CONSULTATION OF NON-STATE ACTORS AND LOCAL

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Contracting Authority: European Commission. Non-State Actors and Local Authorities in Development

Contracting Authority: European Commission. Non-State Actors and Local Authorities in Development

Due to these special circumstances, and the strategic relevance of this call for proposals, exceptional measures are applied, such as an increased rate of EU co-financing. 1.2. O BJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAMME AND PRIORITY ISSUES The global objective of this Call for Proposals is: to support actions, presented and implemented by Non- State Actors and Local Authorities, aiming at raising public awareness of development issues and promoting development education in the European Union (EU) and acceding countries, to anchor development policy in European societies, to mobilise greater public support for action against poverty and for fairer relations between developed and developing countries, and to change attitudes to the issues and difficulties facing developing countries and their peoples.
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STATE OF NEVADA TRANSPORTATION PLANNING NON-METROPOLITAN LOCAL OFFICIAL AND TRIBAL CONSULTATION PROCESS MARCH 2014

STATE OF NEVADA TRANSPORTATION PLANNING NON-METROPOLITAN LOCAL OFFICIAL AND TRIBAL CONSULTATION PROCESS MARCH 2014

SECTION 1: PURPOSE The Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) supports the importance of outreach and communication, especially in the transportation planning and programming processes. An open exchange of information among a wide array of transportation users, government officials and tribal leaders results in better decision-making and more publicly supported programs and projects. With increasing demands on limited public resources, transportation programs and projects require strong public support through an open and collaborative planning process. With this in mind, NDOT has developed the Transportation Planning Non-Metropolitan Local Official and Tribal Consultation Process. This document outlines plans to provide for ongoing consultations during transportation planning and
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Are Non-state Actors Better Innovators? The Ambiguous Role of Non-state Actors in the Transition Process: The Case of Benin and Madagascar

Are Non-state Actors Better Innovators? The Ambiguous Role of Non-state Actors in the Transition Process: The Case of Benin and Madagascar

Madagascar Tribune, 06 May 2003: “Administration de proximité: le ‘fokonolana’ remis au goût du jour”; - for a critique of the myth of the Fokonolona, as invented tradition, ill adapted to the considerable social differentiation at village level, cf. Gallon 1992). 8 “The fokonolona ties individuals together in a network of mutual obligations. Its meetings bring together in a cooperative setting people of different kinship groups within a village, and the common use of fictive kinship terms promotes the creation of an atmosphere of amity and solidarity (fihavanana), necessary for sincere cooperation. The fokonolona, however, traditionally has not been a democratic institution despite its town- meeting character, because its meetings tend to be dominated by influential local notables. Local political power remains a function of age and membership in a high-status kinship group; in some cases, the descendants of slaves (andevo) attend fokonolona meetings, but their influence is marginal. At fokonolona meetings, it is possible to see one of Madagascar's most striking cultural expressions, the kabary (discourse), a lengthy speech in which a speaker uses flowery and poetic language to make a critical point in a most indirect fashion. The people will listen silently from beginning to end. Those who disagree will not express their opinion but will counter with a speech that at first seems to support the first speaker but that actually contains a hidden counterproposal. Speakers may express their views by telling jokes. If people laugh or if they simply act according to the second speaker's proposal, the first has lost. Rarely if ever does an open confrontation between speakers occur.” Cf. 1upinfo, August 1994 Show more

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Are Non-state Actors Better Innovators? The Ambiguous Role of Non-state Actors in the Transition Process: The Case of Benin and Madagascar

Are Non-state Actors Better Innovators? The Ambiguous Role of Non-state Actors in the Transition Process: The Case of Benin and Madagascar

Madagascar Tribune, 06 May 2003: “Administration de proximité: le ‘fokonolana’ remis au goût du jour”; - for a critique of the myth of the Fokonolona, as invented tradition, ill adapted to the considerable social differentiation at village level, cf. Gallon 1992). 8 “The fokonolona ties individuals together in a network of mutual obligations. Its meetings bring together in a cooperative setting people of different kinship groups within a village, and the common use of fictive kinship terms promotes the creation of an atmosphere of amity and solidarity (fihavanana), necessary for sincere cooperation. The fokonolona, however, traditionally has not been a democratic institution despite its town- meeting character, because its meetings tend to be dominated by influential local notables. Local political power remains a function of age and membership in a high-status kinship group; in some cases, the descendants of slaves (andevo) attend fokonolona meetings, but their influence is marginal. At fokonolona meetings, it is possible to see one of Madagascar's most striking cultural expressions, the kabary (discourse), a lengthy speech in which a speaker uses flowery and poetic language to make a critical point in a most indirect fashion. The people will listen silently from beginning to end. Those who disagree will not express their opinion but will counter with a speech that at first seems to support the first speaker but that actually contains a hidden counterproposal. Speakers may express their views by telling jokes. If people laugh or if they simply act according to the second speaker's proposal, the first has lost. Rarely if ever does an open confrontation between speakers occur.” Cf. 1upinfo, August 1994 <http://www.1upinfo.com/country-guide-study/madagascar/
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Are Non state Actors Better Innovators? The Ambiguous Role of Non state Actors in the Transition Process: The Case of Benin and Madagascar

