Recognizing the potential value of traditional medicine for the expansion of health service, the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed a number of resolutions in 1976, 1977, 1979, 1987, and 1988 to draw attention to the potential reserve constituted by traditional practitioners . World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the population in Africa relies on traditional medicines, mostly plant drugs, for their primary health care necessi- ties . The genus Ocimum is an important member of Lamiaceae family. It is native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South America  . Among the species of the genus, Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is a perennial, herbaceous aromatic and medicinal plant that widely cultivated in many parts of the world. Basil grows between 30 - 130 cm tall, with opposite, light green, silky leaves 3 - 11 cm long and 1 - 6 cm broad. The flowers are small, white in color and arranged in a terminal spike . Manytypes of basil have different aroma because the herb has a number of different essential oils that come together in different propor- tions for various varieties. Essential oils are highly viscous organic liquids which are extracted from leaves, stems, flowers, roots, herbs, brushes, and trees through distillation . Quantitative and qualitative variability in essential oil is caused by different factors, including genetic and ontogenetic ones. A great differentiation not only in morphological characters of plants, but also in the content and chemical constituents of essential oil of sweet basil was detected . The chemical composition of basil extracts reveals the presence of tanines, flavo- noids, saponins, and volatile terpenes like camphor, tymol, methylchavicol, linalool, eugenol, 1-8-cineol and pi- nenes . Interest in essential oils has increased in recent decades with the popularity of aromatherapy, which claims that essential oils and other aromatic compounds have beneficial health effects. Scientific studies in vitro have established that compounds in basil oil have potent antioxidant, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, and potential for use in treating cancer -.  reported that essential oil of basil showed promising antibac- terial and insecticidal activity against crop pest and insects. A preliminary result  revealed that essential oils of Sudanese basils are promising as topical repellents at 0.1% concentration against nocturnal mosquito. Essen- tial oils are also widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, cleaning products and for flavoring of foods and drinks -.
following conclusions. The highest yield was recorded in Šumperk site with cover crop. The varieties did not affect the yield. HTS was different on the sites, the highest HTS had the achenes from Telč. The differences were determined between vegetative periods. Also the essential oil content, similarly as the HTS, was infl uenced by the vegetative period and by the site. The essential oil yield corresponded with the essential oil content and with the yield of the achenes. The vegetative period almost always affected yield and the quality of caraway fundamentally. There were no differences among the varieties for all studied traits.
12 Read more
Significant differences were observed between year, chicken manure doses, year X harvest time and year X chicken manure dose interactions for essential oil content. As can be seen in table 3, the essential oil content ranged between 3.78 and 4.68 % in the first year and between 4.33 and 5.07 % in the second year and the general average of essential oil content was investigated as 4.48%. In the first year the highest contents were obtained from 40, 30 and 20 ton ha −1 applications, respectively and
Most of the kewda growing regions are found in the coastal zones of India and are available in wild areas. The harvesting time and extraction of essential oil from kewda flowers largely affect the essential oil yield and quality due to the high volatile nature of PEME. The flowers are plucked in early hours and are immediately processed for oil extraction. Massive quantity of flowers has to be hydro-distilled during this period and it is quite challenging task in places where the distillation equipment is not readily available. In those situations, the flowers have to be transported to the nearby places. The time taken for transportation leads to decrease in the quality and aroma of kewda oil. Thus, price of the oil also decreases. Most of the kewda farmers are not aware of this fact and many times, they face huge loss due to the above problem. Besides, during flowering season though huge flower collection occurs but extraction is not possible due to less number of extraction units. Reports on extraction of essential oil from cold stored flowers for minimizing loss of oil yield and quality are very scanty (Kumar et al., 2013; Sharma and Kumar, 2015). Until now, no information is available on the essential oil isolation at different time intervals in cold stored and freshly plucked kewda flowers. Further, the transportation of flowers without the hampering the PEME content would be a great benefit to kewda industry. Thus, the present study was undertaken to investigate the essential oil composition and yield of freshly plucked and cold stored kewda flowers at different time intervals.
quantity than (sun-drying and oven-drying). Also, the essential oil content can differ considerably according to the plant part used during drying. For instance, Uyanik and Gurbuz  found that, the high essential oil content was determined in leaf (0.13%), while the essential oil amount decreased in herb (0.08%). Abdelmageed et al.  studied the effect of post-harvest drying period on the essential oil yield and composition of four different parts from Etlingera elatior. They found that the highest yield was obtained from leaves dried for 48 h (0.16% v/w), pseudostems dried for 24 h (0.013% v/w), rhizomes dried for 6 h (0.047% v/w) and inflorescences dried both for 24 and 72 h (0.1% v/w), respectively. While, Jaafar et al.  reported that the percentage yield of volatile constituents of the leaves, stems, flowers and rhizomes of E. elatior were 0.0735, 0.0029, 0.0334 and 0.0021%, respectively. Faridah et al.  studied the essential oils from the leaves and rhizomes of Alpinia conchigera dried for different times (0 (fresh), 1, 2, 3 and 7 days of drying, respectively). The highest oil yield was obtained from leaves dried for 7 days (0.300 v/w) and rhizomes dried for 3 days (0.162 v/w) suggesting that post-harvest drying period had a positive effect on the oil yield of both leaf and rhizome.
15 Read more
GC/MS: The essential oil was analyzed on a VG analytical 70- 250S sector field mass spectrometer, 70 eV, using a SPsil5, 25 m x 0.30 mm, 0.25 μm coating thickness, fused silica capillary column, injector 222°C, detector 240°C, linear temperature 80°–270°C at 10°C/min. One microliter of diluted essential oil (1/100, v/v, in n-pentane) was injected manually in the GC at 250 °C, with the splitless mode flame ionization detection (FID) using the HP Chemstation software on a HP 5980 GC with the same type column as used for GC/MS and same coditions program.
EO of T. polium (collected in November) were dl-limonene (11.18%), δ-cadinene (10.02%) and trans β-caryophyllene (9.15%) with a potential activity from 79.02 ± 0.00 mg AEAC per g extracts scavenging DPPH˙ radicals. However, T. polium subsp. capitatum oil ( collected in July) with t-cadinol (18.3%), germacrene D (15.3%) and β-pinene (10.5%) as the major components represented less efficiency than that of positive control (BHA) reaching a maximum of 12.7% for a concentration of 1000 mg/L. 43
In the first and second part of this study, the influence of sample pretreatment was investigated – whole vs. ground caraway seeds and the impact of different grind- ing methods was examined. Various types of mills were compared because the grinder type is not specified in the Standard ČSN 58 0110. In the third part, the effect of harvest time on the amount of essential oils was investi- gated. Caraway seeds were harvested before maturation and in full ripeness. Further, the influence of treatment on the amount of essential oil in individual varieties was investigated. The formulation Roundup was used as a ripening modifier, Alert and Prelude 10 as fungicides.
study was lower than top findings of other researchers in the literature. The observed differences may be due to different environmental and genetic factors, different chemotypes and the nutritional status of the plants. In addition to this, Kara et al. (2018) reported that essential oil ranged from 0.10% to 0.78% in Isparta and Eskisehir ecological conditions. The essential oil was found between 0.48-0.55% (Tunçtürk et al., 2005), 0.08-0.20 (Tektas, 2015). The obtained values were found partly similar with other researchers.
include water content, Cd-HM uptake, Cd-HM uptake ratio, essential oil total content, translocation factor, correlation coefficient, and determination. The analysis using the ANOVA and were continued by DMRT at level 5%, and multiple linear regression using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software. The results showed that translocation factor value sequentially of P5> P6> P4> P2> P3> P1. The Cd-HM uptake ratio in the root was higher than in the shoot except for P4 plant. There was an increase in the essential oil total content in the P1, P2 and P5 plants of 101.56%; 12.70% and 2.27%, respectively. The increased water content in the plant can decrease the essential oil total content but the Cd-HM uptake can increase the essential oil total content. The water content, Cd-HM uptake in the root and shoot had positive linear correlation, were classified as weak (r = 0.30) and their relationship of 9.10% (slightly) to the essential oil total content.
α- eudesmol (12.93%), caryophyllene (11.89%) and bornyl acetate (10.02%) were the dominant components found in the volatile oil of the flowers of this plant under investigation. Eucalyptol was also notably present in the flower oil but the content was low (8.11%) compared to the stems and leaves oils which were (56.00%) and (48.98%) respectively. The oil collected from the flowers shows no homogeneity in constituents in comparison with others in the literature (Table 2). While the flowers essential oil from Iran showed α-pinene (25.70%) and eucalyptol (18.10%) as the principal components , another from Himalaya recorded eucalyptol (36.60%) and α-pinene (29.70%) as its foremost components . The present study reveals that α- eudesmol (12.93%), caryophyllene (11.89%) and bornyl acetate (10.02%) are the major constituents in the flower oil. This might be related to the effects of several factors like relative humidity, irradiance, photoperiod, method of extraction, plant cultivation techniques, soil structure and climate which could greatly influence the composition and quality of essential oil .
Free radicals and many other reactive oxygen species cause the oxidation of biomolecules including proteins, amino acids, DNA etc. and ultimately produce molecular alterations related to aging, arterioselerosis and cancer . In human body an imbalance between free radical production and their removal by antioxidant system leads to ‘oxidative stress’ . So the external supply of antioxidants is required to attain the balance between free radicals and antioxidants. The essential oils of basil, cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, oregano and thyme as natural sources of phenolic components have proven radical-scavenging and antioxidant properties in the DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1- pycrylhydrazyl) radical assay at room temperature . The antioxidant activity is due to high content of phenolic thymol and carvacrol in Thymus serpyllus and Thymus spathulifolius . The antioxidant activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil is comparable to α- tocopherol and BHT(butylated hydroxyl toluene) and is again due to thymol and carvacrol . Agnus castus seeds essential oil is also foundto be an excellent scavenger for DPPH radical .
and time on the contents of useful compounds into copolymers were investigated. The polymer that was used as a base of this material was poly(L-LA-ran-CL), poly(L-LA-ran-TEMC), or poly(L-LA-ran-DXO). In the effect of pressure on impregnation using poly(L-LA-ran-CL), although oil impregnation into poly(L-LA) was 4.4% at 10 MPa, the oil content abruptly increased with an increase in pressure over 12 MPa, reaching a maximum of 7.4% at 14 MPa. Similarly, the essential oil content of other poly (L-LA-ran-CL)s showed a maximum value at 14 MPa. In the conventional experiment, although impregnation was only conducted at a pressure of 20 MPa, it turned out that pressure greatly affects the incorporation of essential oil. In the impregnation experiment with poly(L-LA-ran-CL), it was thought that the content would be highest at 14 MPa. The oil content of poly(L-LA- ran-TEMC) (88/12) increased with increased pressure and was 9.7% of maximum at 14 MPa. Although the content of poly(L-LA-ran-CL) increased in proportion to pressure, the content of poly(L-LA-ran-TEMC) showed an abrupt increase in the range of 13 to 14 MPa. The contents of poly(L-LA-ran-DXO) exhibited a large change as well as the copolymers of other kinds at around 14 MPa, but the content was almost the same below 12 MPa or over 17 MPa. The results were that the content of the three kinds of copolymers with L-LA reached a maximum at 14 MPa in the impregnation of copolymers with refined oil extracted from Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondae under scCO 2 . Since the density of scCO 2 rose with the increase in pressure, it was expected that the so-
15 Read more
Table 3 shows that the oily suspension cells treated with each inorganic in- ducer showed an increase in the yield of most of the essential oil in the range of 21 d, and reached the maximum at 21 d. When the culture time was greater than 21 d, the essential oil content in the suspension cells gradually decreased; as the concentration of the inorganic inducer increased, the essential oil production increased first and then decreased, but the cells may be aging, and some cells reached the maximum in the second cycle. The overall trend of the increase was higher than that of the no-inducer group (CK). The effects of essential oil accu- mulation on the C. longepaniculatum cell suspension cells treated with inorganic inducers were basically consistent. Among them, at the 21st day, the induced concentrations of CuSO 4 , FeSO 4 , Li 2 SO 4 , MnSO 4 , CaSO 4 , H 2 O 2 were 0.02
11 Read more
The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of biofertilizers on quantity and quality of essential oil of basil essential oil content, geranial, caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and methyl chavicol in essential oil. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete blocks design with eight treatments and three replications at research field of Agriculture Company of Ran in Firouzkuh of iran in 2012 . The treatments were  Azotobacter chroococcum (A),  Azospirillum lipoferum (B),  Bacillus circulans (C),  A + B,  A + C,  B + C,  A + B + C and  control (without fertilizer application). The present results have shown that the highest essential oil content and the minimum caryophyllene oxide in essential oil were obtained after applying each three bioertilizers (A + B + C). The maximum geranial in essential oil and the minimum caryophyllene in essential oil were obtained by using two biofertilizers (A + C). Also, the highest methyl chavicol in essential oil was obtained after applying two biofertilizers (B + C).
It is clear that the influence of PGR and PGPR on the both EO content and its composition are the most important quality criteria for summer savory in all purposes. The production of auxin (IAA), has been accepted as a significant element in direct plant-growth-promoting abilities of rhizosphere bacteria . Also exogenous application of PGR could affect EO production and chemical compositions. Plant growth regulators have been determined as one of the main elements influence plants growth and their primary and secondary metabolites pool, and could affect EO production and chemical composition. The BAP and IAA caused an increase in the yield of EO of O. gratissimum without much influence on the main compounds , but with some change in the composition. Application of auxin and cytokinin increased some components, medicinal and nutritional values of the lemon balm and verbena [44, 45], enhanced callus induction and shoot and root formation in in vitro culture of lemon balm  and volatile compounds such as thymol of thyme . On the other hand, in the previous survey , it can be seen that the spraying with BAP on plants leads to an increase of the plant weight, leaf density and area of the glandular hairs .
Pimenta dioica (Linn.) Merill. (Myrtaceae) is well- renowned, industrially important, aromatic spice plant widely used in traditional systems of medicine, food, perfumery and cosmetic industries. Present study describes the essential oil content, composition, and antioxidant capacity of mature and immature leaves of Pimenta dioica. Essential oil was extracted using Clevenger-type apparatus for 5 hrs. Leaf essential oil composition was analyzed using GC-MS. Quantification of Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) was carried out using standard methodologies. The oil yield was 0.80% (v/w) of fresh weight. Twelve compounds comprising more than 97% of total composition were identified by GC/MS analysis. Eugenol (85.33±2.0 %) was identified as a major constituent of essential oil and followed by β-caryophylene (4.36±0.3%), cineole (4.19±0.3%), linalool (0.83±0. %) and α-humulene (0.76±0. 12%).Immature leaf extracts exhibited the marked Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) (537.18±11.62mg) trolox equivalent per g of sample); Total Phenolic Content (TPC) (99.09±3.65 mg Gallic acid equivalent per g of sample), and Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) (136.71±3.24 mg Rutin equivalent per g of sample). Presence of greater amount of eugenol in essential oil, TAC, TPC and TFC in leaf extracts undoubtedly demonstrated potential of Pimenta dioica essential oil and leaf material as a fabulous raw material for food, perfumery and cosmetic industries. Further harvesting of immature leaves could be suggested for better therapeutic benefits.
150 cm between the rows. A trial pattern was not applied to the lavandin planted under farmer conditions. The plants were harvested from flower stalks in full flowering periods in 2016 and 2017 in late July and early August. The measured plant parameters were dry flowers weight, flowers essential oil content, oil yield, and oil composition. After harvest, flowers of the plant were immediately separated and were dried under shadow. Flower essential oil were distilled with Neo-Clevenger apparatus. Twenty grams of dry flowers and leaves were separated in 500 ml flask containing 250 ml water, and boiled for 2 h. The condensate was collected in the receptive flask, and the oil was removed with the help of a pipette. The extracted oils were stored in tightly closed glass vials at a temperature of 4 o C.
A completely quantitative result is presented in Table 3. In this present study, the proportion of Piper betle L. chemical compounds from highest to lowest was phenolic compounds, essential oil, and water-soluble vitamin (mg/g). The most organic compound of phenolic fraction was flavonoids 67.4% and 55.3% for crude and residue content, respectively. Eugenol as essential oil representative was only slighter number at 20% and remaining percentages confirmed as ascorbic acid (water-soluble vitamin). In previous reports, the average percentage (%) or mass (mg/g) of various Piper betle L. confirmed eugenol as the most major compound (Begam et al., 2018; Prakash et al., 2010), even Syahidah et al. (2017) adjusted assessment by TLC study that Piper betle L. might have flavonoid or other phenolic compounds. The suitable method for extraction and detection probably
Hydro-distillation process was separately performed for Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves 7 , 718.90 g; