Constitution of the Russian Federation

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Relationship among the President, Prime Minister and Parliament of Russia under the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation

Relationship among the President, Prime Minister and Parliament of Russia under the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation

Considering the above statements and the scarcity of relevant literature, this paper discusses the relationship among the president, the prime minister and the parliament of Russia under the Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993) (henceforth: Constitution). It engages in exploring the following question: How is the relationship among the president, the prime minister and the parliament of Russia under the 1993 Constitution? The main objective is to illuminate the interaction of each of the state branches, as defined by the mutual rights and re- sponsibilities within the organic interface. The paper is consisting of the follow- ing five sections: The first section introduces the research background and brief- ly explains the constitutional principles that serve as a foundation for the rela- tionship among the president, the prime minister with the parliament; the second section discusses the parliament of Russia (Federal Assembly) under the Constitution. In particular, it looks at its interaction with the executive branch; the third and fourth sections elaborate on the legal and constitutional status of the president and the prime minister and their relationship with the Federal As- sembly; and finally the paper is summed up by providing conclusions to the corresponding discussions and analyses.

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Legal Analysis of Ecocide in the Russian Criminal Law

Legal Analysis of Ecocide in the Russian Criminal Law

The Criminal Code of Russia following the provisions of part 4 of article 15 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and defining crime of ecocide at the national level consistently reproduces the relevant provisions of international criminal law on the mandatory inclusion of provisions on crimes against the peace and security of mankind in national criminal law. Any collision in understanding the signs of ecocide in national and international law must be resolved with reference to the constitutional rules of the priorities of the principles of international law for our country. Security interests of humanity as a whole absorb an environmental security interests and maintain the ecological law and order. Therefore if the act was done by committing

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Russian cases in the ECtHR and the question of implementation

Russian cases in the ECtHR and the question of implementation

By virtue of Article 15 (section 4) of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the [ECHR] as an international treaty of the Russian Federation is an integral part of its legal system, which obliges the State to execute judgments of the [ECtHR] based on the Convention and delivered on complaints against Russia, in respect of persons participating in the case. The [RUSSIAN CC] in its practice adheres to the approach aimed at undeviating execution of judgments of the [ECtHR], even if their content is based on application of methods of “evolutive interpretation,” “priority of the substance over form” and others, which can entail deviation from the positions elaborated by it earlier.

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FORMS AND MODELS OF SOCIAL ADAPTATION AND INTEGRATION OF FOREIGN STUDENTS

FORMS AND MODELS OF SOCIAL ADAPTATION AND INTEGRATION OF FOREIGN STUDENTS

testing showed that absolutely all teach- ers know that equity of all people in front of the law irrespective of gender, race, national- ity, etc. is enshrined in the constitution of the russian federation of 12.12.1993. it was also revealed that teachers know all the main pro- visions of the country’s basic law. this seems logical, since all employees of higher educa- tion are required to know the Constitution of russia and to follow its provisions in their daily practice.

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The Establishment of the Chinese Model of Freedom of Movement in the Perspective of Comparative Law

The Establishment of the Chinese Model of Freedom of Movement in the Perspective of Comparative Law

that our country is fundamentally different from the United States. First of all, their legal systems are different: As a country of case law, the constitutional judgments made by the courts are usually very instructive. The realization of constitutional protection of the right to freedom of movement through judicial adjudication can be said to have a basis of institutional rationality; the representative of the Chinese legal system, China mainly adopts statutory law. According to Article 67 of the Chinese Constitution, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is the sole organ to interpret the Constitution. The promulgation of a formal "Constitutional Interpretation Procedure Law" and the constitutional interpretation to regulate whether the effectiveness of the constitutional guarantee of the right to freedom of movement is weakened through constitutional interpretation is still an unknown issue. Secondly, the level of the rule of law is different, which is mainly reflected in the legal system construction and citizen legal literacy. As the world's largest developed country, American citizens have a high overall legal literacy, and they have a complete rule of law mechanism and a power balance mechanism. Freedom can be widely recognized and respected by the society; compared with the United States, it can be said that China's legal construction is relatively backward, citizens' legal literacy is generally not high, and lack of adequate supervision of public power. It is challenging to guarantee freedom of movement through constitutional interpretation.