Are Non state Actors Better Innovators? The Ambiguous Role of Non state Actors in the Transition Process: The Case of Benin and Madagascar

Madagascar Tribune, 06 May 2003: “Administration de proximité: le ‘fokonolana’ remis au goût du jour”; - for a critique of the myth of the Fokonolona, as invented tradition, ill adapted to the considerable social differentiation at village level, cf. Gallon 1992). 8 “The fokonolona ties individuals together in a network of mutual obligations. Its meetings bring together in a cooperative setting people of different kinship groups within a village, and the common use of fictive kinship terms promotes the creation of an atmosphere of amity and solidarity (fihavanana), necessary for sincere cooperation. The fokonolona, however, traditionally has not been a democratic institution despite its town- meeting character, because its meetings tend to be dominated by influential local notables. Local political power remains a function of age and membership in a high-status kinship group; in some cases, the descendants of slaves (andevo) attend fokonolona meetings, but their influence is marginal. At fokonolona meetings, it is possible to see one of Madagascar's most striking cultural expressions, the kabary (discourse), a lengthy speech in which a speaker uses flowery and poetic language to make a critical point in a most indirect fashion. The people will listen silently from beginning to end. Those who disagree will not express their opinion but will counter with a speech that at first seems to support the first speaker but that actually contains a hidden counterproposal. Speakers may express their views by telling jokes. If people laugh or if they simply act according to the second speaker's proposal, the first has lost. Rarely if ever does an open confrontation between speakers occur.” Cf. 1upinfo, August 1994 Show more

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The bioterrorism threat by non-state actors hype or horror?

The bioterrorism threat by non-state actors hype or horror?

in making enough people sick in the actual attack. Second, the Share-A-Home program became too time-intensive to manage, requiring the leadership’s full and undivided attention. 76 If it was a test run, it was a success based on the escalation in casualties over previous trials—the cult actually made the local populace ill with this attack. This success begs the question of why the cult then failed to further employ BW as a tactic. Despite this success, the cult possibly viewed their objective in the November 1984 elections to be unachievable due to smaller than desired casualties or the failure of the complementary program in the strategy—Share-A-Home. Instead of continuing on with bioterrorism in conjunction with the Share-A-Home program, the group discarded both tactics to try other forms of terrorism to achieve their goals. 77 The group made a decision to terminate the BW program to move on to other strategies. Capability did not hinder future BW success rather other reasons forced the decision for early termination of the program. If the Share-A-Home program became unmanageable due to its size and scope, a decision to focus cult leadership on it becomes a viable reason to self-impose a stop to BW development and employment.
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Quantifying the Value of Sport Diplomacy to Non-State Actors

Quantifying the Value of Sport Diplomacy to Non-State Actors

14 promotes social values such as gender and racial equality, environmental sustainability, and the promotion of peace among others (Appendix B). 47 Through partnerships with local NGOs, the IOC used the 2016 Rio Olympics as a platform for peace promotion throughout South America. In Brazil, an organization called Fight for Peace established an academy to combine sports, such as boxing and martial arts, with education and personal development. The academy offers youth impacted by crime, violence, and social exclusion the tools, resilience and support structures needed to create a positive future. A similar program working in rural Northern Colombia offers multi-sport activities and tournaments with integrated development programs to enhance social cohesion. The mission is to build off of the energy of the Olympics to provide opportunities and affect behavioral change. 48
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Non-state actors and cultural heritage: Friends or foes?

Non-state actors and cultural heritage: Friends or foes?

