Consumption and Consumer Society

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‘It’s a consumer society and bodies are for consumption as well’   Women’s views on the commodification and consumption of sex in contemporary society

‘It’s a consumer society and bodies are for consumption as well’ Women’s views on the commodification and consumption of sex in contemporary society

Given the ubiquity of images, within popular culture their consideration must form part of my research. Indeed, Martin Jay (1995, p.2 cited in Banks, 2007, p.17) argues that the modern world ‘is very much a seen phenomenon.’ Therefore providing the participants with visual imagery that they are used to engaging with facilitated the discussions and helped ensure they were meaningful for my research. Furthermore Banks (2007) states that there is, or can be, an immediate sensory experience that comes from encountering a visual image that other forms of text cannot replicate. Therefore, not including visual stimuli into my research design would have limited the richness of the data. A variety of mediums have been used to avoid repetition and encourage different flows of thought. Moreover the aim of the use of research materials was to a cover a wide variety in which sex is currently represented and sold in our society. The development and final choice of materials took a lot of consideration as I wanted to include a wide range of materials to demonstrate how sex can permeate society in many form, however some are much easier to represent than others. Sexualised advertisements are more accessible and tangible than the consumption of sex from a prostitute and as such it was, to some extent, easier to represent this section of culture than the more hidden sexual commerce. I did not want to load the focus groups with sexualised representations that were picked too subjectively by me, therefore, I chose materials that were current and topical which also meant the participants would easily engage with them. To try make sure the participants were aware of a wide range of the ways sex is sold I decided vignettes would be a suitable way to demonstrate the harder to represent forms such as prostitution, escorting and lap dancing.
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Deontologization of culture and identity transformation in the context of a consumer society

Deontologization of culture and identity transformation in the context of a consumer society

Abstract. The article substantiates the point that deontologization of culture as a process of collapse of principal value foundations resulted in the absence of stable worldview guidelines and in the establishment of principles of relativism and pluralism. Cultivation of an unlimited choice in the absence of a value-semantic hierarchy, which is characteristic of the Western European culture organized around mass consumption, has led to the inability to create stable identification models. As a result, one of the main problems of contemporary society has become the loss of a stable, holistic identity by a person. The instability of existence, the loss of value- semantic foundations assigned a task of constant self-construction of identity to a person. The principle of consumption as the dominant feature of modern times characterizes an individual lifestyle of a person. In the process of the historical transition to a consumer society, the source of identity formation shifted from the labour sphere to the sphere of consumption, leisure, entertainment. Self-identification of a person is closely related to consumerism. To a large extent, identity began to be determined by the consumer role rather than the class affiliation. As a result, consumption has become one of the main sources of self-identity. In consumer culture, identity is deprived of a fixed centre and appears as an infinitely transformed, mobile thing shifting into the sphere of individual needs and desires; conscious feeling of oneself as a holistic identity becomes unclaimed. The ideology of consumption determines the lifestyle, preferences and character of a person. The media, which are the main identification tools in modern popular culture, offer models and patterns of behaviour that contribute to the formation of a consumer engaged in the search for the quality of his/her individual life.
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Trade Marks and the Consumer Society

Trade Marks and the Consumer Society

This article has considered how consumerism has transformed the nature of consumption, with consumers looking for products to do much more than satisfy specific functional needs. Consumerism has encouraged demand for products that are new, innovative and fashionable and for products with emotional impact. The article has also shown how the branding of products and the trade mark law that supports branding have enabled firms to exploit the opportunities for profit that consumerism has presented in a number of ways. Trade mark law has done this through enabling firms to establish brands as exclusive, personable and flexible identities that they can use to turn products into specific objects of demand and market them accordingly. Firms can also use their trade marks as reference points to promote their brands and to cultivate images and associations for them that may increase their emotional impact.
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The “turn” of events in anthropological approaches to the study of culture occurred when ideas of mass consumption of goods in the 1980 and 90s were viewed less as a detriment to culture and more as an enlightened outlook, which acknowledged consumption as the very means by which people expressed—and continue to express—creativity and diversity (Baba 2006). Anthropologist Daniel Miller (1995, 1997) contends that consumption is the contemporary means by which people express their cultural identities and relate to one another. Brian Moeran studied a Japanese advertising agency (1996), with new considerations for the social networks and liaisons afforded beyond capitalistic profit. All this coincided with novel views of consumer society and capitalistic business engagements, revealing how consumer agency and choice operate independently to act on, even to appropriate, consumption for constructive purposes.
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(Consume)RED society: The rise of charitable consumption and its social implications

