Contemporary Chinese Ink Painting

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Expanding Chinese Ink Painting in the 2014 Exhibition - 

Unscrolled: Reframing Tradition in Chinese Contemporary Art

Expanding Chinese Ink Painting in the 2014 Exhibition - Unscrolled: Reframing Tradition in Chinese Contemporary Art

Created in situ on four walls of the gallery, Sun Xun’s Shan Shui – Cosmos presents a universe in which Chinese landscape painting has been reimagined through a myriad of forms. Consisting of hanging scrolls, video animations, wall drawings, and a sound piece, the different components of the installation are woven together as one unifying whole, enveloping the viewer at its center. On the main wall of the room, a large-scale video installation is projected, taking up the entire surface area from floor to ceiling. The video illustrates a traditional Chinese landscape painting scene, reanimated through digital sequences. In this lively rendition of the classical mountainous scenery, birds fly in and out of the picture and tree branches shift gently with the wind, following the panoramic movement of the gliding camera, which pauses to momentarily zoom in on certain areas of the painting. Across from the central video projection are two flickering animations projected on adjacent walls, featuring intertwining fantastical creatures and rolling waves. Underneath the projected images is a series of eight ink scroll paintings, hung rather sparsely throughout the gallery. These handscrolls depict a range of Chinese landscape subjects, such as pine trees and ocean waves. As the projected animations overlap with the scrolls, the images often blend together, yielding a superposition of moving and still sequences. Finally, faintly cosmic sound effects—reminiscent of old science fiction movies—tie the different components of the work together.
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The Landscape of Contemporary Chinese Artists: An Evidence of the Transformation of Space and Time

The Landscape of Contemporary Chinese Artists: An Evidence of the Transformation of Space and Time

In the history of Chinese painting, this is particularly true, since artists never painted their works en plain air like Impressionists such as Claude Monet (1840–1926) or Realists like Gustave Courbet (1819–1877) would do but collected sights and feelings during outings and then blended them together in their studios. As a consequence, the painting of a landscape never genuinely mirrored the actual scenery but was endowed with greater significances, going beyond the mere representation of the visible world. In particular, a so-called mind landscape, which incorporated allusions to earlier masters and was said to personify the inner spirit of the artist, showing through calligraphic brushwork, flourished during the years of the Mongol rule (1271–1368), under the Yuan dynasty (The Metropolitan Museum of Art 2004). Landscape painting acquired a highly personal significance, as it had never had before, becoming a means to express an artist’s individuality and feelings, to carry political messages and personal grievance (Fong 1984, 94; Barnhart et al. 1997, 154–63). For these artists, the landscape was not necessarily one that could be found in the natural environment, but it was rather constructed in their minds and subsequently recreated on the scroll. Still, one is capable of recognizing all the features of a landscape in these paintings, since those views were composed of clearly delineated mountains and realistic trees. This is, however, not the same for landscape paintings rendered in splashed ink, a technique associated with the late Tang eccentrics 8 and certain Chan painters of the thirteenth century, such as the monk
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Spilt Ink: Aesthetic Globalization and Contemporary Chinese Art