However, it is clear that an effective protection of cultural heritage also requires incisive action at the domestic level aimed to control and discipline effectively the demand side of the market. First, States should introduce clearer legal prohibitions and stronger punitive measures criminalizing all activities related to trafficking in cultural objects. Penalties such as fines or imprisonment should be increased. In addition, punitive measures should be applied effectively and more widely, that is, not only against criminals –be they tomb raiders, thieves, or smugglers– but also against purchasers –be they art professionals or dilettanti. The law should impose a cost on those who contribute directly or indirectly to the looting of sites (69). For the deterrent effect of the legal regime to be most effective, the risk of detection and the certainty and severity of punishment must be high (70). Second, States should promote specialized training for law enforcement officers –police, customs, border officers, judges, and prosecutors. Third, national authorities should design initiatives to increase awareness among individuals and to stigmatize cultural van- dalism. It is only when people feel a stake in the local heritage and can appreciate the achievements of their forebears that they become willing to get involved in the
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The Legitimacy and Effectiveness of Non-State Actors and the Public Diplomacy Concept

The Legitimacy and Effectiveness of Non-State Actors and the Public Diplomacy Concept

This new source of ‘legitimacy’, based on the ‘efficacy’ with which they resolve citizens’ problems, demands more in‐depth consideration, especially because it coincides with the perception of the crisis of the state as the guarantor of the citizens’ safety and interests. A considerable number of studies attempt to account for this crisis. Some are particularly illuminating, as they analyze this crisis from the point of view of citizens who perceive the inefficiency of the state when it comes to resolving problems or protecting them from the risks that globalization causes in their everyday lives. Citizens end up by handing over the task of defending their interests to nonstate entities, or to local institutions that seem to be more effective in calling for improvements. (Beck, 2005: Castells, 2008).
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Governance and non-state actors in municipal solid waste management

Governance and non-state actors in municipal solid waste management

Jinja, Mwanza and Kisumu display significant variation as to how municipal authorities have shaped their relationships with the non-state actors in the field of solid waste management (SWM).The field studies reveal that in all the three councils, the local government is still at the helm of SWM so it is not a full market-governance for Jinja neither is it full community- governance for Mwanza. Governments in the three case studies still enjoy an unrivalled position in society, they are still the obvious loci of political power and authority. Though they have been engaged in some type of negotiations with these other significant structures in society, their dominant role remains unquestioned. These local governments are becoming increasingly dependent on the other societal actors but they have evolved as actors who remain in control of some unique power bases in society such as legislative powers, powers to award contracts, to determine service charge. Therefore while network governance could be the most appropriate to manage SWM, the realities on the ground echo the need perhaps for a renewed interest for and recognition of the importance of an active state in managing SWM. Therefore as much as effective market economies and societal institutions are essential they require functioning and capable state in order to operate and grow. This calls for certain improvements within the existing arrangements that build on the strength of the state and the non-state actors (modernised mixtures approach).
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Emerging Non-state Actors in Global Development: Challenges for Europe

Emerging Non-state Actors in Global Development: Challenges for Europe

Box 1 Tracking Private Giving in OECD Countries Since 2006, the Washington, DC-based Hudson Institute has published an annual Index of Global Philanthropy to chart private giving patterns. Initially motivated by a desire to counter the perception of American stinginess in development due to low levels of public giving as a share of national wealth, this report summarizes data on the volume of private financial flows across a number of categories, including direct investment, migrant remittances, and aid from private voluntary organisations. The Index is notable for its attention to collecting figures on global giving from private foundations and data on corporate philanthropy. While the focus of the Index has been on US private giving, the Hudson Institute is also an advocate for extending data collection efforts on private giving around the world, including philanthropic activity originating from developing countries. The Foundation Center and the Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy are other organisations in the United States tracking private giving efforts. The European Foundation Centre has sought to document resource allocation patterns among European foundations and outline guidelines for philanthropic engagement. Together with the US-based Council on Foundations, the European Foundation Centre has developed ‘Principles of Accountability for International Philanthropy’, which among other things highlights the importance of respecting local contexts and working together with other donors. Tracking patterns of resource allocation from the many varieties of private actors engaged in global development nevertheless remains difficult not only in source countries but also at the country level in the developing world.
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Gentle Warlords: The Potential for Violent Non-State Actors to Provide Stability

Gentle Warlords: The Potential for Violent Non-State Actors to Provide Stability

northern Nigeria. 4 The question then is why some VNSAs create stability while others lead to greater conflict and insecurity. I argue that a VNSA’s effect on stability is dependent on two variables: the group’s organization type and its relative strength. Organization type—clientelist, communal, or corporate –determines how the actor motivates its members, funds operations, and ultimately the objectives it pursues. The second variable, relative strength, indicates how militarily powerful the group is compared to other VNSAs and the local government. I hypothesize, for example, that corporate actors, those organized around a shared but non-ascriptive identity, such as membership in a guild or society, generally behave in a manner that is most likely to create stability. Because they profit primarily from the practice of their trade, not the activities of war, corporate actors tend to be minimally abusive of the civilian population and cause very little local instability. Similarly, because they are not mobilized around ascriptive identities, such as specific religious or ethnic groups, corporate actors avoid the dangerous identity politics that contribute to higher-level societal instability. These positive attributes should hold true whether a corporate actor is relatively weak or relatively strong. As a corporate actor grows in relative strength, it can push back hostile, destabilizing VNSAs without itself becoming a source of instability.
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The circulation of IPBES non-state actors between biodiversity and climate regimes