(Consume)RED society: The rise of charitable consumption and its social implications

We find ourselves living in a consumer society that seeks and creates meaning in the consumption of commodities, so much so that consumers are turning to consumerism as a form of expre[r]

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A Research On Practical  Significance Of Productivity  Theory In Consumption Society

A Research On Practical Significance Of Productivity Theory In Consumption Society

In regulating the economy through fiscal policy, since the 1990s, the regulation fiscal policy of China in 20 years has always been in accordance with the principle of Dr. Wu's (1997 & 2011) consumption society productivity in stimulating economic development. Wu (1997 & 2011) claimed that when economic growth is in stagnation, and economic operation is mainly affected by the demand constraints, the government can adopt expansionary fiscal policy to stimulate aggregate demand growth, to reduce unemployment and to promote economic growth through increasing economic construction expenditure reducing taxes. On the other hand, in the overheated economy and inflation, when the economy is affected by the supply capacity constraints, the government can take a tight fiscal policy to restrain aggregate demand, to stabilize prices and to cool the economy by reducing the fiscal expenditure and increasing tax. Wu reveals the general rule, which has universal significance. The government has, in accordance with this law, implemented the fiscal policy, and issued dozens of government documents and regulations, to stimulate the enthusiasm of the social aspects of social development, to release the potential, to mobilize the enthusiasm of the people, and to achieve an integration of social resources in a wider range.
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Consumption in Crime: Fashion as the Construction of a Criminal Self in Society

Consumption in Crime: Fashion as the Construction of a Criminal Self in Society

at what you experience with things, then you rejoice over what things do. In our context we can say that a brand or attire becomes not just a mark of origin (manufacturing for example, like a mark of reality) but a mark of excellence, or a dress belonging to a certain kind or a certain type of life. We need to agree on this in order for this to be an actuality, and this agreeing to a certain kind of object being what it is in a social context we here propose to call make-believe in the same Waltonian sense. We need to agree to a specific, socially constructed, mode of understanding that makes a thing into what it is perceived to be, and thus relate to it in this make-believe fashion much in the same way that language functions: we need to understand the make-believe game we play for communication to work in the way it is intended and, of course, if this is true for sticks to be horses then, likewise, it is true for brands and attire. Brands resonate in a play-like way in the everyday consumption network of interactions between actors (agents) in the game of brands as costumes (in the form of attire). (For more on resonating, see Belk and Kozinets 2005, 2007.) What will become apparent later is that brands resonate with desire. The make-believe game might have a whole host of rules and regulations connected to it, just like any game; you cannot do just anything with a stick if it is a horse and your game is a game of cowboys and Indians, but you can certainly do many things. Likewise, you better follow the rules of language if you want to be understood, and if you break the rules you need to know exactly how you can break them for the breaking to be effective; hence you need to be an expert player if you seek to break the rules. So, playing a make-believe game does not just have to do with esthetics, it also pertains to conduct and morality.
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Introduction : politics

Introduction : politics

5 neoliberal thought in the everyday life situations of Americans to such an extent that people have become unprecedentedly materialistic and market-oriented. The overwhelming presence of advertising and branding, privatisation of public services, and lobbying between governments and businesses have all contributed to a false belief that embracing good life can only be achieved through the market and material possessions. As such, people mistakenly believe that by increasing their income they can have a better life. But this is a vicious cycle that would only add to more consumerism and consequently more work. Moreover, the meaning of life has been narrowed down to status competition amongst different strata of society. Upscale emulation has become a prevailing characteristic of society. Such negative consequences of materialism, Schor argues, can be resolved by adopting new politics of consumption that are based on ecological, democratic, and humane values and measuring good life based not on the quantity of material possessions but on the quality of life.
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AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF CONSUMER LIFESTYLE AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON CONSUMER HEDONIC CONSUMPTION AND ADOPTION OF INNOVATION

AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF CONSUMER LIFESTYLE AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON CONSUMER HEDONIC CONSUMPTION AND ADOPTION OF INNOVATION

Research demonstrates that the adoption of innovation depends on both the innovation itself and on consumers who adopt or reject such an innovation (Arts et al., 2011; Holak., 1988; Rogers., 2003). This study describes the consumer characteristics related to the adoption of new products and services. Based on researchers at SRI International who create VALS framework that was designed to explain the dynamics of societal change and was quickly adopted as a marketing tool (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007), this article will adopt the framework to conduct the study. VALS framework helps to explain explicitly the consumer buying behavior and the consumer's tendency to try new products. Basically, the VALS framework was used to classify the American adult population into eight different subgroups (segments) based on consumer responses to both attitudinal and demographic questions (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007).
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INVENTORY ON THE VALORIZATION OF THE RESIDUES DERIVING FROM THE ORANGES (CITRUS SINENSIS L.) CONSUMPTION IN CÔTE D’IVOIRE

INVENTORY ON THE VALORIZATION OF THE RESIDUES DERIVING FROM THE ORANGES (CITRUS SINENSIS L.) CONSUMPTION IN CÔTE D’IVOIRE

This work is a prospective investigation for the valorization of the oranges consumption by-products in Côte d’Ivoire. From the 3 main parts of the orange fruit, only the endocarp or pulp is consumed for the orange juice. The peels, whitish mesocarp, and even the pulp seeds are usually rejected are wastes and are source of environmental pollution once rotten. However, these residues are highly valorizable, in the agro-food, health, cosmetics, and energizing industries. The search of functional, nutritional, and anti-microbial properties of the oranges residues could help for their use in technological programs in order to increase the value addition of these tropical fruits.
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Consumer Price Indexes in the European Community  1976

Consumer Price Indexes in the European Community 1976

market and consumer concepts: household data for consumer goods and services; own consumption of agricultural products and allowances in kind assessed "at retail prices Based on Danish..[r]

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A Study on Consumer Behavior of Commercial Health and Fitness Club—A Case of Consumers in Liverpool

A Study on Consumer Behavior of Commercial Health and Fitness Club—A Case of Consumers in Liverpool

3) Service communication strategy. In order to change consumers’ attitudes and influence their consumer beha- viors, health & fitness club staff must have sufficient communication with consumers. The primary research states that gym membership was most attractive to 16 to 35 year olds. For them, marketers need to design product, price, place, promotion and other means, so that con- sumers agree the necessity and importance of fitness and identify club services. Service communication needs to care about face to face communication, i.e. to help to solve problems of targeted consumers face to face. While it should be paid attention that 24.14% thought gender separation and more privacy are helpful in reducing an- xiety, especially for females. 34.48% of the sample stated that time and separate gender exercise would reduce fe- male’s anxiety. More privacy, personal trainers and sep- arate gender rooms should be considered by health and fitness clubs.
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Consumer complaint behaviour in sport consumption: a theoretical model

Consumer complaint behaviour in sport consumption: a theoretical model

This paper has achieved the three objectives set; first, to bring together established research in the field of CCB, second, to contextualise this research into the general area of experiential consumption, specifically sport, and third, to present a theoretical model for future experiential research investigating the proposition posited by the authors that there are generalisable differences between CCB in experiential consumption when compared to ‘traditional’ consumption models. The theoretical model presented displays marked differences from ‘traditional’ CCB models. First, anger is not considered to be a driver of CCB in experiential consumption situations as consumers may not be angry following a sport incident but may actually be constructing part of the overall experience through their behaviour. Second, the effect of the antecedent variables (identification, emotion, involvement and mood) has not been investigated in previous studies. Further, these variables (identification, emotion, involvement and mood) may in fact be dynamic, and vary in an experiential consumption setting prior to and post a sport incident. Therefore, it may be necessary to include both an a priori and an experiential measurement for these constructs. These are just a few of the propositions that must be investigated in the next stage of this research which will involve the use of phenomenological methods as data collection tools. Such methods may include phenomenological focus groups, ethnographic studies and observation and immersion techniques. As such, an exciting program of research has been presented.
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Constructing and mobilizing "the consumer': Responsibility, consumption and the politics of sustainability

