Consumption and Saving

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Energy Consumption and Saving of China's Electric Power Industry

Energy Consumption and Saving of China's Electric Power Industry

Abstract. Coal is the major energy source in China’s electric power industry. Raw coal consumption for thermal power generation accounts for 50% in national total coal consumption. Therefore, the reduction of the energy consumption of the electric power industry is of great significance in improving China’s energy efficiency. The paper made an analysis on the changes of the energy consumption of China’s electric power industry as well as the effects and the efforts made to improve the energy efficiency of the industry. Related research indicates that, the energy saving of the electric power industry involves the optimization of the energy structure for power generation, the improvement of efficiency of energy conversion, electric energy transmission, and electric power consumption services. The purpose of this paper is to reduce energy consumption in power industry and improve energy efficiency. In this paper, the method and process are mainly to solve the problem, research our country electric power industry main problems of the energy-efficiency, analyzing the change of the power plants total energy conversion efficiency and thermal efficiency data, combined with the government's macroeconomic management and market leading of the allocation of resources to realize the energy saving of the power industry. The main conclusions of this paper is, to complete our country electric power industry technology innovation system construction, efforts to improve the efficiency of energy utilization, promote the development of renewable energy, formulate incentive policies to encourage energy conservation service company involved in electric power industry, promote and power consumption in power transmission services; Innovation point is, this article puts forward the industrial structure optimization is an important way for energy saving and emission reduction, promote industry through the establishment of our country electric power industry technology innovation system, promote the conversion rate optimization of energy efficiency of the power industry.
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Consumption and Saving: Another Glance at the Life Cycle Framework

Consumption and Saving: Another Glance at the Life Cycle Framework

What is the likely lifestyle of a person characterized by this type of career path and income level? According to the life cycle theory of consumption and saving (Modigliani & Brumberg, 1954, 1980; and Modigliani & Ando, 1963), a rational and forward-looking individual maximizes his expected lifetime utility subject to his lifetime budget constraint. Such intertemporal optimization problem yields a key prediction that one‟s consumption is proportional to one‟s expected lifetime income (as opposed to one‟s current income as allegedly conjectured by Keynes). Because one‟s lifetime income is spread evenly over his lifetime, one‟s consumption turns out to be a fraction of his lifetime income, which implies a constant age profile of consumption. In the life cycle literature, this consumption behavior is known as consumption smoothing.
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Financial Expectations, Consumption and Saving: A Microeconomic Analysis

Financial Expectations, Consumption and Saving: A Microeconomic Analysis

Given that individuals’ expectations play a central role in economic analysis, it is vital that economists discover what drives individuals to be optimistic or pessimistic and, hence, what motivates behaviour such as spending, saving and investment. Although support for using subjective information on expectations has been scarce (see Manski, 2004), our work adds to the developing literature on expectations formation and, hence, contributes to an expanding area of research. The aim of this paper has been to shed further light on the determinants of individuals’ financial expectations using U.K. panel data. Our empirical findings not only help to inform economists about the determinants of individuals’ expectations, accurate or otherwise, but also about how they vary over the life cycle and the business cycle. Understanding how individuals formulate their expectations and identifying those groups prone to financial optimism or pessimism is insightful for policy makers, given the potential role of consumer confidence in influencing economic activity such as consumption and savings. Our findings suggest that financial expectations are influenced by individual characteristics (e.g. age and education) as well as by business cycle effects. Our results also suggest that actual financial realisations tend to fall short of expectations, which may be taken as an indicator that individuals may have a tendency to under-commit themselves financially.
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Energy Consumption and Energy Saving Measures in Poultry

Energy Consumption and Energy Saving Measures in Poultry

In poultry facilities energy is consumed for internal climate adjustment (heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting and humidity control) and for the operation of production equipment (feeding, sanitation, and eggs’ production). In broiler houses the energy consumption in production equipment is restricted to food and water supply devices. The interest in energy consumption in poultry began in the mid-70s due to energy crises. During this period the concepts of primary energy and life cycle analysis were introduced in the relevant literature in early form [2]. The work of this period is summarized in a review paper [3] where tables with energy consumption along with general directions for energy saving measurements in broiler houses are presented. The energy consumption results are based on energy audits in 2 broiler farms of 10,000 birds in Saskatchewan of Canada by M. R. L. Bantle at 1987. According to those energy audits the annual LPG consumption for a well-insulated broiler house was 188,000 kWh which became 214,000 kWh for a poorer insulated chamber. The electrical annual energy consumption was 24,000 kWh and 20,000 kWh respectively. This study has already identified the problem of high ventilation rates of up to 6 times larger than recommended. Finally another basic problem is addressed which is the definition of the examined system boundaries [3].
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Consumption and saving behaviour under uncertainty with unorthodox preferences

