The research performed herein was in support of NASA’s RVLT Project and can be used as a measuring stick to guide component technology development, define research requirements for future work, and explore the design space for inherently safe propulsion systems for the UAM mission. The primary objective of the research performed herein was to identify failure modes and hazards associated with NASA’s RVLT Concept Vehicles and to perform a reliability and safety assessment. Conceptual designs of the powertrain configuration for each conceptvehicle were developed using the provided architectures. Hazards related to the powertrain were identified and the effects of those hazards were quantified using industry standard reliability and safety anal- ysis methods. Gaps between the UAM air vehicles/mission and existing regulations/specifications were identified that need to be resolved if Distributed Electric/Hybrid-Electric Propulsion (DE/HEP) air vehicles move people and things in the anticipated volumes over metropolitan areas (ref. 4). Future work should further explore leveraging or modifying existing FAR guidance for onboard operator case in both conventional or DE/HEP propulsion.
Based on the application conditions of the laminated glass for a fuel-efficient conceptvehicle, its pre-failure mechanical properties is very important. Moreover, it was clearly established earlier in this discussion that great significance would be placed on the failure load that could be sustained by the laminated glass. Considering that researchers have empirically determined XLAB interlayer to result to a laminated glass with the highest failure load, the results of this materials selection in finding XLAB to be the best interlayer material alternative can be further contextualized and seen to be valid. However, if the cost is also a big consideration, the use of EVA can be an alternative.
Hampton VA, 23681
The development of Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) vehicles for the Urban Air Mobility (UAM) markets presents a need for light weight vehicle structures with effective occupant protection capabilities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been working to fill that need, recently developing a cadre of concept vehicles to help characterize UAM design feasibility. This paper describes a study, using these concept vehicles, to evaluate the use of advanced composite structure and energy attenuating designs in the UAM vehicle design space. A finite element model (FEM) of a single passenger quadrotor conceptvehicle was developed in LS- Dyna® and simulated under nominal and off-nominal vertical impact conditions. A variety of energy attenuating design mechanisms were implemented within this model to quantify their effectiveness in improving occupant safety. The use of carbon composites in both the energy attenuation mechanisms and vehicle structure was evaluated. The results of this study found significant reduction in occupant injury risk with the implementation of energy absorbing composite crush tubes and landing gear within the vehicle design. Additionally the use of a carbon fiber as a structural material was found to provide significant weight reduction while maintaining similar occupant loads to that predicted with an aluminum structure. This work provides a preliminary evaluation of design mechanisms and materials that may be used to optimize occupant protection capabilities within the UAM market.
Axial segmented magnets with electrically insulating epoxy between each segment, called magnet laminations in this paper, are often used in permanent magnet motor design to reduce rotor magnet eddy current loss. NASA’s third magnetic gear prototype, PT-3, demonstrated that >98% efficiency is achievable in a CMG if the sun and ring gear magnets are laminated sufficiently. Additionally, preliminary studies on the potential efficiency of a magnetic gear for the quadrotor conceptvehicle showed that axial magnet laminations of less than 2 mm would allow the design to achieve higher than the targeted 97% efficiency. Section 5 of this paper discusses the effect of magnet lamination size on PT-4’s efficiency to illustrate this point.
This work presents the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a light road vehicle. Simulations are conducted using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with the wall adapting local eddy (WALE) turbulence model. Simulations include and com- pare the use of a rolling road, rotating wheels, adaptive refinement as well as showing comparison with a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver and the Spalart- Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. The lift coefficient of the vehicle for the most part was seen to show a much greater difference and inconsistencies when compared to drag from the comparisons of solvers, turbulence models, refinement and the effect of rolling road. Determining the drag of a road vehicle can be easily achieved and verified using multiple solvers and methods, however, the lift coefficient and its validation require a greater understanding of the vehicle flow field as well as the solvers, turbulence models and refinement levels capable of correctly simulating the turbulent regions around a vehicle. Using the presented method, it was found that the optimisation of vehicle aerodynamics can easily be done alongside the design evolution from initial low-drag shapes to the final detail design, ensuring aerodynamic characteristics are controlled with aesthetic change.
• Turbine also modeled as reported before with volume dynamics and performance
characteristics, but with 2 spools and engine specific cooling flows.
Kopasakis, G.; Connolly, J. W.; Paxson D. E.; Ma P.; “Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonic Vehicle Research,” GT2008-50524, ASME TurboExpo 2008, Berlin Germany; NASA/TM 215172; Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 132, October 2010.
7.1.2 The Linear Threshold Model. When concepts spread using the LTM, we see a simi- lar performance in small-world graphs as we do for when concepts use the ICM. As Table 6 highlights, MPG continues to out-perform the other heuristics when there is no burn-in time in small-world networks. A major difference is the magnitude of activations. When comparing similar network and seed set sizes, we see a larger number of activations for all heuristics in the LTM when compared to the ICM. Nodes in the LTM continuously exert influence once they activate a concept and so, unlike in the ICM, a node that activates the controllable concept after activating the target concept can still be affected. This means there will be more concept interactions, leading to the boosting relationship being more effective. Note that this is true for small-world networks due to the low variability of node degree, meaning that most nodes will have a degree close to the average. In the LTM, nodes typically require multiple neigh- bours to be active before they activate a concept and so these additional interactions contribute
The vehicle driven electrically with the help of a lithium ion battery and a BLDC motor. The motor is made to run with the help of lithium ion battery. The specification of lithium ion battery is about 48V 10Ah battery. A pinion is made to fit on the motor. The 600W motor is used for our project. The electric current from the battery is passed to the controller then the required amount of current will be flown into the motor. The voltage of the controller must match with the battery pack. The sinewave controller to be used for the project. The motor drives the rear wheel of the vehicle with the help of a chain drive. Then the vehicle is set to move. The speed and range of the vehicle can be increased by increasing the battery capacity and then the motor specifications. The battery is charged with the help of charger. The battery charger must be used as it should match
In h y b rid electric and electric vehicles, the aforem entioned wasted energy is captured by regenerative b ra kin g b y using the electric m o to r as a generator. In the above figure, the electric m otor is connected to the d riv e tra in th rough a d rive shaft. W hen regenerative b raking is activated, the electric m o to r functions as a generator com m anded b y the m o to r controller o f the h y b rid system. The ro to r o f electric m otor is spun th ro u g h the d riv e shaft w h ic h is connected to the ro ta tin g wheels. Spinning o f the ro to r enables the electro-magnetic fie ld excitation fo r generating electricity. In doin g so, the vehicular kinetic energy is transform ed as electricity and as a result, the vehicle brakes. This created electricity is then stored in an energy storage system4 w h ic h pow ers the electric m otor w hen a d d itio n a l p ro p u lsio n p o w e r is requested fo r d rivin g . Since the otherw ise wasted energy is captured to do w o rk , h y b rid electric vehicles are m ore fuel efficient than the conventional vehicles, resulting less fuel consum ption and emissions. A d d itio n a l b ra kin g in h y b rid electric vehicles is achieved b y the regular h y d ra u lic brakes as in conventional cars.
Keeping in mind Grant and Pennypacker’s (2 0 0 6 ) cautionary advice to avoid approaching organisational improvement “ recklessly and randomly” but to do so
“purposefully” (p. 5 9 ) while pursuing the competitive edge, an organisation needs data both on student experiences which is readily available and on institutional capability to influence and respond to those experiences which is not. Essential elements of the maturity model concept have been discussed and seem to provide the basis for a viable instrument— the SESR-MM—for assessing institutional capability in the area of student engagement, success and retention. Such an assessment would provide “a thorough understanding of where the organization is and, perhaps more importantly, where the organization needs to grow” (p. 59). Finding and nurturing that as a competitive advantage can lead to the development of an institution “that is sustainable and successful” (Ehmke, n.d., para 1). References
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
V2V and V2I sensing and communication technologies have received much attention by ITS researchers and industry in order to improve traffic operations and safety (8). Most of the wireless V2V and V2I systems use RF technologies, which are well-established systems and operate at their highest potential. Examples of these systems include RADAR and LiDAR which determine the location and speed of vehicles. The theory behind RADAR and LiDAR systems is that they measure the change in frequency or travel time of the reflected RF waves from the targeted vehicle. Both RADAR and LiDAR have limitations and issues that can make the speed estimations unreliable (9). One of these issues is the narrow beam-width required for accurate speed estimation. LED headlamps are being widely used by vehicle manufacturers because of their longer life and less power consumption. Many researchers have investigated the use of visible light technology in V2V and V2I sensing and communication (10-12). A hybrid system that uses a RF-based system and visible light communication (VLC) was introduced by Ucar et al. (13) to perform ITS functions. Cheng et al. compared VLC and RF channel in vehicular communication (14).
As a result of the analysis, the impact significance value at the firm level for each vehicle design phase is given in Table 14. The automotive company which has the most effective use with the ratio of 0.295 is the MF1. Following MF1 automotive company, BF1 vehicle industry with a value of 0.247 is located. MF2, BF2, automotive companies were found to be in third and fourth rank with close to one another, with the results of 0.228 and 0.226 (Table 14). Vehicle design ac- tivities in the automotive industry constitute the process of development process in which multiple stages of high variability are evaluated simultaneously. With the development of new products, regarding to the automotive companies who are under heavy competition, this situation creates great pressure in the man- agement level where the time is valuable. This choice is the first and most im- portant step in determining the phase definitions for analysis. The decision to form a new product development process fits best for automotive company cri- teria and is an important prerequisite for efficient use of own resources (Table 14). The efficient use of resources is also of great importance in terms of the continuity and competitiveness of the enterprise. The analytic hierarchy method exemplified by this study provides great convenience to the firm’s senior man- agement and enables the creation, updating and new process editing fast, effec- tive and accurate.
Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication is easy and simple to use. With the proposed system warning messages can be transmitted at faster rates that foster drivers to make strategic decision at faster rate which is vital in making strategic decision avoiding accidents and congestion. In future the project can be extended to communicate Vehicle-to - Infrastructure for smart city.
knowledge structures and that are based on a thorough theoretical basis. Concept maps have been chosen as the method for externalization because of their established validity and reliabil- ity, the existing psychological and educational theory behind it, and the additional benefit they can offer to participants (e.g. as learning aids). Based on these foundations, a novel view on the application of concept mapping in investigating the state and development of structural knowl- edge has been presented. Instead of focusing solely on the measurement of a single person, or many measurements of single persons analyzed in isolation, the data of a group of persons is aggregated. While motivational factors, the fluency regarding concept mapping itself, the spe- cific location and time of the concept mapping task and other variables will, whether detectable or not, influence the results of each concept map, many of these influences can be expected to cancel out by aggregation.
20. Wille, R. (1997b) Conceptual Graphs and formal Concept Analysis In: Dickson Lukose, Harry Delugach, Marry Keeler, Leroy Searle, and John F. Sowa (eds.), Conceptual Structures: Fulfilling Peirce’s Dream, Proc. of the fifth Int. Conf. on Conceptual Structures (ICCS’97), August 3–8, University of Washington, Seattle, USA, LNAI, Number 1257, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 290–303.
In this sequence of ideas, the EVs can bring benefits to the home energy management, especially to feed priority loads during power outages and other emergencies. From the point of view of the power grid, EVs can bring benefits to ancillary services, compensation of the renewable energy sources intermittency (providing both backup, storage and load-shift). This new approaches are more relevant when looking that private vehicles are parked on average 93-96% of their lifetime , and most of the vehicles are at home between 8 pm and 7 am . The concept of the on-board bidirectional charger with V2G and V2H technologies is introduce in Fig. 1. When the EV is connected to the power grid the energy can flow to or from the EV batteries (G2V and V2G). In the absence of power grid or power outages, the EV can operates as voltages source to feed the desired loads. The system is not intended for a real-time energy backup, but has an auxiliary energy storage system. Thus, the transitions between the modes can be seamless.