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NON-MILITARY DETERMINANTS
OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION POLICY

NON-MILITARY DETERMINANTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION POLICY

Th is study analyses various non-military factors in shaping the security policy of the Russian Federation. Th is work undertakes to establish their substance, content and scope, and to draw the conditions and trends in the political, economic and social security of modern Russia in the context of its international ambitions, role and state security. In the work theoretical method analysis, synthesis, abstracting and generalization were used. Based on the results of the research, it was determined that the specifi city of its location defi nitely exerts an adverse eff ect on Russian state security. Th e reconstruction of imperial Russia is among the key goals set forth by Vladimir Putin in Russia’s foreign and military policy. In fact, the entire economic, political and military activity of Russia is subordinated to this goal. With regard to the economic and social state, the dependence of the Russian Federation on the extraction and export of crude oil and natural gas is an obvious indication of the constraints of its economy. Moscow’s particular interests are formulated in offi cial state documents, such as the Military Doctrine and the National Security Strategy. Th ese documents identify not only external and internal threats to state security but above all indicate the means and methods of possible deterrence.

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The European Union in the Arctic: A Pole Position? Bruges Regional Integration & Global Governance Papers 4/2012, December 2012

The European Union in the Arctic: A Pole Position? Bruges Regional Integration & Global Governance Papers 4/2012, December 2012

that vessels using the Route compulsorily subscribe to insurance for civil liability. It also reaffirms the state monopoly of the use of icebreakers in the waters of the NSR and determines the costs of an icebreaker escort on the basis of the volume of services provided. The agency will also assist the setting up of SAR operations along the route. More importantly, the law adopts a new definition of the NSR in Russian terms. Under this, the NSR includes internal waters, territorial waters, the contiguous zone and the EEZ and is delimited at its eastern end by the Bering Strait and in the west by the Novaya Zemlya Islands. As a consequence, maritime areas west of the Novaya Zemlya Islands are not governed by this new legal regime and fall under the common maritime regulations.

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The Concept of Information Support for Bi oresource and Ecosystem Research  in the North West Pacific: Theory and  Practical Implementation

The Concept of Information Support for Bi oresource and Ecosystem Research in the North West Pacific: Theory and Practical Implementation

Rational environmental exploitation, in turn, is a prerequisite for environmental security. According to the de- finition adopted in Russia (Federal Law No. 7-FZ “On Environmental Protection”, dated 10/01/2002 (ed. dated 25/06/2012)), environmental security means the environment and the vital interests of people protected from the possible negative impact of economic and other activities, natural and man-made disasters and their conse- quences. To ensure environmental security in this region, in 2007, the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS), together with a number of other scientific and industrial organizations, de- veloped a comprehensive program called “Modern environmental safety technologies for the Far Eastern seas for the sustainable socio-economic development of the Far East and Russia and effective Russian geopolitics in the Asia-Pacific region” [1] [25]-[27]. As the title of this program and the above definition suggest, “environ- mental security” refers to a range of interrelated food, economic, social security problems, etc. Therefore, many countries have included issues about environmental security in their national (state) security strategies. In par- ticular, National Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation up to the year 2020, approved by Presidential De- cree No. 537 on 12/05/09, contains the strategic objectives of environmental conservation and environmental management. Moreover, international non-governmental organizations have sprung up, which are involved in collecting data on environmental security, such as the Institute of Economic Security (IES), The Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability (FESS), and others [28].

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Bis(tetra­methyl­ammonium) di μ fluoro bis­­[aqua­tetra­fluoro­hafnate(IV)]

Bis(tetra­methyl­ammonium) di μ fluoro bis­­[aqua­tetra­fluoro­hafnate(IV)]

The authors thank the Institute of Chemistry of the Far East Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the University of Malaya for supporting this study. We acknowledge Dr V. B. Logvinova for assistance with the synthesis.

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Venison as the Staple Food of the Indigenous Minorities Inhabiting the North of Yakutia, Russian Federation

Venison as the Staple Food of the Indigenous Minorities Inhabiting the North of Yakutia, Russian Federation

almost one fifth of the territory of the entire Russian Federation. As far as the climate severity is concerned, this is an area of the cold pole of the northern hemisphere and extreme temperature fluctuations. Long-term average January temperatures in Oymyakon and Verkhoyansk are 49-50° C below zero, minimum temperatures are 68- 71° C below zero. Summers are short, but relatively hot (on the most part of the territory maximum temperature reaches 36-38°C above zero, on the coasts of the Laptev Sea it reaches 29-32° C above zero), with sustained sunshine (twenty-four-hour polar day). Domesticated reindeer population in

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Regulatory Aspects of Mining Waste Management in the Russian Federation