Spilt Ink: Aesthetic Globalization and Contemporary Chinese Art

  Not  all  artists  of  this  generation  by  any  means  chose  to  respond  directly  to  Western   artworld  art,  whether  Modernist  or  contemporary.  Some  Western  art  museums  have  been   actively  acquiring  works  by  Chinese  artists  who  have  continued  to  work  explicitly  within  the   conventions  of  the  Chinese  pictorial  tradition.  They  constitute  my  third  type  of  Chinese  art.  In   mainland  China,  the  Cultural  Revolution  during  the  decade  following  1966,  as  well  as  earlier   periods  of  suppression,  severely  interrupted  the  transmission  of  traditional  art  skills.  Some  of   the  finest  practitioners  moved  to  Nationalist  Taiwan,  Hong  Kong,  Singapore,  or  beyond.  In   recent  years,  though,  mainland  China  has  engineered  a  rapprochement.  The  career  of  Liu   Guosong,  born  in  1932,  exemplifies  this.  From  Taiwan  he  moved  to  Hong  Kong  in  1971,  where   he  taught  for  twenty  years.  Since  1981  he  has  been  visiting  mainland  China,  influencing  the   revival  of  traditional  painting  styles.  He  was  given  an  exhibition  at  the  Palace  Museum,  Beijing  in   2007,  and  at  the  National  Art  Museum  of  China,  Beijing,  in  2011. 20  Still  active,  Liu  now  divides  his   time  between  Taoyuan  (Taiwan),  and  Shanghai.  Liu  is  far  from  alone.  The  official  promotion  of   traditional  art  includes  not  only  instruction,  principally  at  the  Suzhou  Academy  of  Traditional   Chinese  Painting,  but  regular  exhibitions  at  the  National  Art  Museum.  In  2011,  for  instance,  the   museum  held  an  exhibition  not  only  of  Liu’s  work,  but  of  that  of  the  fifty-­‐eight-­‐year-­‐old  Zhou   Yibo. 21  Zhou  works  within  the  traditional  Chang’an  school  of  painting.  He  is  a  professor  at  the  
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An Analysis on the Function of Self-Communication of Traditional Chinese Painting

An Analysis on the Function of Self-Communication of Traditional Chinese Painting

Traditional Chinese painting (Guo hua) is characterized by its unique expression of using ink blots and ink lines to create spirit-based images. It is also considered a way of life in accordance with Chinese personality. The systematic theory of spirit pursuit of Chinese painting was first established by Xie He (1986), an ancient Chinese artist of Southern and Northern Dynasties. He summarized, in order of importance, Six Elements and Principles of figure painting that can be used as criteria to assess all artworks: spiritual expression (Qiyun), brush line, brush shape, color, design and copying. Although the last five are similar to some of western art principles, these were only made to serve the purpose of sovereign importance of spiritual expression. Another artist, Xie’s contemporary, Jing Hao (1982), created Six Essentials of landscape painting, including vividness, implication, understanding, scene, brush stroke and ink use. These are almost the same with Xie’s theory but more spiritually emphasized. Explanations for the definition of Qinyun, the core concept, vary according to different understandings. Roughly, it can be explained by breath-resonance and life- motion, as Fong (1966) put it, “When the ‘breath’ of the painter resonates with the ‘breath’ of the painted subject, life-motion is engendered in the work of art”. But how to make that happen?
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Creative Contemporary Painting Based on the Iconography of Yeh Pulu Relief

Creative Contemporary Painting Based on the Iconography of Yeh Pulu Relief

The creation process produces 15 paintings, each having a dimension of 160x200 cm, on a diverse medium, using a combination of acrylic and Chinese ink, as well as a ballpoint pen. The artworks are titled ‘Gateway’, ‘Going Home’, ‘Build Rainbow’, ‘Cavalry Force’, ‘Escape’, ‘Bodies Flying in Universe’, ‘Hunting a Tiger’, ‘The Heroes’, ‘Scape of The Desire’, ‘Pray for Goddess’, ‘The King’, ‘The Power of Ganesha’, ‘The Shadow of Heroes’, ‘Wishing for Princess’, and ‘Escape’. These works together with the sketch works and drawings on paper are then exhibited in a solo painting exhibition with the title Citra Yuga: The Cavalry Iconography of Yeh Pulu Relief in Bentara Budaya, Jakarta (1-8 August 2017).
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REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN'S IMAGE IN IRANIAN CONTEMPORARY PAINTING (A STUDY BASED ON MICHEL FOUCAULT'S CONCEPT OF POWER)

REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN'S IMAGE IN IRANIAN CONTEMPORARY PAINTING (A STUDY BASED ON MICHEL FOUCAULT'S CONCEPT OF POWER)

