In addition, the number of pairing operation will increase during encryption and decryption, which increase computation overhead on sender and receiver [11]. One of the efficient constructions of the CP-ABE in terms of ciphertext **length** can be found in the [7] [8]. In that the size of ciphertext depending linearly upon the number of attributes. For example in threshold scheme, where there are t or more attributes required to decrypt by user, then the size of ciphertext in [7] is and in [8] . Both scheme use secret sharing scheme by Shamir [9] and uses the monotonic access structure. All the approaches mentioned so far achieve the security in the generic model. In [10] authors achieve the full security but size of ciphertext was . In [11] authors proposed the **constant** **length** ciphertext using the threshold system. So this scheme suffer with the problem that number of attributes in user’s secret key is same as the number of attributes in policy, this scheme achieves **constant** **length** ciphertext as well as **constant** **length** secret key **length**. In [12] authors proposed the **constant** **length** ciphertext in threshold ABE based on the dynamic threshold encryption scheme from [13].

Show more
12 Read more

First, the prediction model is presented including the effect of a perforated plate at different positions in the well. The simplest **constant** **length** structure with perforated plates in the wells has been optimized to obtain better absorption without any resistant layer on the top. However, as will be shown, this structure cannot provide wide frequency band absorption. It is essential to include different depth wells to get wide frequency range absorption. A numerical optimiza- tion is performed to obtain better absorption by adjusting the position of the perforated plates in the wells, and the depths of the wells. The theoretical results have been compared with experimental results, and good agreement achieved. The sig- nificant improvement at low frequency range is clearly shown when comparing this kind of absorber with profiled absorber without in-well perforations. The final part of the paper investigates a more straightforward design methodol- ogy than numerical optimization. It is shown that by follow- ing a couple of simple principles good absorption can be achieved without resorting to numerical optimization.

Show more
,1 E fc E gb EP fs Et I' J Tf J~ f- numerical constant numerical constant initial cross sectional area final cross sectional area numerical constant numerical constant length of inclusio[r]

343 Read more

same direction as[19] for the PKI-based scenario). With respect to non-interactive aggregate signatures in the identity-based setting, the most e ﬃ cient proposal is from [20]that does not achieve **constant**-**length** aggregation: the **length** of the aggregate signature does not depend on the number of signed messages, but on the number of di ﬀ erent signers. Using the approach of this work, we can achieve exactly the same level of partial aggregation for identity-based signatures. In e ﬀ ect,let us consider our generic construction, and let us assume that the employed PKI-based signature scheme S allows **constant**-**length** aggregation. The the input of the aggregation algorithm would be { (id i , sig msk (id i ∥ pk i ) , pk i , m i , sig i } 1 ≤ i ≤ n , where sig i

Show more
15 Read more

We recently tested the Fenn effect quantitatively (Ortega et al., 2015). By coupling magnetic resonance spectroscopy with in vivo **length** and force measurements in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle in humans, we were able to control the magnitude and duration of force production. Under these conditions, muscle movement (shortening, **constant** **length** or lengthening) is the only experimental variable as both the magnitude and duration of force production (the force – time integral, FTI) are held **constant**. In all cases, the energy cost was a linear function of the load (Fig. 2A). These experiments controlled velocity and revealed that the energy cost was highest when the muscle shortened and quantitatively equal to the isometric cost plus work done by the FDI muscle. The cost of force production was the least when the muscle was stretched (Fig. 2B) (Ortega et al., 2015). The minimal energy difference observed in lengthening contractions may have been increased if the muscle had been actively, rather than passively stretched. The simple interpretation is that if muscle is held to a **constant** **length** or if it is stretched, the energy cost of producing force is greatly reduced relative to a shortening contraction, suggesting that an elastic element ‘ partners ’ with cross-bridges to reduce the cost of force production.

Show more
The analysis is made by keeping the crack **length** at one hole **constant** (Crack I) and the increasing the crack **length** of the other hole (Crack II) until it reaches close to the other crack. The increase in the crack **length** (Crack II) shows an increase in the stress intensity factor of the crack. The increase in the stress intensity factor causes the decrease in the Beta value. The crack having **constant** **length** (Crack I) also has an impact due to the change in the crack **length** of the crack from the other hole (Crack II). The stress intensity factor of Crack I start increasing even without any change in the crack **length**. The change in the stress intensity factor of Crack I is similar to that of change in the stress intensity factor of the Crack II.