Regulatory Aspects of Mining Waste Management in the Russian Federation

Current Russian legislation (basic documents include the laws “On Subsoil” and “On Production and Consumption Waste in the Russian Federation”), regulating mining waste handling (“On Production and Consumption Waste” No. 89-FZ, 1998), does not have a single conceptual framework that would allow to consider the resource and environmental waste components in a consistent manner. Such a situation can be considered as the heritage of the centralized economy, where the production problems of the

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Gender Equality in the Context of the Laws of the Russian Federation and Republic of Abkhazia

Gender Equality in the Context of the Laws of the Russian Federation and Republic of Abkhazia

The Russian draft law (Chapter 2) envisages guarantees for securing equal rights and opportunities in science, training, education, economics, culture, labor and employment, as well as certain social relations (insurance, social care). The Law of the RA also sets various guarantees that the state will secure equality of men and women. Technically, comparing the methods set forth in the Russian draft law, one may detect quite a number of differences. For example, along with the need to secure equal rights and opportunities of men and women upon employment, equal accessibility of vacancies, equal remuneration for equal labor, equal rights as they pertain to advanced training, provision of safe labor conditions – for men and women alike – as in the Russian draft law, the Law of the RA complements this Article with provision about the need to apply the same disciplinary sanctions for the same offense committed by the employees, regardless of their gender (Article 5).

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An Asian alternative? Russia's chances of making Asia an alternative to relations with the West. OSW Point of View, June 2008

An Asian alternative? Russia's chances of making Asia an alternative to relations with the West. OSW Point of View, June 2008

Unfavourable terms. The slow pace of infrastructure development in the Far East suggests that Moscow has not been offered favourable terms and conditions for the possible sale of oil to that region’s markets. The Krem- lin aims to use the growing demand for energy resources in East Asia to make the countries of the region (especially China and Japan) compete for Russian oil. This could generate benefits for the Russian Federation, in both political and economic terms (thanks to higher prices). However, none of the countries has yet offered Russia satisfactory terms of co-ope- ration with regard to the price the countries are willing to pay for their oil, their contribution to pipeline construction costs, or their readiness to exchange shares in local energy-sector companies. Japan now seems to be much less interested in Russian oil supplies, even though several years ago it had been willing to finance the construction of a pipeline. The high level of corruption in the Russian energy sector, which affects its efficien- cy, is also a significant problem.

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Trudny "Sojusznik" Bialorus w polityce Rosji. Prace OSW 2008. = Difficult "ally." Belarus in Russia's foreign policy. OSW Study 28/2008

Trudny "Sojusznik" Bialorus w polityce Rosji. Prace OSW 2008. = Difficult "ally." Belarus in Russia's foreign policy. OSW Study 28/2008

Moscow’s current key objective in its military co- operation with Belarus is the creation of a regio- nal air defence system. After 1991, Russia did not create its own system on the Russian-Belarusian border, and kept using the existing Soviet system. In February 1995, this cooperation gained formal status – an agreement was signed to create a Joint CIS Air Defence System, where Belarus was one of the members. As of 1999, Russia has sought to create a regional Russian-Belarusian air defence system which would provide not only coordina- tion of air defence actions but also the establish- ment of a joint command of the air forces. How- ever, the bilateral negotiations have brought no results as yet. In late 2006, Russia submitted a draft agreement to create a joint air defence sys- tem, but the energy dispute that broke out tem- porarily halted the talks. According to official an- nouncements, the deal was finally to be signed in October 2007 during the meeting of the Russian and Belarusian defence ministers. However, the announcement proved to be unproductive once again, as the Belarusian party deliberately pro- tracted the process of signing the deal. Minsk is aware of the importance that Moscow attaches to the issue, and so Belarus seeks to strengthen its negotiation position in the talks concerning other spheres of cooperation (principally energy resource prices). Moreover, it is not in Belarus’ interest to become too closely militarily integra- ted with Russia, as it fears losing control over its air forces completely; the connection with Russia would be too close at that point, and therefore Belarus would become too dependent on its neigh- bour. This gives the impression that the current vague situation around the creation of a joint air defence system suits Minsk. Even though no do- cument on this issue has been officially signed, and no legal framework exists, the system does exist de facto, which is proved by the joint exer- cises 84 .

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Development of uranium mining and uranium processing in the Russian Federation

Development of uranium mining and uranium processing in the Russian Federation

Russia is engaged with international markets in nuclear technology, well beyond its traditional eastern European client states. An important step up in this activity was in August 2011 when Rosatom established Rusatom Overseas company, with authorized capital of RUR 1 billion. In mid-2015 it was split into JSC Rusatom Overseas Inc. and JSC Rusatom Energy International. Rusatom Overseas Inc is responsible for implementing non fuel-cycle projects in foreign markets, though apparently it also promotes products, services and technologies of the Russian nuclear industry generally to the world markets. According to Rosatom, "Rusatom Overseas acts as an integrator of Rosatom's complex solutions in nuclear energy, manages the promotion of the integrated offer and the development of Russian nuclear business abroad, as well as working to create a worldwide network of Rosatom marketing offices." Rusatom Overseas planned to open some 20 offices around the world by 2015, as a market research front and shop window for all Rosatom products and services.

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Epidemiology of Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis in the Russian Federation

Epidemiology of Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis in the Russian Federation

and it was checked whether they were published in the period 1991–2017. Then the abstracts were screened for eligibility and were excluded based on the following criteria: (i) if the study referred to parasites other than T. saginata; (ii) if the study did not apply to the Russian Federation; (iii) if the data presented in the study did not refer to the period 1991–2017; (iv) if the data presented in the study were not connected to the epidemiological characteristics of T. sagi- nata infection but rather focused on clinical features, ther- apy or parasite biology; and (v) if the study was just a general review of the topic, without original data. At the next step, the entire text of the manuscript was evaluated. Selected publications were additionally scrutinized and were excluded if only repeating epidemiological data pub- lished in official reports. Official reports we considered as eligible sources of data.

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Development of the Agrifood Market  in Southern Siberia of the Russian Federation  Based on Interregional Food Ties

Development of the Agrifood Market  in Southern Siberia of the Russian Federation  Based on Interregional Food Ties

The research aims at the development of theoretical and methodological aspects and practical offers on validation of agrifood market growth areas in Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation based on interregional food ties. Within the frame of the work theoretical aspects of agrifood market growth were specified, underlining internal and external factors peculiar for the modern stage of development. A methodological approach to the decomposition analysis of agrifood market development problems in the region was offered, the results of which made it possible to determine the main measures for adapting local agriculture to the new market conditions. By means of the method of mathematic economic modeling the authors suggested a scheme for applying the gravitation theory to interregional exchange of goods and set forth agrifood market growth areas on the basis of deepening interregional and international ties of Southern Siberia.

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Development and implementation of blended courses for Russian language teachers in Russia and abroad

Development and implementation of blended courses for Russian language teachers in Russia and abroad

In this area the philologists of Kursk State University set a goal to develop and test the concept of a personalized massive open online course “Modern Russian language (section “Morphology”) with elements of historical commentary "as a key element of a blended (online and offline) advanced training model in the framework of the project “Designing and implementing of a blended model (online and offline) based on massive open online courses, during advanced training of Russian language teachers and teachers of other academic subjects, conducting classes in the Russian language at Russian and foreign schools”.

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Sustainable Development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation: Ecological Aspect

Sustainable Development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation: Ecological Aspect

The experts in the field of environmental audit and management mark about 100 so-called «impact areas» of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation which are connected with the industrial production. In many areas, the ecological situation associates with such global consequences as the transformation of the geochemical background, the increased concentration of harmful substances in the environment, the observed increase in the population morbidity. In the whole, according to the experts’ opinion the territories of the Russian Arctic where there is a critical level of pollution amount at least 15% of the region’s area. «The leaders» in such rating are the Murmansk region (10% of specific emissions of pollutants), Norilsk region and Western Siberia (over 30%), Arkhangelsk oblast 7 .

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ECOLOGICAL SELF-EDUCATION OF ADULTS AS AN ELEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

ECOLOGICAL SELF-EDUCATION OF ADULTS AS AN ELEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Russian Federation, approved by order of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia dated August 14, 2013 No. 298, states that the task of developing a system of environmental, sani- tary and epidemiological education, education and upbringing on the treatment of MSW in conjunction with other activities, it will ensure the achievement of the main goal of the inte- grated strategy for handling MSW in the Rus- sian Federation – the prevention of the harmful effects of MSW on human health and the envi- ronment, as well as the involvement of waste components (organic matter, scrap metal, pa- per, glass and plastic containers, textiles, worn car tires, etc.), as an additional source of raw materials, semi-finished products, other prod- ucts or products for the production of goods (products), performing work, providing ser- vices or for power production.

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