The dramatic change in Iranian government happened in 1979, when Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown and replaced by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Critical art was created everywhere, in streets as wall painting, posters and paintings by Tehran University Art students, who became pioneers of the new art. This movements were somehow common in 1970s which turned into revolution art. This alteration occurred in all fields of arts as literature, music and painting. Modern attitudes in painting faded by victory of Islamic Revolution in 1979. Following the formation of the new currents of thought and religious revolution, painting founded a broader mission accordingly. At the beginning of Iranian Islamic revolution, artistic movement rejected pre-Islamic art. In order to achieve social commitment in art, abstraction-oriented approaches in painting were rejected. In this period woman presence in artworks is joined with ideological messages accompanied by spiritual attitudes. Furthermore this image tried to demonstrate true example for Muslim woman who considers hijab and Chador as a matter to deny western cultures, which were popular in pre-Islamic society. In general, a new character created based on revolutionary thoughts to show the idealistic woman for Islamic revolution period [6]. Different themes like religious, ethnic, political and social themes appeared to convey revolutionary messages to the community. The Islamic revolution was followed by an eight year war (1980-1988). Consequently after this period, art making became a form of resistance, the subsequent Iraq-Iran war furthered the gap in art education, activity and institution between 1979 and 1990, the absence of an artistic space. The home studio and home showrooms soon become the main spaces of artistic production and display. Iranian society needed human resources, development and growth in various aspects. «Rebuilding the remaining ruins of war in various fields, development and implement of huge national plans in order to gain economic expansion, serious engagement with foreign countries particularly European union, recognition of Iraq as aggressor of war, were important events in these years» [7].
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Demolition, Documentary and the Politics of Minjian on Contemporary Chinese Screens

Demolition, Documentary and the Politics of Minjian on Contemporary Chinese Screens

The moments of ‘light’ video culture that Voci argues appear almost despite Ou Ning’s political intentions are in fact integral to the film’s reclaiming and validation of Meishi Street and its community as minjian—a space partly shaped and regulated by the state, but also comprising subjectivities, connections, rituals and relationships that play out around, and sometimes against, these regulatory structures. In contrast to the passivity of ordinary Chinese as portrayed in many examples of official urban cinema, the community around Meishi Street is represented as one in which the state’s heavy handed approach to modernisation is viewed with scepticism, anger and a degree of resistance. Residents draw on local social networks and cultural practices to contest the changes being imposed upon them, to the extent that contestation is possible in an authoritarian environment such as Beijing. For example, the film features many scenes of Zhang Jinli interacting with friends from the local area while they exercise in the local park or sing karaoke together, but these friends also share their difficult experiences dealing with the local government and demolition firm, and plan their fights for just compensation by swapping information and advice. Throughout the film, Zhang also videos his own homemade protest banners and those of his neighbours, strung from homes and businesses along Meishi Street. These banners are rich in historically diverse, localised cultural references, from quotes from Chairman Mao to calls to meet with the ancient Chinese judge Bao Gong, famed for his fairness and integrity. The practice of writing protest banners and posters itself has a rich political lineage in modern China, stretching back to public political debates during the Cultural Revolution. In one sequence, Zhang attracts attention to his banners by loudly serenading passers-by from his restaurant’s rooftop, an action played knowingly for the camera that he sets up to video his song. Protest and play, sociality and resistance, are intertwined in the representation Zhang creates through the images he shoots, all underlain by the rich, localised culture of the area.
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The Myth of the City Image in Contemporary Chinese Society

The Myth of the City Image in Contemporary Chinese Society

promotional stories on the ―Green Olympics,‖ emphasizing a long-term system of environmental protection. Various stories stated that air quality during the Olympics would be acceptable and a colourful picture of a clear, blue sky with white clouds was used to illustrate this (Xinhua News, n. d.). In order to emphasize the ―people‖ idea, the Olympic logo depicted a figure running, and it also embodied the shapes of three well-known Chinese characters: the character ― 京 ‖ for Beijing, ― 文 ‖ for culture, and the character ―人 ‖ for a human person. The official website accounted for the concept ―People‘s Olympics,‖ by stating it would ―give first consideration to the needs of people. We will organize diversified cultural and educational programs to cater to the needs of the people, especially the younger generation. We will also encourage the widest participation of the people in the preparation for the Games, as it will greatly push forward the sports and cultural development nationwide and increase the cohesion and pride of the Chinese nation‖(eBeijing, n. d.). The website also
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Contemporary Chinese Youth's Reading Preference on Han Fu

