The Philadelphia–Wilmington–Atlantic City ConsolidatedMetropolitanStatisticalArea had a year 2000 population of more than 6 million, making it the sixth-largest metropolitanarea in the United States. During the 1990s population in the Philadelphia area grew by 5 percent. This consolidatedmetropolitanarea includes Philadelphia and adjacent metropolitan counties in New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland.
Although the bulk of Genentech was merged with pharmaceutical giant Hoffman-LaRoche in 1990, the company remains the anchor of the Bay Area biotech cluster, employing more than 3,500 at its headquarters and chief manufacturing facility in South San Francisco. In addition, the company’s former employees have started more than 30 local spin-offs accounting for an additional 3,700 employees in the Bay Area.
In Drennan and Lobo (1996), a formal model of economic growth is presented in which, as in Glaeser et al. (1992) and Glaeser, Scheinkman, and Shleifer (1995), metropoli- tan areas are treated as separate and open economies shar- ing common pools of capital. The productivity of labor in metropolitanarea i at time t is a function of both location- specific externalities and industry-specific productivity determinants. In this paper, that model is adapted for one metropolitanarea, the New York–New Jersey consolidatedmetropolitanstatisticalarea (CMSA). Consequently, the observations are years rather than metropolitan areas. Per capita income in the region, Y t , is given by
The sampling frame for this research included 382 small business employees in the Lynchburg MetropolitanStatisticalArea (MSA). These companies have 99 or fewer employees and represent various industries. The simple random sampling method was chosen and the focus population was 54,037, which is the number of small business employees in the Lynchburg MSA. The simple random sampling method was chosen as the population was small and it was determined that the average samples drawn would accurately represent the population. The research adopted a survey methodology to gather data utilizing the MSQ and TCM instruments with proven reliability and validity. The sample size was determined at a 95% confidence level and a sampling error of .05. This research used the target-oriented solving of conceptual problems; forming concepts through analytic and synthetic reasoning by using existing concepts and insight.
To test whether STEM degree holders significantly impact a metropolitanstatistical area’s real GDP growth rate, we used annual data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) on annual real GDP levels by metro area. We also calculated growth over a ten-year period (2000-2010) for each metro area in the data set. To measure education, we used data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS). The educational attainment levels were the most critical in testing the impact of STEM degree holders on real GDP levels. We collected data from the ACS at increasing levels of separation ranging from total bachelor degree holders to the graduate’s field of study.
We are able to conduct our analysis at a more refined level of geography by employing data from Dun & Bradstreet Marketplace. This database provides a wealth of information on establishments throughout the New York CMSA. We employ data from 2001:2 to describe New York’s economic environment. The data characterize an establishment’s activity (using the primary standard industrial classification), its employment, and its U.S. postal ZIP code location. We then match ZIP codes to the census ZIP code tabulation area (ZCTA) geography, as well as to the year 2000 census-tract geography. This procedure enables us to convert all of the employment data to census-tract geography, which we use as our standard geographic unit of analysis. 4 In future work, the procedure will facilitate analysis of the relationship between local employment and residential patterns. However, as noted earlier, our focus in this paper is on employment and
9 Hispanic Metropolitan Chamber, P.O. Box
1837 Portland, OR 97207, 503-222-0280, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, www.hmccoregon.com. Helps Hispanic businesses grow, build a network for business contacts, provide leadership on community issues, influence public policy and expand opportunities for business in Portland Metropolitanarea. Fees: Corporate $1,000; Business 100+ employees $350; Government Agencies $350; Small Business $100; Non-Profits $100; Individuals $70; Students $10.
Major office deals in the HMA area in Q3 2014 include:
SRV sold the Derby Business Park in Espoo to Swedish investor Niam
The business park, which was completed in 2013, consists of 3 office towers and a parking facility and was almost fully let. It includes the head office of SRV and Siemens Finland. The sale price was not released.
tric power, the emissions caused by buildings with district heating per unit of built floor space are not really lower than in buildings heated by electric power or oil-fired systems. This is largely due to the clearly lower specific energy consumption of small buildings with electrical or oil-fired heating compared to that of apartments blocks connected to district heating networks. Most small buildings with electrical or oil-fired heating were constructed in recent decades, which explains their lower heat consumption compared to the apartment building stock. On the other hand, the lower emissions of district heating compared to other forms of heating are most clearly manifest in new constructions. Table 2 shows the shares of various forms of heat- ing in the cities and throughout the Helsinki Metro- politan Area. There have been no major changes in this distribution since 1990. The share of district heating has increased by a few per cent in Espoo and Vantaa. There has been a slight increase in the proportion of electrical heating in all of the cities, as small buildings were largely constructed with elec- trical heating over the period from 1990 to 2004. A substantial fall in specific heat consumption oc- curred in all of the cities during this period. The heat consumption of homes per resident also fell to some extent, even though residential density decreased by about ten per cent at the same time. The most important factor in overall consumption is the growth in heat consumption of residential build- ings, as these buildings account for more than half of all consumption. Services and the public sector account for over one third and industry for about ten per cent of heating consumption.
An increase in the number of displaced workers can lead to several long-term adjustments in the labor mar- ket. For example, rising displacements could raise the
unemployment rate, and the weakened job market could lower labor force participation. In addition, the potential of, or fear of, displacement could make workers who have not been displaced less likely to leave their jobs voluntarily. Moreover, firms involved in cost-cutting efforts may increase their use of part-time or temporary help, shifting jobs away from full-time employees. Fortunately, our review of four trends shows that only one labor market adjustment—a decline in the size of the labor force— appears to have left a lasting mark on the metropolitanarea.