Consumption and saving behaviour under uncertainty with unorthodox preferences

the negative WE in the short-run, and that immediate consumption actually increases on impact. This is an interesting case o f study where bad news about a switch to a new regime with weaker fundamentals could result in expansionary dynamics, and shows that such an expenditure boost is not proof of wealth improving policies. Graphically, in Figure 1.6, consumption would jump from A to B (despite the negative wealth effect, given by the distance A to B’) followed by a gradual cooling-off period towards the steady state point C, along with a process of further debt accumulation. The greater the discrepancy between n 11 and (f)(6 n , 60), the stronger the ISE. In other words, the greater the "degree o f scepticism" o f local agents about the sustainability of a newly announced regime, the more likely the reverse-overshooting o f domestic consumption.
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OIL PRICE FLUCTUATION AND INDIVIDUAL’S DECISION REGARDING DAILY LIFE

OIL PRICE FLUCTUATION AND INDIVIDUAL’S DECISION REGARDING DAILY LIFE

chosen by Algerian Government shows a positive and significant impact on private consumption. Available studies have argued that the factor of financial development can affect households’ decision regarding the allocation of their income between saving and consumption. Government can also propose a discount policy models for consumption efficiency [15], so right now we can argue that different sort of fiscal and monetary policies which were chosen by government influence individuals decision regarding the level of their consumption and saving which will change their daily life.
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Daylight saving time and energy consumption: The case of Argentina

Daylight saving time and energy consumption: The case of Argentina

The above estimation results are very important, given the current situation that the government is facing. They represent an evident trade-off, in terms of a key policy decision. On the one hand, the application of DST implies a slight increase in electricity consumption. According to our estimates, it probably lies between 0.4% and 0.6%. On the other hand, peak power demand is significantly reduced (in the range of 2.4% to 2.9%). In other words, policy makers need to compare: i) the fiscal burden of the additional energy subsidies due to a higher electricity consumption, versus ii) lower generation costs at peak times if marginal costs are increasing in the relevant segment affected by the policy, and iii) the reduction of the necessary installed capacity. Points i) and ii) are relevant to short-run decisions, while iii) has a bigger influence in medium- to long-run choices.
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Saving and real interest rates in developing countries

Saving and real interest rates in developing countries

The answer will influence judgments about the effectiveness of a range of policies, For example, financial liberalizations, which generate higher real interest rates, will result in greater savings by households only if the latter decide to defer consumption; in other words, if the sensitivity of consumption and saving to higher interest rates is significant. Similarly, when fiscal policy shocks contribute to movements in domestic interest rates, their impact on the external current account will depend on how responsive private saving is to changes in real rates of return.
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ENERGY CONSUMPTION, SAVING AND MANAGMENT IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

ENERGY CONSUMPTION, SAVING AND MANAGMENT IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

Abstract: Energy is one of the most important ingredients in any industrial activity. The availability is not infinite however. Energy crisis globally, as well as high cost of fuels resulted in more activities to conserve energy to maximum extent. Energy crisis globally, as well as high cost of fuels resulted in more activities to conserve energy to maximum extent. The textile industry is one of the major energy consuming industries and retains a record of the lowest efficiency in energy utilization. About 23% energy is consumed in weaving, 34% in spinning, 38% in chemical processing and another 5% for miscellaneous purposes. In general, energy in the textile industry is mostly used in the form of: electricity, as a common power source for machinery, cooling & temperature control system, lighting, equipment etc.; oil as a full for boilers which generate steam, liquefied petroleum gas, coal. And this has made pathway to conservation of energy which can be affected through process and machinery modifications and implementation of technological advancements relating to process optimization as well as development of newer methods to meet the challenge of substantial energy saving in textile wet processing.
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Estimating Energy saving Capability of Urban Rail Timetable Using Optimized Train Operation Strategy

Estimating Energy saving Capability of Urban Rail Timetable Using Optimized Train Operation Strategy

The metro system is playing an important role in the rapid development of metropolis in China. The energy consumption of train operation has been a significant concern in recent years. Improvement of energy efficiency is widely expected to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emissions and enhance the environmental friendliness of rail transit system [1]. The energy consumption of train operation is influenced by several factors. Existing researches within this field mainly focus on the optimization of applied driving strategy according to the timetable, which is regarded as one major cause [2]. Lots of algorithms and techniques have been proposed and tested to find optimized eco-driving solutions [3]. At the same time, it should be noticed that the given time schedules would also significantly affect the capability of those advanced driving solutions. Energy-efficient train timetabling has been considered in establishing better timetables [4]. However, it is also important for the rail operators to adjust and optimize the existing timetables, which is of great significance to improve the energy efficiency of the urban rail transport system. In this paper, we aim at the estimation of the energy saving capability of the in-use timetables by considering the train speed control and time scheduling integratedly.
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Decent work and the effect of job instability on consumption of Colombian households