Contemporary Chinese Youth's Reading Preference on Han Fu

Contemporary Chinese youth pay great attention on the aesthetic perception in literary works according to the questionnaire’s results. There are 126 of the respondents said that they liked Big Fu for its gorgeous diction, and 115 for its rhythm. Meanwhile, 43 of all the 76 respondents who did not like Small Fu, expressed their discontent of its sense of rhythm. Han Fu, especially Big Fu, is a type of literary works emphasizing the pursuit of beauty not only in voice but also in form. In voice, the beauty of Fu is usually composed of alliteration and assonance, mimetic words, etc.. And in form, the writers of Fu create various colorful artistic techniques of expression. For example, they decorate their works by the words full of color sensation and luminosity, which can make the readers have a deep impression. What’s more, they are good at dualization bringing symmetrical beauty. Contemporary young people in China appreciate the strong sense of rhythm in Big Fu, which enjoys them as music, and favor the form beauty such as symmetrical beauty. They consider diction and rhythm are the two important indexes in the evaluation of reading preference. That’s why Big Fu is popular to the respondents. Thinking of the phenomenon that the respondents pay special attention to diction and rhythm, the author believes that social environment in China may be the reason. A person’s observing and thinking ways is decided by the elements such as his or her values, ethics, and religion. [10] The social environment people live will have an influence on these elements, of course. Gong Kechang ( 龚 克 昌 ), a contemporary Chinese expert in Fu study, puts forward that though it’s maybe not so splendid as Tang poetry, Song Ci, Yuan Qu and Ming and Qing’s Novels, Han Fu demonstrates the reality of great Han dynasty’s prosperity and describes Han’s spirit and social atmosphere. [11] As the empire economy developed, the nation power was strong in Han Dynasty and provided a solid material foundation to the appearance and prosperity of Fu. At the middle of Han Dynasty, Big Fu reached its historical climax with the development peak of nation power. At that time, people liked the colorful, rhythmic and ornamental Big Fu which revealed strong nation power, consolidated regime and social abundance, and also shows people’s high self-confidence for the advantageous social conditions. If we focus on the social environment of Han Fu’s climax and today’s China, some similar points appear. For example, today’s China has consolidated regime and social abundance, too. Nation power is improved greatly, compared with 100 years ago. And with the development of economy and the improvement of living standard, contemporary Chinese become more and more self-confident. It may be reasonable that contemporary young people in China appreciate the aesthetic perception in
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A Contemporary Secure Data Scheme Based on Image in painting and Side Match Vector Quantization (SMVQ)

A Contemporary Secure Data Scheme Based on Image in painting and Side Match Vector Quantization (SMVQ)

Professor, Dept of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Sri Vidyanikethan Engineering College, Tirupati, India ABSTRACT: Data hiding and image compression techniques can be integrated into one single module seamlessly to transfer the image information securely. Data Hiding involves embedding significant data into various forms of digital media such as text audio image and video, this data is encrypted and then transferred. Image in painting technique is used to fill the missing areas or modifying the damaged regions of the received image. The project explains novel joint data-hiding and compression scheme for digital images using side match vector quantization (SMVQ) and image edge based Harmonic in painting. Before transmitting, the image is divided into many blocks. At the sender side, except for the blocks in the leftmost and topmost of the image, each of the other residual blocks in raster-scanning order can be embedded with secret data and compressed simultaneously by SMVQ or image in painting adaptively according to the current embedding bit. Vector Quantization (VQ) is also utilized for some complex blocks to control the visual distortion and error diffusion caused by the progressive compression. After segmenting the image compressed codes into a series of sections by the indicator bits, the receiver can achieve the extraction of secret bits and image decompression successfully according to the index values in the segmented sections.
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Language Shattered : Contemporary Chinese Poetry and Duoduo