Thanks to efforts on the part of the Regional Tourist Organisation of the Łódź Voivodship it was possible to
undertake well-organized tourism field research with- in a span of several months. It was mostly question- naire research and measuring accommodation stays. In 2008 the research was conducted by a team created by the Małopolska Tourism Organization, but since 2009 by the Institute of Urban Geography and Tourism Studies of the University of Łódź. The results along with their statistical, cartographical and descriptive analyses were published in collaborative works under the supervision of S. L ISZEWSKI (2010) and B. W ŁODAR - CZYK (2011, 2012).
The first step in building a second disaster recovery site was evaluating the current storage network and the application requirements in terms of interfaces. Figure 10 shows the initial storage network, which was made up of servers, storage devices, and storage networks based on ESCON, Fibre Channel, and FICON connections to support communications between these devices. The total storage, including direct storage and storage-area networking, was 20 terabytes of data.
This study evaluated the impact of high severity of illness patients on hospital utilization in the metropolitanarea of Syracuse, New York between 2012 and 2015. It employed the All Patients Re- fined Severity of Illness system developed by 3M™ Health Information Systems. These patients are important for the management and practice of nursing in acute hospitals. The study demonstrated that patients at extreme and major severity of illness generated 60 - 70 percent of the inpatient days for adult medicine and adult surgery in the combined Syracuse hospitals. Mean lengths of stay for patients at extreme severity of illness were two to four times the stays for these services. Inpatient readmission rates for extreme severity of illness patients were more than double the rates for these services. The study data also indicated that the impact of patients at high severity of illness was increasing over time. The study also demonstrated that recent efforts of the Syra- cuse hospitals have produced reductions in the numbers of excess patient days for adult medicine and surgery, but limited reductions in the mean lengths of stay for these patients. The data sug- gested that meeting the needs of these patients is especially challenging in a small metropolitanarea without an additional level of care within the continuum.
The horizontal change in spatial use, characterized by the existence of urban activity functions which develops linearly, along the road corridor has a positive correlation with the dynamics of spatial transformation and economic growth of suburbs. Furthermore, the accessibility to the main roads, cities and services positively affected while the proximity to industrial lands most negatively influenced growth patterns (Dadashpoor et al., 2019). This is characterized by centralized urban activities in certain locations, leading to agglomerations and sprawl or shrinkage which indicates the expansion of the built area, therefore, causing environmental degradation in the city area (Patra et al., 2018). However, facts gathered from the field show that the Hertasning-Samata road corridor contributes to the increase in the rate of urbanization and local economic productivity which is positively associated with the conurbation that leads to the integration of the Metropolitan Mamminasata municipal system. Local economic factors and the spatial influence of the infrastructure network both contribute to the changes in urbanization to a varying extent (Zeng et al., 2019).
The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act mandates that the minimum wage provide for the health, efficiency, and well-being of workers. Maslow’s first tier on the Hierarchy of Human Needs suggests humanity’s highest needs include food, drink, and shelter. A minimum wage of $9.25 per hour at full time employment does not adequately provide for these standards. Minimum wage workers rely too heavily on government assistance and cannot adequately afford housing. Furthermore, wage subsidization through social safety net benefits imposes a significant burden on taxpayers. This report concludes that raising the minimum wage to $14.75 per hour in the Portland MetropolitanArea through Senate Bill 1532 adequately provides a “living wage” to full time minimum wage workers.
Renters will only pay a premium for these types of locations if there is sufficient demand relative to the supply. Major international airports (e.g., LAX (Los Angeles international airport) and O'Hare) are just the types of locations that are likely to have some intrinsic value and are limited in supply. As a result, transportation related firms are likely to compete, bidding against each other to be close to large international airports and as a result, drive up rents. In contrast, interstate highways and railways are much more ubiquitous in most cities and metropolitan areas. Thus, we should expect that the
reactivation of the old one. In the recent years (2009) about 21 peoples were killed in Darjeeling hills. This landslide triggered by cyclone Aila which causes heavy rainfall. Another devastating landslide triggered in Mumbai which killed at least 11 people and injured more than 10 people. Landslides are major natural disaster in Nepal because of its geographical location, geological characteristics, unpredictable climatic variation (intense rainfall), and human intervention in unplanned settlement development, agricultural activity in the fragile hill slope and landslide vulnerable area. The average annual rainfall in the central region of this country is 2000 mm to 3000 mm. In addition to these, stone-quarrying, improper mining and dam construction also aggravates landslides events in Nepal. The major landslide prone in Nepal is Siwalik range which is composed of weak sedimentary rocks, Lesser Himalaya and part of Higher Himalaya. Majority of the landslide events found in the eastern, central and western part of Nepal. This distribution of landslide mainly varies due to the topography and amount of rainfall. On 2 nd August 2014, a massive devastating landslide triggered by incessant rainfall Sindhu palchowk District. This landslide killed 33 people and fully or partially damaged 171 houses in the affected area (SDMC, 2014).
This paper presents the concept of using the Kerberos to improve the security in metropolitanarea network. Kerberos provides secure authentication and authorization functionality for the client. After the client is authenticated and authorized, client can communicate and transfer the messages to the server using AES algorithm. Thus AES algorithm provides secure means of information transformation to the server.