Purpose. The paper considered the explication of the concept of "Sinn des Lebens" within the framework of Western philosophy and psychology of the ХІХ-ХХІ centuries. On the basis of this, the role of this concept in con- temporary theoretical discussions and psychological and psychotherapeutic practices is understood. Theoretical basis. The authors believe that understanding the concept of "Sinn des Lebens" is possible only based on the synthe- sis of modern analytical philosophy methods with the methodological guidelines of modern psychology, in particu- lar logotherapy. Originality. The authors have proved that the problem of "meaning of life" is not an "eternal prob- lem" of philosophy, but arises only in the early nineteenth century as a reflection on European secularization and widespread individualistic values and becomes extremely relevant gaining different interpretations at the beginning of the twentieth century based on the crisis of the sensory values of modern man. Conclusions. The concept of "Sinn des Lebens" originated in the philosophy of the German Romantics and gained philosophical significance only in the works by Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Russian philosophy and literature (especially L. Tolstoy) give priority to the meaning of life in ethical and anthropological studies, focusing on its religious inten- tions. Analytical philosophy and existentialism appear to be diametrically opposed to the life-purpose anthropologi- cal problems, but they attempt to solve this problem by understanding the absurdity of human existence and lan- guage from different angles of view. The most reasonable concept of meaning in psychology can be considered Frankl’s logotherapy, which, despite certain drawbacks, remains the most significant in modern Western psycholo- gy. Modern philosophical studies on the problems of the meaning of life, despite their prudent analyticity and sys- tematic nature, have not found credible criteria and means of human life self-reflection yet and have further incen- tives to develop their methodological and philosophical considerations. However, the diversity of interpretations of the concept of "meaning of life" that exists in modern scientific literature needs further reflection.
What counts as a successful account of how concepts compose? Predicting the extension of a complex concept from its constituents? Fodor uses this criterion in his criticisms of the inabilities of prototype models to predict such extensions. But he ignores the degree to which more recent work on concep- tual combinations does have predictive success from analyses based on purely probabilistic representations (see Hampton, this issue, for more on such progress). Such probabilistic models are not adequate for all combinations, and the patterns of failures are interesting in their own right, but they do a good job of telling part of the story. A different putative aspect to concepts, the explanatory relations in which they are embedded, has also been able to predict a number of properties that seem to emerge when concepts combine (Murphy, 1988, 1990, in press; Gagne and Shoben, 1997; Johnson and Keil, in press). Look at the most typical features for ARCTIC and BICYCLE , and many features of ARCTIC BICYCLE (e.g. studded tyres) will not be in either constituent list. Yet if you manipulate the causal/explanatory links between apparent constitu- ent features for ARCTIC and BICYCLE , corresponding changes in emergent fea- tures in the combination can be predicted (Johnson and Keil, in press). By contrast, we cannot see how informational atomism would help us here at all. Conceptual combinations are complex and are not all like DEAD WHITE MALES , pointing to men that are dead and white. Intricate patterns arise by virtue of a host of properties of the constituents. Even with purely syntactic criteria for combining concepts, several options remain for the same sorts of pairings. Consider for example ‘Blog Gormination’, where both are nouns. It could mean gorminations made to resemble blogs (e.g. dog decoration); it could mean something that happens to blogs (dog destruction), or something made out of blogs (dog concoction). This is old news, but if we can’t even predict the syntax of combinations with nonsense words and their categories, why should we point to difficulties in conceptual combinations as so telling for a theory of concepts? Moreover, how does informational atomism help? Consider new entailments arising out of composed concepts. A thing made only of PLASTIC PARTS is necessarily plastic; but a thing made only of SMALL PARTS is not necessarily small (Katz, 1972). It certainly seems that the internal structures of PLASTIC, SMALL and PART are responsible for these differences. To convince us otherwise and show how locking patterns instead can account for such compositional outcomes is the challenge not yet met in this book.
What is interesting about their findings is that 64 % of the participants gave examples in either category V. or VI. (p. 253). Another interesting fact is that prior to the experiment, the pre-service teachers which were questioned, only 3.7% gave a process example of function and none of them gave an example of a function in graphical form (p. 254). If the concept definitions are dispensable when students and teachers form concept images, it would not be uncommon that they could provide examples that are more complex than the definitions they provided. This is true with other concepts not related to mathematics as well. For example, if one was to ask a group of people what they thought the definition of a tree would be, there would be a variety of answers. However, those people would be able to provide may examples of trees, many of them may be more complex and encompass many of the attributes of trees than the definition they supplied. In fact, one may not even know the definition for the concept of trees, in order to provide examples. Incidentally,