The circulation of IPBES non-state actors between biodiversity and climate regimes

We note that there are no North American organizations among the 53 Nonparticipating NSAs, perhaps reflecting the degree of their integration in the IPBES. By contrast, 19 of the 53 Nonparticipating NSA are European organizations that seem to have taken advantage of the window of opportunity opened by the IPBES and the consultation work initiated in Europe at the Leipzig meeting to advance their presence in the international arenas. At the heart of the Nonparticipating group, we find an over-representation of African organizations (18). Although there are 28 African organizations in the full sample, only 10 of them are present in the environmental forums, pointing towards the marginal position of nearly two thirds of the African actors. When we consider the degree of participation in the IPBES meetings of the 53 organizations in this category, only 7 of them have assisted in two or more IPBES meetings. This shows that almost 86% of these Nonparticipating NSAs have been relatively weak participants in the meetings.
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Engagement with non-state actors

Engagement with non-state actors

Non-State actors in official relations with WHO Report by the Director-General 1. “Official relations” is a privilege that the Executive Board may grant to nongovernmental organizations, international business associations and philanthropic foundations that have had and continue to have a sustained and systematic engagement in the interest of the Organization. The aims and activities of all these entities shall be in conformity with the spirit, purposes and principles of WHO’s Constitution, and they shall contribute significantly to the advancement of public health. 1 2. In accordance with the provisions of the Framework of Engagement with Non-State Actors, 2 entities in official relations with WHO are international in membership and/or scope, have a constitution or similar basic document, an established headquarters, a governing body, an administrative structure and a regularly updated entry in the WHO Register of non-State actors, through which such entities provide all the necessary information on their nature and activities.
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Non-State Actors Escaping Justice - Obligations Regarding Child Soldiers Applicable to Non-State Actors

Non-State Actors Escaping Justice - Obligations Regarding Child Soldiers Applicable to Non-State Actors

38 The legislative jurisdiction theory, or doctrine, is based on the ability of the State to legislate for all of its people and this legislation can originate from either international or national law. This principle applies even if some nationals decide to fight the regime. It works the same way when a State legislates in accordance with new international law which affects the rights and obligations. of the nationals. This theory works on the assumption that States can transform its own binding legal obligation as binding legal obligations for its nationals and the same goes for any NSA that works in the State’s territory. Although this assumption would be logical, it is problematic to draw such a conclusion based solely on the ratification to a treaty by the State. Moreover, this theory requires a nationality link which sometimes might be hard to establish when it comes to NSAs because they are protesting against the current regime and will often not acknowledge their nationality. This would also mean that in case any foreign fighters participate in the name of the NSA, they are not as bound by national law as some of the other fighters. Since NSAs often are multi- and transnational, such a principle would prove difficult. 84
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Sanctions against non state actors

Sanctions against non state actors

One trend in UN Security Council targeted sanctions against NSAs, noted above, is a move towards widening the concept of ‘threat to the peace’, so that action taken to tackle the threat include measures directed at deterring or stopping the violence by NSAs, and measures aimed at those responsible for violations of human rights law and humanitarian law. Although not present in the sanctions against UNITA, punitive non-forcible measures were included in the Security Council’s responses to the violence in Bosnia but in the form of the creation of an international criminal tribunal. This approach was developed in relation to Libya in 2011, when targeted sanctions were combined with a referral to the ICC. However, in more recent episodes, sanctions (in the form of assets freezes, travel bans etc.) have been imposed on NSAs either because they undermine the peace process or otherwise threaten the peace, but also if they threaten the human security of civilians, manifested in the commission of violations of international law. This is a reflection of a move towards not only securing peace within the state but also in establishing the security of individuals within it. Thus, although appearing to be a form of punishment for breaches of the law, they remain measures aimed at restoring peace and security but at the level of civilians as well as the state. As well as the examples mentioned above, whereby sanctions were taken on this basis against NSAs in the DR Congo, and the CAR, other examples can be found in Cote D’Ivoire, 95 Lebanon, 96 and Sudan. 97 However, in other instances, targeted measures are more clearly of the UNITA-type, being directed at those regime elites and NSAs who have threatened the peace; for example in Guinea-Bissau, 98 Iran, 99 North Korea, 100 Liberia, 101 Sierra Leone, 102 Somalia, 103 Eritrea, 104 South Sudan, 105 and Yemen. 106
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Framework of engagement with non-state actors