Decent work and the effect of job instability on consumption of Colombian households

In this paper we construct different uncertainty measures about future labour income that consist on microeconomic adaptations of decent work indicators proposed by the ILO. 4 If the worker is in the labour instability situation measured by the indicator, he/she would have more uncertainty about continuing to work in the future (or about his/her future labour income) and, therefore, he/she would reduce his/her consumption (or would increase savings). To test that we carry out an econometric analysis that responds to the standard theoretical framework of consumption/savings decisions in a context of uncertainty (see Leland, 1968; Sandmo, 1970; Drèze & Modigliani, 1972). Specifically, and given the data availability, we analyse the uncertainty effect on consumption. If there is a precautionary saving, the uncertainty in the current period will increase the saving and therefore will decrease the current consumption, given a level of income, causing a positive future consumption growth and an increase in the slope of the consumption pattern (Zeldes, 1989; Carroll & Rhee, 1994; Attanasio & Weber, 1989; Miles, 1997; or Menegatti, 2010; estimate consumption equations including uncertainty and obtain a positive precautionary saving). We therefore expect a negative relationship between the indicators of labour instability and household consumption. It is the first work analysing of the effect the labour uncertainty has on household consumption in Colombia. 3. Decent work in Colombia: The aggregated and microeconomic analysis
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Energy Efficient Virtual Machines Placement in IP over WDM Networks

Energy Efficient Virtual Machines Placement in IP over WDM Networks

Figure 4 shows the cloud and IP over WDM network power consumption of a single cloud and an optimised VMs placement scenarios at low and high users demands. At low users’ demand , although 22% power saving is achieved in the core network power consumption, creating two copies of each VM increases the cloud power consumption and limits the total power saving to 1% compared to a single cloud scenario. Whereas, at high users’ demand, optimizing the cloud locations achieves 23% saving in the total power consumption compared to a single cloud scenario. Creating multiple copies of the VMs has increased the clouds power consumption to 39% compared to a single cloud scenario. But, we save 99% of core network power consumption since the majority of VM demands are served locally.
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Assessing Indonesia's sustainable development: long run trend, impact of the crisis, and adjustment during the recovery period

Assessing Indonesia's sustainable development: long run trend, impact of the crisis, and adjustment during the recovery period

Vincent and Castaneda (1997) tried to predict the impact of natural resources depletion on a country’s long-run consumption possibilities by either (i) checking whether comprehensive measure of net savings – genuine saving – is positive or negative; or (ii) checking whether the trend in a comprehensive measure of net product (“green” NNP) is upward or downward. The context of this paper is developing countries in Asia that includes Indonesia. Its period of coverage is 1970 to 1992 and minerals (coal and petroleum), metals (copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, and tin), forest (industrial roundwood and fuelwood), and agricultural soils. Results of the study showed that the ratio of total resource rent to GDP in 1992 for example, 0.10 , while ratio of total resource rent to gross domestic saving was 0.31.
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Optimal Unemployment Insurance in Labor Market Equilibrium when Workers can Self Insure

Optimal Unemployment Insurance in Labor Market Equilibrium when Workers can Self Insure

In a more recent paper, Shimer and Werning (2005) build on the analysis in Hopenhayn and Nicolini (1997) and allow workers access to capital markets. As in Shavell and Weiss (1979) and Hopenhayn and Nicolini (1997), Shimer and Werning focus on the decision problem of the unem- ployed and find that when workers have constant absolute risk aversion (CARA) preferences and sufficiently good access to capital markets, the optimal policy involves a constant benefit schedule of unlimited duration combined with a constant tax rate during employment that is independent of the duration of a worker’s previous unemployment spell. Although this result breaks down with constant relative risk aversion (CRRA) preferences, they find that constant UI benefits combined with a constant tax upon reemployment are approximately optimal with CRRA preferences. The intuition for this result is simple: As unemployment spells continue, workers deplete their assets in order to buy consumption goods. With a fixed benefit schedule, their consumption declines over time as their wealth decreases. As a result, workers’ marginal utilities of consumption in- crease during unemployment spells which increases their incentives to search. As in my model, UI benefits play the dual role of providing insurance against the uncertain duration of unemployment spells and ensures that workers have su ffi cient liquidity to smooth their consumption. One disad- vantage of using McCall’s (1970) partial equilibrium model is that Shimer and Werning are unable to investigate how their choice of benefit timing affects the saving decision of employed workers, which in turn determines the wealth level of the unemployed.
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Index Terms- energy audit, energy efficiency, facility manager, kick-off, restitution, walk-through,

Index Terms- energy audit, energy efficiency, facility manager, kick-off, restitution, walk-through,

Energy audit tells us about three main things. Firstly, energy audits provided information about current consumption. Secondly, energy saving potential is reveal. Thirdly, energy audits help in prioritizing actions against energy use. Improving energy efficiency will produce a better building with comfortable working environment, more satisfaction and improved productivity [5]. There is a possibility of saving 5- 10% of the energy expenditure by implementing improved energy-use behavior [6]. Lack of awareness and failure to fully implement energy efficient technologies in installation has resulted in the higher energy consumption with its accompanying high electricity bills. For the success of energy audit implementation, energy efficiency awareness is necessary, and commitment of top management and involvement of all stakeholders in the organization is a must [7].
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ANALYSIS OF ANHYDRITE GYPSUM EFFECTS OF MINERAL AND MARINE ON QUALITY OF CEMENT

ANALYSIS OF ANHYDRITE GYPSUM EFFECTS OF MINERAL AND MARINE ON QUALITY OF CEMENT

From the above discussion it is evident that if the mineral gypsum is used the optimum dosage of gypsum is 7%, and so the clinker consumption is 93%.In the case of chemical gypsum the optimum dosage is 5%. So the clinker consumption is 95%.Optimum dosage for marine gypsum is 6% and so the clinker consumption is 94.0%.In cement industry the clinker saving and the quality maintenance is very important. If mineral gypsum is used the clinker consumption is low and also the gypsum is available at low cost. But the quality of the cement is very badly affected by the lower purity of gypsum. When chemical gypsum is used the clinker consumption is higher than that of the mineral gypsum. Also the cost of the chemical gypsum is higher. So it is not economically preferable. If marine gypsum is used the clinker consumption is lower than the chemical gypsum and also the cost is lower than chemical gypsum.
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Consumption function in India

Consumption function in India

consumption function in Indian economy for the period 1980-81 to 2010-2011. We take the ratio of Consumption to Gross Domestic product as our dependent variable. There has been a secular decline in Consumption to GDP ratio in India over the years. The results show that inflation, export to GDP ratio, and growth rate of GDP are significant determinants of final consumption expenditure in India. While inflation; saving to GDP ratio; and growth rate of GDP negatively and significantlyaffect consumption expenditure, export to GDP ratio; and lagged consumption have positive and significant effect on the level of consumption expenditure.
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ELECTRICITY SUPPLY-DEMAND PROJECTIONS MODEL FOR INDIA

ELECTRICITY SUPPLY-DEMAND PROJECTIONS MODEL FOR INDIA

2173 | P a g e saving is the main objective. For per capita energy consumption criteria, BAU is the best scenario as according to its projections the value of per capita consumption of electricity in 2050 will be 3376TWh. Per capita consumption values in 2030 and 2050 though seem to be attractive in BAU scenarios; still it is far below expectations. To compete will the world standard we need at least three times the BAU value in 2030.

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Synergistic Evolutionary Model for Dynamic Evaluation of Energy Saving and Emission Reduction in Thermal Power Enterprise

Synergistic Evolutionary Model for Dynamic Evaluation of Energy Saving and Emission Reduction in Thermal Power Enterprise

When there is no substance, energy and information exchange, the system will eventually evolve into a disordered situation, which is based on the dissipative structure theory. In the production process of thermal power plant, the operation efficiency of system will be affected by electricity load, coal and natural conditions. The higher the load rate is, the higher the unit efficiency, coal consumption rate, power consumption rate and efficiency of stock desulfurization device are. Meanwhile, the energy saving and emission efficiency of the plant will affect the natural environment and the intensity of related policies. Therefore, the substance, energy, and information of nature and social environment have a continuous impact on the operation of the system, while the system is constantly transporting material, ability and information to the outside world. So the energy saving and emission reduction in thermal power plants has an open feature. It is the open features that energy saving and emission reduction of thermal power enterprises can develop to an orderly state.
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Institutional Building Energy Simulation

Institutional Building Energy Simulation

Abstract- A growing concern about Global Warming and Climate Change, seeks way to reduce environmental impact by promoting Green Building. GRIHA is the most widely adopted sustainable building rating system in India. In these research the energy consumption of the Institutional building is minimized by suggesting energy saving alternatives, followed by eQUEST a quick energy simulation software based on Whole Building Performance method.

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