18,19,21]. A second limitation was the sample size of the study, which was smaller than the sample sizes of previous applications of curtailment and stochastic curtailment [18,19]. However, the fact that the stopping rules were successful when applied to the test dataset, despite having been trained on a relatively modest-sized training dataset, suggests the robustness of the methodology. Third, the methods were evaluated using only one test dataset, limiting the generalizability of the results. We further caution readers that while the look-up table for curtailment (Table 2) is applicable to any population for which a ≥ 9 cutoff is appropriate, the look-up tables for SC-99, SC-95, and SC-90 (also shown in Table 2) are sample-specific and may not be suitable for other populations. Therefore, before stochastic cur- tailment is used for a different population of respon- dents, new look-up tables should be calculated based on pilot data from that population. See Finkelman et al.  for a thorough description of how to calculate such look-up tables.
The results of a study that found Iranian students’ perception on using computers mostly disadvanta- geous  came in contrast with the present study which found an overall positive student attitude to- wards CBT. It can partly relate to the nature of the studies. The previous study compared CBT with paper-basedtesting (PBT) in taking specific exams such as TOEFL and IELTS and evaluated the advan- tages and disadvantages of each testing mode over the other. However, the present research based on SDT, evaluated the general student perception on CBT and described how CBT induced the feeling of an autonomous versus controlled situation and caused students become intrinsically motivated while taking the test.
With promulgation of computer technology in educational testing, computerized testing (henceforth CBT) as green computing strategy is gaining popularity due to its advantages such as effective administration, flexible scheduling and immediate feedback over its conventional paper-basedtesting (henceforth PBT). Since some testing programs have begun to offer both versions of a test simultaneously, the effectiveness of CBT is queried by some scholars. Regarding to this aim, this study investigated the score equivalency of a test taken by 228 Iranian undergraduate students studying at a state university located in Chabahar region of Iran to see whether scores of two administrations of testing mode were equivalent. Then, two versions of the test were administered to the participants of two testing groups on four testing occasions in a counter balanced administration sequence with four weeks interval. One-Way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation tests were used to compare the mean scores and to find the relationship of testing order, computer attitudes and testing mode preference with testing performance. Findings of the study revealed that the scores of test takers were not different in both modes and the moderator variables were not considered external factors that might affect students’ performance on CBT.
Abstract: There have been studies on comparability of test results in Computer-BasedTesting (Henceforth CBT) and Paper- BasedTesting (Henceforth PBT) considering key factors associated with test results in different countries with different languages and technological backgrounds. The main purpose of the current study was to discover the equivalency of test scores on PBT and CBT in the English achievement test in Payame Noor University (PNU) among undergraduate students. It also intended to investigate if there was any relationship between computer attitude and testing performance on CBT. Based upon the quantitative and qualitative data, some major findings were revealed. Firstly, there was statistically significant difference between two sets of mean scores. Furthermore, based on descriptive results, in comparing the results of computerized and paper-based tests, students showed better performance on PBT than CBT. The results of this study support the necessity of doing comparability studies in higher educational contexts before substituting CBT for PBT or including it in the system. Then, computer attitude had not any interaction with testing performance on CBT among Iranian undergraduate students in PNU. Finally, the results of interview supported the quantitative findings, i.e. participants mostly showed high preference for computerized test and liked CBT more than PBT but due to some justifications and habit of taking tests traditionally, they performed better on PBT.
Teaching and learning are constantly being migrated to universal platforms; this has therefore transformed the internet into an imperative tool in the administration of educational instruction. This advancement has contributed to an abundance of educational resources and the promotion of collaboration across different research and educational institutions. A significant component of this innovative trend is the adoption of a web-based technology driven assessment of students. It is becoming a commonplace to see institutions across the educational strata adopt computer-based tests (CBT) in student assessment (Sanni, Abubakar & Adebayo, 2014). Lamprianou and Athanasou (2009) identified varied techniques used in higher education for assessments purposes; the most commonly used are examinations. The rapid advancement of information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in teaching- learning has shifted the paradigm from paper-pencil-based to computer-based system of examinations which are usually termed as either Computer Assisted Testing, Computerized Assessment, ComputerBasedTesting (CBT), Computer Aided Assessment (CAA), ComputerBased Assessment(CBA), Online Assessment, E-Assessment and Web-Based Assessment (Fagbola et al., 2013).