Show more
All experiments were conducted in the small-scale low-turbulence wind tunnel at the Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Japan. The test section is a closed octagonal shape with a diagonal **length** of 290 mm. The residual turbulence level at a freestream velocity of 15 m/s is less than 0.03%. See more detail in Kohama et al. [7]. In order to keep the static pressure in the test-section close to the atmosphere pressure, four diffuser flaps are attached downstream of the test section. The room temperature is kept **constant** at 25.0 ˚C and as a result the working air temperature in the test section, for instance 21.5 ˚C, is also maintained **constant**.

Show more
10 Read more

Ci/ml) from 4.5 to 5.5, 6 to 7, and 7 to 8 h postinfection. Intracellular RNA was isolated, and the viral mRNAs and RF RNAs were separated in 0.8% agarose gels. Consistent with previous finding (29), positive-strand RNA synthesis continued for at least 3 h after the addition of drug (Fig. 6A). Impor- tantly, transcriptionally active full-**length** and subgenomic- **length** RF RNAs were evident throughout the labeling period (Fig. 6B). The gels were scanned by AMBIS RIS for determi- nation of radioactivity in each mRNA and RF RNA (Fig. 7A and B). Although cycloheximide treatment rapidly prevented additional increases of radiolabel into the RF RNAs probably by blocking new negative-strand RNA synthesis and to a lesser extent the rate of positive-strand RNA synthesis (29), previ- ously transcribed negative-strand RNAs remained in transcrip- tionally active RI RNAs. Cycloheximide treatment also ap- peared to equally affect the synthesis of new full-**length** and subgenomic-**length** negative strands, as evidenced by reduced levels of RF RNAs (Fig. 7C). These data indicate that the subgenomic negative strands remain actively engaged in the synthesis of many new positive-strand RNAs and likely func- tion as the principal templates for mRNA synthesis during MHV infection.

Show more
A previous analytical salinity intrusion model was devel- oped by Gisen (2015a), from which the K values resulted in a range of 0.20–0.75 by calibration and 0.22–0.71 by pre- diction. These solutions cover a wider range than our esti- mates because of Gisen’s assumption that K does not depend on river discharge and because of three improvements made in this paper. Firstly, we used the local hydraulic parameters to simulate the salinities, while Gisen used a **constant** depth and no damping ( = 0). In addition, by using an uncertainty bound of 25 % on fresh water discharge we could reduce the inaccuracy of the tail of the salinity curve and obtain a better fit (where K matters most). And finally, all geometric analy- ses were improved by revisiting the fit to observations.

Show more
19 Read more

Abstract The failure behavior of wood with a short crack was examined by conducting the single-edge-notched bending tests of a radial-longitudinal system on Agathis specimens. In the test, the mode I critical stress intensity factor was measured, and its validity was checked by the result from double cantilever beam testing method. The mode I critical stress intensity factor decreased when the crack **length** approached zero. With crack **length** correction, a **constant** critical stress intensity factor was obtained over a wide range of crack **length** including crack- free specimen.

Show more
Part 1 of the definition of ρ (Definition 5.1) can be seen as blocking any small strategy similar to the one outlined in Theorem 4.1, where the Prover tries to learn long paths in f, because it generates lots of cases that the Prover must be able to remember, forcing his strategy to have many nodes. Part 3 of the definition does the same for strategies similar to the one in Theorem 4.2, where the Prover tries to remember a colour on many different nodes. (See Pudlák [16] for more on this kind of approach to **length** lower bounds.)

14 Read more

As in the quasi-polynomial result mentioned above, our starting point is the low-degree extension code. Under a suitable parameterization, this code is known to be a robust (full-fledged) LCC with almost linear blocklength and polylogarithmic query complexity. We shall first compose it with the polynomial **length**, polylogarithmic query, strong canonical, self-correctable and robust PCPP of Theorem 4. Since the foregoing PCPP is robust, this composition yields a robust RLCC with polynomial blocklength and slightly sub-logarithmic query complexity. Finally, we compose yet again with the exponential **length**, **constant** query, strong canonical, self-correctable PCPP from Theorem 3, which yields an RLCC with **constant** query complexity.

Show more
11 Read more

We performed calibrations of the bird-mounted videocamera’s focal **length**, distortion parameters and other optical parameters (Bradski and Kaehler, 2012; Cyganek and Siebert, 2009) using OpenCV version 2.3.1 programs written in Python 2.7 (http://www.python.org). The results indicated that the pinhole optics resulted in only small barrel distortions with a standard deviation of 0.8 pixels and a maximum range of deviation of ±1.5 pixels over the entire 1280×720 pixel image. The resulting focal lengths also were measured to ±0.5%, using filming of objects of known **length** as an additional check. For the head-mounted video of a gyrfalcon from another source, wide-angle lens distortions limited our ability to perform analyses of the angles (θ, χ) (Abu Dhabi Sports Council, 2011) beyond approximate values near the prey’s average apparent position.

Show more
10 Read more

Lpp LTA m m n N p pd pt po ps PO PT POT r, r˙ Td Ti u, v u ˙ , v˙ length of ship between perpendiculars length of target ship positive constant mass of the ship constant yaw moment point[r]

14 Read more

The Assembler associates a length attribute with a symbol defined in the label field of a source code line representing an instruction, constant, or storage defi[r]

164 Read more

driver), laser source and Mach-Zehnder modulator. A pseudorandom sequence of bits is generated by data source at a rate of 10 Gbit/s modulator driver which produces NRZ format pulse with 0.5 duty cycle. Frequecny range is 193.1 to 193.8. Mach-Zehnder modulator have 30db Excitation ratio. One loop has been used. To completely compensate accumulated dispersion in the transmission fiber we have 150 km of SMF and 20 km of DCF. The total **length** of fiber channel is 170km. and two EDFA used before transmission fiber and DCF. At the receiver side, PIN diode which is used to change the optical signal into electrical signal. A low pass Bessel filter filters the noise. Dispersion is decresed in optical fiber by three dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) techniques. Figures and Tables are shown below

Show more
12 Read more

length of element in direction of heat flow m kinetic constant reaction CaCl28-4NH3 s1 kinetic constant reaction CaCl24-2NH3 s1 fraction of reaction CaCl28-4NH3 completed value from 0 to[r]

Input resistance, length constant, time constant and apparent membrane resistance were consistently lowest in fibres from Anolis PBT = 30°C, CT mas = 37°C, intermediate in fibres from Sc[r]

14 Read more

Mites executed two distinct types of turns: pivoting and non- pivoting. Pivot turns involved a highly stereotypical gait in which the animal pivoted around the tarsus of the inside (ipsilateral) leg 3, which thus functioned like a grappling hook (Fig. 4; Movie 1). Non- pivot turns involved slower angular rotations and were accomplished by reductions in ipsilateral stride angles and proportional increases in contralateral stride angles (Table 3). Mites frequently turned through large angles when utilizing both types of turn; the mean changes in orientation for the turns analyzed were 103.4±48.8 deg (mean±s.d.) for pivots and 102.0±38.6 deg for non-pivots (Table 3). The turning radius in pivot turns (1.73±0.05 mm) was narrowly defined, approximating the **length** of leg 3 (1.71±0.023 mm), and significantly smaller than for non- pivot turns (2.99±0.31 mm, P<0.05; Table 3). In accordance with their smaller turning radii, pivot turns had higher angular velocities ( ω =795±64 deg s −1 ) when compared with non-pivot turns (567±79 deg s −1 , P<0.05). The highest angular velocity measured during a pivot turn was 1253 deg s −1 and the highest during a non- pivot turn was 1040 deg s −1 . Pivot and non-pivot turns did not differ in stride frequency or angular rotation per gait cycle (Table 3). Pivot and non-pivot turns also did not show any significant difference in stride frequency when compared with straight-running animals (N=8) over a similar temperature range (P>0.1).

Show more
10 Read more

As shown in Fig. 6, in the inlet section, the volume fraction of the juice in both smooth and baffled tubes, at 1 mm distance from the tube wall is unit. As seen in Fig. 6, by moving toward the middle section of the tube a fall in the liquid volume fraction at a 1mm distance from the tube wall could be seen in both smooth and baffled tubes. Nevertheless, the decrease of liquid volume fraction in the baffled tube is considerably higher and it could be seen, by reaching the 0.75m distance from the inlet, the volume fraction is almost zero. This is occured while in the smooth tube, the liquid volume fraction in the outlet is about 0.2. It can be concluded that by the installation of baffles at the inner side of the falling film tube walls, there is a possibility to reduce evaporator **length**.

Show more
14 Read more