The gas dynamic spray (GDS) process or “cold spray” is a burgeoning coating technology that is still mostly in the development stage. It has huge potential and is already in use in many different industrial sectors; however, to reach its full potential it will need to be fully understood and characterized, which presently has not been done. The use of ultrasonic techniques is a well-established and understood technology. A common application of ultrasonics is for the use of non-destructive testing. With the proper considerations, it is possible to characterize the samples being studied and even draw conclusions about whatever process is being studied. In fact, it is already well established that the spot welding process may be studied and monitored during the actual welding process . These considerations led to the idea that perhaps the GDS process could be studied and become better understood with the use of ultrasonic techniques. Thus the purpose of this work was to attempt to study the GDS process and characterize its properties based on ultrasonic properties, with the main focus being on developing a system to monitor the process online (as it happens).
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The initial consolidation settlement process of saturated cohesive soils has been one of the most important issues to geotechnical engineers especially in important and sensitive structures based which are located on saturated clay layer with high thickness. In dealing with initial consolidation settlement process and reducing its negative and destructive consequences, a number of solutions have been presented including but not limited to the implementation of horizontal and vertical sand drainages, pre-loading and dynamic compaction; limitations of these methods include the necessity of implementing them before construction of the project. Furthermore, if the underground water level goes lower than regarded values, no appropriate approach else than the overhead reduction approach has been provided. In present research, with addition of concentrations of 250, 750 and 1250 Mg/lit in saturated water, laboratory study of the changes in initial consolidation settlement process, were investigated by standard Oedometer test device upon the addition of different concentrations of the cations, dissolved in saturated water on cylindrical samples of Bojnord clay with 2 cm in height and 7.5 cm
Hip hemiarthroplasty is a common treatment for femoral neck fracture. However, the acetabular carti- lage may degenerate after hemiarthroplasty leading to postoperative failure and the need for revision surgery. The clearance between the acetabular cartilage and head of the prosthesis is one of the potential reasons for this failure. In this study, the inﬂuence of joint clearance on the biomechanical function of a generic hip model in hemiarthroplasty was investigated using biphasic numerical simulation. Both a prolonged loading period of 4000 s and dynamic gait load of 10 cycles were considered. It was found that a larger clearance led to a higher stress level, a faster reduction in load supported by the ﬂuid and a faster cartilage consolidation process. Additionally, the mechanical performance of the acetabular cartilage in the natural model was similar to that in the hemiarthroplasty model with no clearance but different from the hemiarthroplasty models with clearances of 0.5 mm and larger. The results demonstrated that a larger clearance in hip hemiarthroplasty is more harmful to the acetabular cartilage and prosthesis heads with more available dimensions (i.e. smaller increments in diameter) could be manufactured for surgeons to achieve a lower clearance, and reduced contact stress in hemiarthroplasty surgeries.
What is more, the effects of the realiza- tion of land consolidation process in the Łubka and Zaliszcze areas were: the abolition of shared ownership, regulation of the course of estates bor- ders, launch of land record accordingly to the ap- plicable standards, actualizations of current and launching of new land registers for record plots created as a result of consolidation. These activi- ties defined the current legal condition of estates and ensured the safety of the real estate. Accord- ing to Taszkowski et al. , the basic geo-le- gal procedures which have a direct influence on the improvement of the quality of cadastral data are primarily land consolidations. However, the quality of the cadastral data is the basis for the estate cadastre functioning, which is the basis of the Estate Information Integrated System.
series does not allow for a more robust time series apparatus to be deployed, but the nature of the depend- encies presented makes it possible to partly disclose the structure and power of the influences affecting the land consolidation processes in the country. The land consolidation process is a financially demanding process, the possibilities of budgeting are limited, the rational planning and evaluation of use of resources could enhance the overall productivity.
A vertical drainage system can be installed in order to accelerate the consolidation process and help to improve discharge of excess pore pressure in the sub soil. In this way, a stable situation is reached more quickly, thus shortening the filling time dramatically. At the same time, the settlement process is accelerated to such an extent that earthwork finishing off processes can be started earlier. All of this results in a substantially shorter construction time which may be important both economically and socially.
The one period when P. spumarius nymphs must remain submerged within their spittle occurs during the moult from final instar into adult. During this transition, the spittlebug produces a large single bubble of air in the centre of the foam (Fig. 1C). How they produce this chamber has not been determined, but it is entirely plausible that the spittlebug uses the same bubble-consolidation process as was observed when spittlebugs were forcibly submerged in their foam: the tip of their abdomen can break the surface tension of the spittle film around the bubbles, causing them to merge. Repeating this process within the centre of the spittle mass would consolidate the many small bubbles into a single large bubble chamber. However, the adult froghopper that emerges from the exuviae of the final instar must remain sealed within this bubble chamber for some period of time, as it possesses neither the flexible abdomen nor the ventral groove needed to break through the foam and access atmospheric O 2 . As a result, the P O 2 inside the bubble chamber was on average
The analytical results in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 as well as the values of settlement and consolidation in Table 1, Table 2 clearly show the similarity between the calculation by SCRIP 04 program and the complete numerical method. in accordance with the theory. Calculated results by SCRIP 04 program are extracted from point 8 with coordinates (0,0). These comparative evaluations have proved the accuracy of SCRIP 04 program.
standardized and neutral for consistency across the board with only a few changes made to target specific groups of respondents such as international donors. The interviews were also mostly conducted in the interviewees’ offices, homes, and restaurants, where they were most comfortable. The researcher maintained a neutral position regardless of the respondents’ ideological leanings and ensured reliability by clearly outlining procedures and processes involved in the research process since the quality of comparative qualitative research heavily depends on the individual researcher’s range of skills and experience. The researcher took a master’s level course on research methods and analysis at City, University of London, besides having a solid background in research methods from both undergraduate and graduate levels and over ten years of practical fieldwork experience in Africa. All these undertakings provided the researcher with the capacity to conduct credible fieldwork research, integrate convergent and divergent evidence and critically make sense of evidence and present coherent arguments. Regarding data analysis, the study employed a hybrid thematic analysis, which may sometimes miss nuanced data (Guest and McQueen, 2012) - a shortcoming whose effect was reduced in this study through continuous reading and re-reading of data in the process of data analysis. Secondly, because of the nature of doctoral research study, the data were coded, and themes identified only by the researcher. However, the analysis was widely discussed with both supervisors and their comments, insights, and suggestions used to improve the quality of the study. Thirdly, the flexibility of thematic analysis requires that the researcher decides what aspects of the data to focus on and which ones to leave out (Braun and Clarke, 2006). However, this was not a serious problem for this study since most of the codes were derived from the research questions and the theoretical framework, while other codes were generated from the data.
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The process of introduction of value added tax and development of VAT rates in countries should be examined on several levels. The ﬁ rst is the level of harmonization, since the EU legislative activities are aimed at coordinating and harmonising VAT law for the purpose of a proper functioning internal market. According to 67/227/EEC, the introduction of value added tax is necessary for several reasons, such as creation of a common market with fair competition and achieving simplicity and tax neutrality, which is proved a powerfu organising concept in the economic assessment of tax reform (Kay and King, 1990; Leape, 1990; OECD, 2011; Mirrlees et al., 2011; Raisová, Buleca and Michalski, 2014). To tax harmonization issues are devoted several studies of domestic and foreign origins like Nerudová (2008), Wide (2010, 2012), Bušovská (2012), Kolassa (2014) and others.
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layers. It was reported that the slowest roller speeds were needed at the lower layers, with the maximum achievable speed at the second layer being roughly 2 mm/s. In addition, high stress concentrations were reported to be detrimental to bonding. Due to the small contact width and high normal stress concentration experienced by the material, small roller sizes were reported to decrease the achievable roller speeds. Lastly, irregular surfaces reduce the time necessary for the autohesion process to begin where polymer chains diffuse and entangle. As a result, a layup at any other orientation than [0/0] increases the overall dwell time. This concept was researched by Lee and Springer . The results in this report match these results, with high compaction forces causing delamination. In addition, the analysis performed in section 6.3 show how concentrated the compaction pressures are.
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To address this issue, the discipline of requirements engineering becomes vital for the CIC development. This discipline can influence not only the attributes of the systems but also how well it is targeted to user needs, the accuracy of the design and specification, the ultimate cost and quality of the final product (Cysneiros, 2002). The main focus of this paper is to demonstrate an understanding of requirements engineering to facilitate human centred, adaptive software systems development with close collaboration with the construction stakeholders. The DIVERCITY (Distributed Virtual Workspace for Enhancing Communication within the Construction Industry) project is a CIC system that has been developed by European project consortium in collaboration with industry and forms a good example of industry-oriented CIC system development. The success of this system is demonstrated through the adaptation of a requirements engineering approach. Therefore, this paper will introduce the DIVERCITY project as a case study that builds on the contextual knowledge of requirements engineering. The paper adopts a structured approach to analyse strengths and weaknesses of DIVERCITY’s approach and develops and a framework for adopting requirements engineering process in the CIC systems developments.
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Unlike the pure metals, for both Cu-Ni alloys (Figures 2c and 2d) it can be seen that with increased milling time, the nickel diffraction peaks diminish until they disappear, and only the copper peaks remain, suggesting the formation of a total solid solution occurring in both cases after 5 hours of milling. Therefore, these samples were used for hot consolidation.
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It can be observed from the execution of the said MPI programs that number of nodes in a cluster must be in accordance with the target application. Also that a larger application needs more number of compute nodes else the problem cannot be solved due to shortage on resources. The time required for process migration and consolidation of the result on the master node increase with increase in number of nodes. Thus it can be noted that number of nodes must be increased with a care so that performance gain can be genuinely achieved.
Existing models for powder consolidation have been extended to general axisymmetric domains in order to take into account geometrical effects. In this process and as with those prior models, averaging on horizontal cross sections plays a fundamental simplifying role. The resulting system consists of an essentially parabolic PDE, and an ODE in space and an integral equation. In spite of the strong nonlinear coupling, those can be thought of as respectively equations for the gas pressure, the vertical stress and the height of the powder. A fundamental and problematic material parameter is the ratio à between wall stress and
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Historians like Robbins, seeking to reinterpret the historiography of the West through a class-analytic or core-periphery framework have, not surprisingly, been dismissed as substituting ideology for evidence. Robbins counters by pointing out that "all interpretations are political in their potential for shaping myth"(1994, pg. 6), rejecting the very positivism that plagues the social sciences in general and economics in particular. For Robbins, not unlike many heterodox economists, the rejection of positivism is linked with the struggle against imperialism as it is understood as both process of oppression in ways of doing economics and its very real manifestation as violent expression of power.
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5.- Emerging human rights are intended to modify, improve and transform a number of concepts already traditional in the area of human rights so as to achieve greater guarantees and protection of individual and collective rights. One of the big changes that will be brought about by the conception of emerging human rights will be their consideration as the beginning of the fifth historical process in the consolidation of human rights after positivization, generalization, internationalization and specification, namely the process of interaction. We argue that in the 21st century, in order to go beyond the great advances that have already been made in the history of humanity in the area of human rights, we need to promote and strengthen the existing structures and, more than anything, commit ourselves to real and not just theoretical complementarity to enable the reciprocal activation of the various concepts, categories, approaches, areas of action, etc. that coexist in the world of human rights. Indeed emerging human rights are the starting point of this fifth historical process in the consolidation of human rights: the process of interaction. By analysing emerging human rights we have been able to see that their conceptualization involves encouraging various processes of interaction – fourteen at least – which are: 1) the interaction between the concept and foundation, the history and the legal theory; 2) the interaction between the components of the three-dimensional conception of law and, therefore, of the conception of human rights (value, regulation and social reality); 3) the interaction between the different branches of law; 4) the interaction between human rights and duties; 5) the interaction between democracy and human rights; 6) the interaction between universalism and particularism in human rights; 7) the interaction between different generations of human rights; 8) the interaction between the six dimensions of rights; 9) the interaction between the national and international planes in the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms; 10) the interaction between the categories of individual rights and collective rights; 11) the interaction between expensive rights and cheap rights; 12) the interaction between considerations concerning penalties and prevention in the area of human rights; 13) the interaction between theory and practice in human rights; and 14) the interaction between the state and civil society in the creation of policies in the area of human rights.
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The consolidation coefficient is the most basic parameter to calculate the consolidation rate of soil layer, and the horizontal consolidation coefficient controls the radial water flow into the drainage well. Based on the back- ground of the soft soil in Shantou, Guangdong Province, a series of experi- mental studies on the consolidation characteristics were carried out by using the modified consolidation instrument. And the concept of the composite consolidation coefficient of the drained water body was put forward. The composite consolidation coefficient reflects the consolidation characteristics of soft soil with drainage water, The test results showed that: 1) The consoli- dation test with drainage plate is basically consistent with the load compres- sion curve, but its consolidation rate is fast, which is reflected by the compo- site consolidation coefficient. 2) In the consolidation test of water bodies with drainage, the vertical consolidation coefficient and radial consolidation coef- ficient are calculated by “three-point method”, and then the composite con- solidation coefficient is obtained. The composite consolidation coefficient decreases with the increase of drain spacing ratio, effective drainage diameter and drainage height, which is basically consistent with the theoretical formu- la. 3) The vertical consolidation coefficient and radial consolidation coeffi- cient decrease with the increase of the diameter of the sample, and the differ- ence is obvious when the load is large. The large-size model with a diameter of 100 mm and a height of 100 mm is about 1.35 times of the vertical consol- idation coefficient of the conventional consolidation test.
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Further insights into the complexity of system consolidation have been provided by imaging studies. Positron emission tomography (PET) in both motor tasks and tasks that used emotional stimuli to elicit amyglada activity illustrated that activity patterns changed as a consequence of both learning and time (Cahill et al., 1996). Over the course of several hours different brain regions experienced bursts in activity lending support to the idea that consolidation involves a time-dependent reorganization of memory which may underlie its increased stability (Shadmehr & Holcomb, 1997). Haist, Gore and Mao (2001) used the famous faces remote memory test and fMRI to examine the activity of both neocortical and MTL regions. The study revealed a time-limited role of the MTL regions in LTM recollection. Imaging techniques have not been limited to human subjects. Several studies have noted gradual reorganization of memory in animals with the cortex serving as the ultimate repository (Bontempi, Laurent-Demir, Destrade & Jaffard, 1999). Other studies, however, have proposed uniform activation in both
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With these information, the electric ﬁeld is thought to be another dominant process variable in spark pressure sintering for the occurrence of a low temperature densiﬁcation, which ought to occur under an extremely high pressure, in amorphous and/or nanocrystalline ZrO 2 -20 mol%Al 2 O 3 .