Computer Languages as Networks and Power Structures Governing the Development of XML SMU Law Review Volume 53 | Issue 4 Article 5 2000 Computer Languages as Networks and Power Structures Governing the[.]
One of the most important computerlanguages is the C programming language developed at Bell Laboratories in the 1970’s. The original version of version of the C language was a remarkable combination of low level (assembly language-like) features and high level features like the mathematical parts of FORTRAN. The variables in the language were integers stored in words just as we saw in the earlier examples in this chapter. (There were several other types of integers as well – a complication that we will ignore.)
• When a computer obeys the instructions in a computer program it is said to be running or executing the program. Before a computer can execute a computer program the program must be resident in memory. The program must occupy a set of consecutive bytes in memory and must be written in the internal machine language for the
Moreover, if we are interested in knowing more detailed data about the set of program rules and connective definitions evaluated for obtaining each solution then it will be mandatory to use a new lattice S based on strings or labels (i.e., sequences of characters) for generating the Cartesian product V × S . In order to achieve our purposes, we firstly must show not only that S is a multi-adjoint lattice, but also that the concatenation operation of strings, usually called append in many programming languages, plays the role of an adjoint conjunction in such lattice (this last condition is required by practical aspects which are explained in Section 4).
Although our proposal is encouraging as results reveal, efficiency can also be improved by indexing (e.g., tries [SW12] and BDD’s [WACL05]) temporary relations during fixpoint compu- tations. To seamlessly integrate this into an RDBMS, we can profit from the fourth-generation languages (e.g., SQL PL in IBM DB2 and PL/SQL in Oracle) and completely integrate query solving and view maintenance into the RDBMS. This way, prepared SQL statements are avail- able in a compiled setting, which should also improve performance. We are currently extending the R-SQL system with the enhancements aforementioned and more features as hypothetical definitions and aggregates.
On the other hand, the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is widely used in many areas of computer software to represent machine readable data. XML provides a very simple language to represent the structure of data, using tags to label pieces of textual content, and a tree structure to describe the hierarchical content. XML emerged as a solution to data exchange between appli- cations where tags permit to locate the content. XML documents are mainly used in databases. The XPath language [BBC + 07] was designed as a query language for XML in which the path of the tree is used to describe the query. XPath expressions can be adorned with Boolean conditions on nodes and leaves to restrict the number of answers of the query. XPath is the basis of a more powerful query language (called XQuery) designed to join multiple XML documents and to give format to the answer. In [ALM11, ALM12a] we have presented an XPath interpreter (together with a debugger, as documented in [ALM12b, ALM13]) extended with fuzzy commands which somehow rely on the implementation based on fuzzy logic programming by using FLOPER.
Abstract: SQL technology has evolved during last years, and systems are be- coming more powerful and scalable. However, there exist yet some expressiveness limitations that can be otherwise overcome with inputs from deductive databases. This paper focuses on both practical and theoretical expressiveness issues in current SQL implementations that are overcome in the Datalog Educational System (DES), a deductive system which also includes extended SQL queries with respect to the SQL standard and current DBMS’s. Also, as external database access and inter- operability are allowed in DES, results from the deductive field can be tested on current DBMS’s. For instance: Less-limited SQL formulations as non-linear recur- sive queries, novel features as hypothetical queries, and other query languages as Datalog and Extended Relational Algebra. In addition, some notes on performance are taken.
inventions in the last two decades of the 20th century. But their history stretches back more than 2500 years to the abacus: a simple calculator made from beads and wires, which is still used in some parts of the world today. The difference between an ancient abacus and a modern computer seems vast, but the principle—making repeated calculations more quickly than the human brain—is exactly the same (Swade, 2001). Ever since the invention of Charles Babbage’s difference engine in 1822, computers have required a means of instructing them to perform a specific task. This means is known as a programming language. Computerlanguages were first composed of a series of steps to wire a particular program; these morphed into a series of steps keyed into the computer and then executed; later these languages acquired advanced features
Generally a comparison between programming languages and hardware descriptions languages is based on the number of lines of code and execution time required to achieve a specific task, using the two languages. A number of additional parameters can be observed, such as features, existence or absence of constructs that facilitate coding, availability of optimization techniques, as well as others. These criteria vary slightly when attempting to compare two HDLs. For instance, HDLs need to have time-handling constructs, unlike most other computerlanguages. Comparable “building blocks” may synthesize into different circuitry, depending on the language’s standard. Other points utilized as a basis for comparison include: efficiency of methods and language constructs, description, syntax, applications and used in Industry for future carrier and ease of implementation.
Finally, for some EU citizens their mother tongue is the language of their country of origin outside the EU. This is observed in countries with traditionally large immigrant populations such as Germany, France and the United Kingdom. When the question about mother tongue is put to respondents, the mother tongues are pre-coded. In other words, respondents spontaneously state which languages they speak as their native language and their answers are coded in a ready-made list.
The analysis of economic and cultural indicators in this report suggests not that people in the UK are learning the wrong languages, but that we need far more people learning a much wider range of languages in the future. French, Spanish and German will continue to be important but we will also need significantly more Arabic, Mandarin Chinese and Portuguese speakers as well as speakers of Italian, Japanese, Russian and Turkish. It is worth remembering that when we think of languages in the UK, we tend to think of ‘going away’. However, given that Japanese car manufacturers, Chinese infrastructure developers and French utility companies all make huge contributions in the UK, you do not need to cross the equator or even the English Channel to find situations and jobs where even a little Chinese, Japanese, or French can be a real career enhancer. Five or ten phrases will enable most people to navigate many countries at a basic level. 1,000 words can be enough to feel autonomous, confident and secure in another country and brings some cultural understanding. ‘Fluent’ is an inhibitor, ‘functional’ is a liberator. It begins with a few words and phrases – and that small investment can grow into a lifetime