Constructing and mobilizing "the consumer': Responsibility, consumption and the politics of sustainability

contribution to the critical literature on sustainable consumption is the development of an approach that allows these questions to be considered. Rather than focusing on processes of consumption to emphasise shortcomings in the project of sustainable consumption, we have focused on the project in more detail. Whilst this necessarily invites a focus on the strategies and repertoires of organizations, authorities and intermediaries (thus decentring the consumer), we have suggested that attention should be paid to the ways in which the real and discursive figure of ‘the consumer’ is constructed, mobilized and used to mediate the relationships between different groups of collective actors (hence re-placing ‘the consumer’). We have signalled the limitations of applying generic critique to specific instances of sustainable consumption governance and have shown the importance of moving beyond static accounts of the political landscapes in which consumption is governed. In making these contributions, we have drawn heavily on the work of Barnett, Clarke and colleagues. By return, the preceding analysis extends their contributions by demonstrating the importance of exploring the temporal dimensions of political projects that mobilize the consumer as well as paying greater attention to the enrolment and active engagement of commercial actors in these processes. The significance of the latter is amplified when it is recalled that the field of sustainable consumption in general (and food waste reduction in particular) is characterized by a focus on consuming less rather than consuming differently. The challenge for future studies of sustainable consumption is to pay greater attention to specific programmes of governance and their underlying political rationalities. Our analysis demonstrates how important nuances are made visible – notably the rhetorical figure of the responsibilized consumer being generative of a politics that more closely resembles the ideal of shared responsibility
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The influence of demographic profiles on consumer animosity, consumer ethnocentrism and patriotism

The influence of demographic profiles on consumer animosity, consumer ethnocentrism and patriotism

This study attempts to explore and examine the effects of several demographic variables, i.e., gender, age, education level, income level and geographical region on the consumer animosity, consumer ethnocentric tendencies and patriotism among Malaysian Muslim consumers towards the US. Previous research (e.g. Han, 1988; Klein et al., 1998; Klein and Ettenson, 1999; McKegney, 2001; Keillor et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2003; Balabanis et al., 2001; Bawa, 2004; and Balabanis and Diamantopoulos, 2004), have found that gender, age, education level and income level have significant impact on consumer animosity, consumer ethnocentrism and patriotism among consumers. For the profile of consumer animosity, it was found that male, older and East Coast and Northern region (in this area, most of the populations are Malays and less developed as compared to other areas in Malaysia, more conservative and have a traditional lifestyle) consumers exhibit higher animosities toward the US. Furthermore, no significant difference among groups is found on the animosity attitudes towards the US based on their level of education and level of income. The lack of relationship between education and income level with consumer animosity suggest that these demographic variables have no relationship in determining consumer animosity from Malaysian Muslim consumers’ perspective. For the ethnocentric consumers, females, older, low education, low income and East Coast and Northern consumers seem to have higher ethnocentric tendencies and this is consistent with previous studies (e.g. Lee et al., 2003; Balabanis and Diamantopoulos, 2004; and Javalgi et al., 2005). For the profile of patriotic consumers, only age exhibits significant relationship with patriotism. Other demographic variables, i.e
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Success Cooperative Values of El Grullos Consumer Cooperative Society

Success Cooperative Values of El Grullos Consumer Cooperative Society

According to Bustamante Salasar (2009) historians of cooperatives consider this organization arose at the time of the industrial revolution, it is said that these organizations exist from very ancient times but it was then that the principles of cooperation were enacted gaining momentum in this revolutionary movement. The Rochdale Equitable Pioneers Society was the first institution in the world recognized as a pioneer of cooperative. This was created in 1844 by a few individuals, twenty-eight to be exact and all were weavers factories Rochdale in England, given the economic situation at the time and by the strike that caused lost their jobs, they decided organized to open a store in their administration and create rules that named Rochdale principles or principles of cooperation that certainly still relevant as these were adopted by the International Cooperation Alliance (ICA) in 1973.
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Envisioning consumers: How videography can contribute to marketing knowledge

Envisioning consumers: How videography can contribute to marketing knowledge

Although there have been a number of articles by researchers focusing on the uses, methods, and issues involving videography (e.g., Belk and Kozinets, 2005; Borghini, Carù, and Cova, 2010; Caldwell and Henry, 2010, 2011; Hietanen, et al. 2014; Kozinets and Belk, 2006; Petr, Belk, and Decrop, 2016; Schembri and Boyle, 2013; Veer, 2014) and visual representations more broadly (e.g., Belk, 1998; Bell, Warren, and Schroeder, 2014; Meamber, 2014; Peñaloza and Thompson, 2014; Schroeder, 1998, 2002), we extend this work by addressing calls for a greater understanding of the under- utilized ‘ visu al mode of meaning construction’ (Meyer, Höllerer, Jancsary, and van Leeuwen, 2013, p. 490). Although we acknowledge that evaluators must allow for some flexibility in the interpretation of what constitutes theory in a videography, we systematically consider and address the theoretical aspects and practicalities of pursuing videography as a research methodology. If we consider creating and evaluating particular videographies as contributing to consumer and market understanding in a way that is
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ANOTHER BANNER YEAR FORECAST FOR U S  EXPORTS TO WEST EUROPE: First Quarter Economic Activity Stronger Than Anticipated  Business America, 28 July 1980

ANOTHER BANNER YEAR FORECAST FOR U S EXPORTS TO WEST EUROPE: First Quarter Economic Activity Stronger Than Anticipated Business America, 28 July 1980

Increased real consumer consumption of 3.1 percent in 1979 helped to fuel the French economy, with the French consumer not hesitating to draw down on his savings a 64 percent drop in dep[r]

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Social Conflict and Consumption: A Meta-Analytical Perspective

Social Conflict and Consumption: A Meta-Analytical Perspective

Third, our review suggests that consumption has become one focal site for social conflict in cultural realms in which both indi- vidual and group identity construction draws largely on consumption practices (Arnould and Thompson 2005). Even though the consump- tion-mediator is most often a material object (e.g. a product), exist- ing studies rarely report about consumers fighting over the legitimate owner of a desirable object (except on Black Friday in the U.S.). Instead, these consumption-mediators tend to spark conflicts about much broader cultural and material issues that the consumption ob- ject represents. For example, American Hummer SUV owners are frequently criticized for contributing disproportionately to resource depletion and American oil dependency, but not for purchasing a vehicle that someone else should own (Luedicke et al. 2010). This intricate and ubiquitous overlap of physical, cultural, and ideological matters turns consumption-mediators into prominent provocateurs of social conflicts in consumer cultures.
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Consumer confidence and consumption forecast: a non parametric approach

Consumer confidence and consumption forecast: a non parametric approach

of questions about their present and future personal situation as well as how they judge and forecast some macro variables. Some of the questions, namely those composing the confidence index, are listed in appendix A. Every question can be given a qualitative ordinal answer; most of the times there are five options, ranging from “a lot better” to “a lot worse”. Aggregating over individuals one obtains relative frequencies of the different answers. A further step consists in synthesizing the answers for every given question (so called quantification). There are many methods proposed in the literature to cope with this issue (for an extensive review see Proietti and Frale, 2007). A simple and frequently used method is the so called balance, where the share of negative answers (“a lot worse” and “worse”) are subtracted from the positive ones (“a lot better” and “better”). Here we adopt the method currently implemented for the published consumer
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