Language Shattered : Contemporary Chinese Poetry and Duoduo

tuals. In a jolting if distorted comparison, the narrating agent makes the luxuriousness of fabled far-off places serve as a foil to the hard lot of the Chinese. The[r]

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CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN PAINTING from the James A. Michener Collection Allentown Art Museum Pennsylvania

CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN PAINTING from the James A. Michener Collection Allentown Art Museum Pennsylvania

At the conclusion of a successful circuit of the nine State Museums of Australia, the Allentown Art Museum now welcomes the opportunity to present to the public of New Zealand a signif[r]

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"A Painter's Brush That Also Makes Poems":  Contemporary Painting After Northern Song Calligraphy

"A Painter's Brush That Also Makes Poems": Contemporary Painting After Northern Song Calligraphy

Marden’s capacity to see calligraphy, to see it as valuable and to absorb something from it. was prepared by Abstract Expressionism with its commitment to gestural brushwork: his paintings can be understood as attempts to integrate calligraphy with Jackson Pollock’s uncoiling spatial webs. My own reception of calligraphy was shaped by Conceptual Art, in which text entered Western art for the first time as the dominant or even the sole visual element. Though my paintings of the eighties and nineties never used texts, like so many artists I had been deeply influenced by Conceptual Art. I was especially interested in the works of Greg Curnoe and Lawrence Weiner. I had been fascinated by Greg Curnoe’s stamp-pad paintings since I first saw one while haunting the art gallery in my teen-age years. In it, a verbal description appeared instead of an image of the view from his studio window. This amazed me; I had no idea that art could substitute words for images. Weiner’s work was entirely text, and yet often strikingly beautiful; it seemed to open up a breath-taking aesthetic space. Since the 1960s there have been scores of visual works utilizing texts, and even a considerable number of painters of texts. Besides Curnoe, in painting there was the example of Jasper Johns, then On Kawara, Ed Ruscha, John Baldessari, Colin McCahon the New Zealand artist, more recently Christopher Wool, Glenn Ligon, Graham Gilmore, and Ron Terada. Ad Reinhardt once said that “looking isn’t as easy as it looks.” But I was prepared to see Chinese calligraphy; I had been readied by recent Western art.
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Contemporary literature from the Chinese 'diaspora' in Indonesia

Contemporary literature from the Chinese 'diaspora' in Indonesia

Perhaps the writer who has most forcefully expressed outrage at the brutality of May 1998 is Seno Gumira Ajidarma, who has a large repertoire of stories dealing with sensitive political and social issues, most notably his stories about East Timor. In 1998 his magazine Jakarta Jakarta was stormed with protests because it reprinted a New York Times story of a raped ethnic Chinese woman called Vivian. The article contained elements which were deemed by a group claiming to be defenders of Islam to discredit Islam and Indonesian Muslims in general. Seno’s disgust at the cynical and defensive reaction to the May rapes by Indonesians in general and high-ranking officials, certain prominent groups and public figures in particular prompted him to write the short story ‘Clara’. The story’s chilling tone is made even more emphatic by the fact that Clara’s story is related by the boorish police officer who takes her statement, because she is in such a state of shock that she is unable to speak coherently. The verbal brutality of the policeman’s commentary and asides as he constructs his report match the physical brutality of the rape itself: ‘I have to know what happened after your panties were removed. If you don’t tell me, what am I supposed to put in my report?’ 54 ‘Don’t be too quick to make an issue of being raped. Rape is the hardest thing to prove. If something
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Migrating Subjects: The Problem of the "Peasant" in Contemporary Chinese Art

Migrating Subjects: The Problem of the "Peasant" in Contemporary Chinese Art

had seen in an art journal. 11 Both examples indicate the impact of Western styles and reveal the specificity with which certain types of realism were associated with varied ideological connotations. The Chinese public were shocked by the new forms of realism they saw, amazed at its ability to express so much more about the subject than its revolutionary precursor. However, in reading criticism about these works, especially those published about Luo Zhongli’s Father 《 父亲》 in Meishu 《美术》, China’s leading official art journal, it is clear that the world of art criticism in China was still very much ensconced in a socialist world view. For example, Zeng Jingchu (曾景初), in a particularly celebratory article, argued “He is not just anyone’s father, he is the father of the 800 million peasants who have experienced ten years of great calamity in my country. It is also the image of the contemporary Chinese peasant.” 12 With regards to beauty, a long-held yard stick for art criticism in China, Zeng argued that as long as the form is familiar to the masses, so they can understand, then it is beautiful. Shao Yangde (邵养徳), on the other hand, vehemently criticized Luo’s painting for highlighting the negative physical attributes of the peasant’s face, arguing that the job of guarding manure was not as difficult as his weathered face may suggest. Even though Luo declared this figure to be a “new” peasant, as opposed to an “old” peasant, Shao argues that it is clearly an old peasant. A new peasant, according to Shao, labors for the purpose of finding happiness in the future, while the old peasant did not have that kind of hope. In the end, Shao concludes that Luo only emphasized the “dark” aspects of the peasant’s
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Female leadership in contemporary Chinese family firms : a case study

Female leadership in contemporary Chinese family firms : a case study

2013). Although in general male candidates are given higher priority in choosing a family business successor (Redding, 1990), it is equally possible that females may take leadership positions, especially when the family does not have available male candidates or males refuse to do so. In addition, it is reasonable to assume that female leadership may change goal-setting, resource-endowment and/or governance mechanisms in family firms. The distinction between male and female family leaders, as found in the case analysis, may suggest that previous views on family business theory may need to be more cognizant of the distinction in female and male leadership styles in order to provide an enhanced understanding of family firms. In this regard, female leadership may be an important factor that contributes to the heterogeneity in the family business population. Furthermore, as we elaborate in the article, female family leaders can have a unique decision-making style that differentiates them from male family leaders characterized by high levels of balance, dependence and participative-ness. As Asian economies are historically patriarchal societies, this has implications for understanding contemporary Asian businesses in light of the emergence of female leadership across regions. Our study may thus shed light on the source of the rise of female family leadership as well as unique advantages of female leadership in Asia.
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Educational Attainment and Career Aspiration of Contemporary Chinese Rural Youth

Educational Attainment and Career Aspiration of Contemporary Chinese Rural Youth

A: Both my parents are peasants, but my father has primary education and works as accountant in our village production brigade. When I was young, the brigade subscribed for many kinds of magazines and newspapers, which were very attractive to me. Therefore, though I was not born in an educated family, I read many things as kid. There are four children in my family, and my eldest sister quit school after she finished junior middle school due to the poor economic condi- tion of my family. My brother was the second child who was good at study and he influenced me a lot. He was enrolled by a local normal academy, graduated at 1988, and then became an English teacher in a local senior middle school. My second elder sister went to senior middle school for one year, but she didn’t like reading books, and wanted to learn some skill. So she transferred to technical middle school to learn sewing. Influenced by me brother, I liked reading books since I was a kid. At the age of 15, I was introduced to the world of philosophy by my brother who at that time was in normal academy and was a fun of Nietzsche. My dream at childhood was to become a man of letters, because a child of neighbor village won a prize in some national composition contest and was enrolled by a university directly. It seemed naive now, but back at that age I just desired to follow his way. At 1993 I attended National College Entrance Exam for the first time, and chose English as my major due to the influence of my brother, but I failed. After prepared for another year, I was enrolled by Henan Academy of Finance & Tax at Zhengzhou City, Henan Province. This time I chose State Capital Management as my major, because Chinese economy developed very fast at that area. But I didn’t like my major, and I was not good at mathematics. My interest was still in human sciences. There is a good bookstore nearby my school, and I went there each week to purchase a book for myself. Q: Why did you go to normal academy like your brother?
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Contemporary Chinese independent cinema: urban spaces, mobility, memory