Assessment is a fundamental part of the learning system. Now-a-days Computerbased test is normal. Adaptive testing is a type of Computerbasedtesting that depends on the student's ability. This adaptive testing is possible with two distinct theories. Those theories are Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT). CTT is moderately straightforward. This theory has simple theoretical model, which make CTT to apply in numerous testing circumstances. However, IRT has got exponential development in these late decades. IRT essentially concentrates on the item level information rather than the CTT's essential concentrate on test level information. The IRT framework incorporates a gathering of models, and the applicability of every model in a specific circumstance which relies on the test items and the viability of different theoretical assumptions about the test items. For test items that are dichotomously scored, there are three IRT models, known as three-parameter, two-parameter, and one-parameter IRT models. Finally Scoring is done, based on the parameters of the item. Students who react effectively for the most difficult question gets high score when contrasted with students who react accurately for the simplest question.
The Computer Sciences program in the Faculty of Sciences of the National Autonomous University of Mexico has two introductory programming courses: Computer Sciences Introduction in the first semester, and Data Structures in the second. The former, as its name indicates, is an introduction to Computer Sciences, but one of the primary objectives of the course is for students to learn how to program. We currently use the Java programming language, and there is an important emphasis in teaching Object Oriented fundamentals and principles. The second semester course covers data structures, algorithms, and computational complexity basics, again using the Java programming language, and there is a strong programming approach to the syllabus: Students are not only supposed to study and learn about and use the covered data structures and related algorithms, they must also write a working implementation of each one.
learning and flexible learning, but it can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case the term blended learning is commonly used. E- learning includes multimedia learning, technology enhances learning, computerbased instruction, computerbased training, computer assisted instruction or computer aided instruction, internet based training, web based training, online education, virtual education, virtual education environments. Each of these alternative names emphasis a particular aspect, component or delivery method.
Statements such as “CBT benefits English Language Learners (ELL)” and “more accurately assesses student ability” have been thrown out on the respective websites, but there is no mention of research plans by either consortium to look into the role that individual differences play in performance on their planned assessments (PARCC; SBAC). According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, this is a critical component in the test development process for establishing validity (American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education, 1999). The lack of attention to these variables and the compelling research on CAT’s role in test anxiety raises two questions. First, will we see a rise in the prevalence of test anxiety among students? As mentioned earlier, test anxiety rates have been steadily on the rise over the past decade, perhaps due to the increasing numbers of assessments administered. Additionally, research supports the claim that CAT’s heighten the effects of test anxiety among students. Therefore, it is plausible to suggest that implementing a CAT assessment on this large of a scale will influence the prevalence of test anxiety across the country. Second, how will the implementation affect the measurement of ability for children suffering from test anxiety? The research discussed above suggests that CAT does impact their test performance. Will student’s with test anxiety receive a fair representation of their ability level? Going back to the idea of perception of control, students with test anxiety are more adversely affected by lack of control in terms of test performance. Perceived control raises another concern regarding fairness comparability. Will students with test anxiety who are administered the CAT be at a disadvantage compared to those students with test anxiety who are administered the FIT? Test anxious student’s taking the CAT test might receive an inaccurate measure of ability and be unfairly compared to all non-test anxious students as well as other test-anxious students that take the fixed-item test.
Textile Testing 2.0' is intended to provide fundamental underpinning knowledge on textile testing. It is complementary to the elementary introduction to the Physical Testing and Quality Assurance 1.0 module in Introduction to Textiles in that it covers similar basic concepts but this module provides significantly more detailed information about test methods used.
Abstract— The main outline of this paper is to provide an idea to study various techniques of software evaluation and analyse them in an efficient and effective manner. We will actually see how various methodologies have been adopted over recent years to counter the problem faced based on risk factor, intangible factors. Here we can see how the risk management techniques are employed to avoid risks. We will see how the qualitative weighing is better than numerical weighted lists and how the operational costs have been reduced by adopting Commercial Off-The Shelf COTS) products of software.
All or the work discussed thus far has been done on a digital computer or is completely digital in nature. This fact has both its advantages and disadvantages. Due to the sequential nature of digital devices they are relatively slow as compared to the parallel operation of an analogue device. The digital machine usually requires a quantization of the data into discrete bits which results in a loss of a great portion of the information present in the signal. The greatest advantage of* this mode of* operation is the large memory capacity as millions of bits of information,
This study exhibited that Bhutanese academic staff have positive attitude towards technology and are willing to study and integrate ICT into their teaching methodology. The government should harness this positive aspect of teachers by providing adequate training and necessary resources which seem to be missing in the schools. Although a high percentage of teachers are ICT literate, the training provided may not be appropriate. Teachers find learning computer difficult and they have expressed their difficulty in accomplishing desired task using technology. While designing ICT training for teachers, it is shown by the study that age based training should be designed. The finding has shown that more female teachers wish to attend ICT training. Their negative views regarding ease of use of technology could be the reason that prevents female teachers from involving in technology teaching. They may not feel confident with their present ICT skills to implement ICT in their classroom. This group of female also intends to use ICT in their future work hence their greater desire for additional training. Therefore, in future technology trainings, more number of female participation should be considered. In the past technology integration the class rooms was dominated by male teacher. However, the study has revealed that the trend is gearing for a change. Females are more willing to take up training and have expressed their desire to adopt technology in their future teaching. The finding matches with Tshering’s (2013) conclusion that found greater number of female than male using the internet in Bhutan.
Mainly we can improve the efficiency of solar concentrators by using advanced technologies, good materials, better tracking systems and detailed survey based on use of various solar sensors before installing solar concentrator systems etc. Firstly we can improve results by using good quality materials for solar concentrator which can result in better absorption and less reflection of solar radiation. At present we use glass mirrors (generally considered to be the baseline reflector material for solar thermal electric applications). Glass mirrors have high specular reflectance (typically 91%), long lifetimes, durability in the field, and (usually) modest degradation of reflectivity over the concentrator lifetime. Drawbacks of glass include weight, fragility, and expense. Relative to glass, polymer mirrors have advantages of being flexible, lightweight, and less expensive, but they have lower durability and shorter lifetimes than glass mirrors. The use of polymer mirrors materials will provide improved results relative to glass. Polymer mirrors have advantages of being flexible, lightweight, and less expensive, but they have lower durability and shorter lifetimes than glass mirrors. Recent improvements
We have developed a software application for quiz-basedtesting. The application, called GrileX has been developed in the C# programming language, in the Visual Studio .Net 2005 environment. Data is being stored in XML files, and the correct answers are coded with MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) algorithm. This security algorithm is a widely used cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value [wikipedia]. MD5 has been used in a wide variety of security applications, and is also used to check the integrity of different files. The class diagram on which the software application has been developed is presented in Figure 1.
systems operated via MI appear to be a promising option to promote restoration of motor function after stroke, by exploiting the neuroplasticity phenomena induced on the motor cortex by the BCI training. In an effort to deploy a practical EEG-based BCI system as an effective post stroke rehabilitation training tool, it is crucial to define which EEG patterns (sensorimotor rhythms, SMR) are expected to correlate with desirable neuroplasticity and thus reinforced through the BCI training. Moreover, to effectively encourage training and practice the BCI design should incorporate principles of current rehabilitative settings, suitable to stimulate patients’ engagement during the exercise. The ultimate goal is to let the patients re-learn their motor scheme by having voluntary (covert and/or overt) access to the affected limb.
Regression Testing : Regression Testing is an important strategy for reducing side effects. We run regression testing every time software experiences a change in form of bug fixes or some additional functionality. It is done to ensure that code had not an adverse effect to the other module or any existing functions and it may not have produced any defect. The regression test suite contains three different classes of test cases:
Here an internal perspective of the system, as well as programming skills, is used to design test cases. The tester chooses inputs to exercise paths through the code and determine the appropriate outputs. The black-box approach is the method where the software under test has to be verified with a suitable studied set of inputs whose expected outputs are known only on the basis of the functional specifications. The proposed framework can be considered to be the black-box approach. In this work, we have focused on the software testing with the priority of the user so that the user need to run only some of the task so that the time in the execution of the rest of the test cases are with the testing of the various component of the GUI like checkbox, button, textbox.