Framework of engagement with non-state actors

14. For each of the four groups of entities above, the overarching framework and the respective specific policy on engagement apply. WHO will determine through its due diligence if a non-State actor is subject to the influence of private sector entities to the extent that the non-State actor has to be considered itself a private sector entity. Such influence can be exerted through financing, participation in decision making or otherwise. Provided that the decision-making processes and bodies of a non- State actor remain independent of undue influence from the private sector, WHO can decide to consider the entity as a nongovernmental organization, a philanthropic foundation or an academic institution, but may apply relevant provisions of the WHO’s policy and operational procedures on engagement with private sector entities, such as not accepting financial and in-kind contributions for use in the normative work.
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case of non-state armed actors

case of non-state armed actors

Taliban still disputes the central concepts of civilians in a discursive way. In the recent response to the UN report on civilian protection, Taliban disputed the western conception of civilians: On several occasions, UNAMA counted the American and Kabul administration related armed forces as a civilian while not wearing military uniform and some others, while they do not distinguish between civilian and non-civilian Mujahideen. All those Taliban who are working in administration, education, health, court, reconstruction and other civilian sectors, are counted Taliban and their killings are not counted as civilian casualties. American and Kabul administration usually assume that all civilians that have been remained under control of Islamic Emirate Mujahideen are a legitimate target. Similarly, Mujahideen strictly limits its operations to military objectives while UNAMA criticizes them for using IEDs that IEDs cannot distinguish targets. While on the other side, they shut their eyes on American and Kabul
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Non-state actors and the use of force

Non-state actors and the use of force

Yet while nothing exists conceptually to prevent NSAs from carrying out an ‘armed attack’, the issue arises as to what constitutes such an attack. Although both were implicitly accepted as armed attacks giving rise to the right of self-defence the attacks by the NSAs in these two examples were of a starkly differing nature with the former using aircrafts as missiles with the resulting deaths of 3,000 civilians, while the latter resulted in the death of three military personnel from the use of an anti-tank missile and the abduction of a further two soldiers. The ICJ has adopted the position that armed attacks (that give rise to the right of self-defence), are distinguished from mere uses of force, (which do not), by their ‘gravity’ and ‘scale and effects’. 45 The 9/11 attacks can be clearly separated in their ‘scale and effects’ from the incident in Israel that sparked the war in Lebanon. The Court did not, however, elaborate further on how one is to make this distinction, 46 which has led some, such as Rosalyn Higgins, to argue that it is in practice operationally unworkable and that instead the legality of a forcible response will depend more upon the proportionality of the response as opposed to the gravity of the prior attack. 47 The above two examples arguably bear witness to this, as whereas the 9/11 attacks where so many lives were lost led to the forcible toppling of a governmental regime, the relatively minor attacks by Hezbollah led to more limited strikes within Lebanon. While the latter operation was accepted by the international community as a lawful action in self-defence, when Israel began targeting Lebanese state infrastructure condemnation of them as disproportionate became widespread. 48
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NON-STATE ACTORS IN CYBERSPACE OPERATIONS

NON-STATE ACTORS IN CYBERSPACE OPERATIONS

Scammers are usually considered to be the least skilled actors in cyberspace. The ordinary cyber scammers are similar to the real-world, analog counterparts, but instead employ information technology to defraud their victims. These scammers commonly make use of random spamming, trying to get the attention of victims by advertising fake lottery winnings, a recently discovered large inheritance, or a job offering with an unreasonably high salary, while masquerading as a trustworthy entity. This approach is sometimes called “phishing”, a term influenced by the related term “phreaking”, a portmanteau of the words phone and freak. Phishing refers to the use of tempting “baits”, in hopes that the potential victim will be tempted to “bite”, and thus fall for the scam. The motives of cyber scammers are almost universally pure economic gain, by deceiving the ones who respond to the scams into disclosing credit card details or other valuable information. However, there are more sophisticated and subtle scammers who target their victims carefully, perhaps after analyzing lists of stolen bank statements, open source intelligence gathering of personally identifiable information. This type if scam, sometimes called “spear phishing”, includes the use of advanced social engineering schemes to separate the victims with from whatever items of value that they may have.
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