Contemporary Chinese independent cinema: urban spaces, mobility, memory

This freedom is Qin’s attempt to connect with the consumerist globalised era in China. In a series of images, Qin is observed sewing in the factory, eating food alone in a canteen and scrubbing her clothes with a bucket in the dark. At one point, she looks up to the camera and states, ‘Am I happy? After all, freedom is happiness.’ The filmmaker also interviews other young factory workers who express their views of the world through the clothes that they manufacture by responding, ‘Americans have forty-inch waists’. In another scene in which Qin and her friend are clothes shopping, they are dismayed to discover that the jeans label they produce is not available to them. Qin then arrives at a hair salon and the stylist ensures her that the new trend is the ‘Barbie look’. After her visit to the salon, she waves goodbye to the staff and proceeds to walk the urban streets. With her new hair and with the camera following her, Qin is self-consciously fulfilling a celebrity fantasy. Here, the camera’s presence in public and focus on Qin shifts from an observational mode to a participatory mode as pedestrians are captured looking bemused and curious at the spectacle created by an anonymous woman walking the streets. In contemporary China, there is a growing tendency for young villagers to indulge in a destructive type of individualism that is linked to a consumptive drive (Yan, 2003: 234). What the film conveys in its brief observations into Qin’s journey into adulthood is that her ‘consumptive drive’ is linked to a combination of naiveté and her inability to fulfil her dream of freedom through individualism in the city.
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The Concentric Circle Revisited: Allocentrism and Self in a Contemporary Chinese Community

The Concentric Circle Revisited: Allocentrism and Self in a Contemporary Chinese Community

The centrality of self-concept in psychological functions has been well documented (see for instance, Baumeister, 1998). Anthropological studies (e.g., Allan, 1997; Doi, 1985; Geertz, 1973; Roland, 1988) and cross-cultural reviews (e.g., Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Triandis, 1990; Triandis, Bontempo, Villareal, Asia, & Lucca, 1988) have converged on the theme that each culture provides its own paradigm to guide the individual to make sense of the self, others and the world (Geertz, 1973; Miller, 1984; Shweder & Borne, 1984; Spiro, 1993). Therefore, the self and the culture are seen to constitute one another mutu- ally (Markus & Kitayama, 2010). Social institutions (Hsu, 1981), religious beliefs (Inada, 1997), values, customs, norms, and interpersonal relations (Curtis, 1991) further act as infor- mation filters that selectively guide the attention of the individ- ual to certain aspects, presumably at the expense of attention to other aspects of the self (Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, & Nisbett, 1998). In this paper we explore the self-construal of young Chinese living in a modern industrialized society (Clammer, 1993). We show that their self-construal reflects the conceptual framework of the person inherent within the Chinese cultural tradition—a tradition that places a strong emphasis on intri- cately differentiated interpersonal relations (Hsu, 1981; Tu, 1985) with a concentric circle conceptualization of the individ- ual self (Fei, 1947/1984; Munro, 1969, 1985).
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An Intertextual Study of Nizami’s Poetry and Behzad’s Painting in “Chinese and Roman Painters’ Debate” Tale

An Intertextual Study of Nizami’s Poetry and Behzad’s Painting in “Chinese and Roman Painters’ Debate” Tale

Another distinguished contemporary structural theorist is the French writer and analyst Gerard Genette who, indebted and influenced by Russian formalism and French structuralism, came upon his literary theory known as “Narratology”. Genette’s narratology (1980), encompasses and extensively attends to the distinction between narration and story, discourse levels (concept of time and its subcategories, form, and tone) and transtextuality [5]. His theory greatly increases knowledge and schemas of narration aspects and time systems. In his theory, Gerard Genette was influenced by Ferdinand De Saussure’s linguistic approach and intertextual aspects of the works of Julia Kristeva and Roland Barthes. Based on his intertextual approach, no text is ever self-sufficient without taking into consideration its preceding and following texts [6]. Genette’s theory meticulously attends to the narratology of the concept of time and interrelations of texts. Moreover, in dealing with ‘point of view’ or ‘who is seeing’, his main focus is on canonization [11].
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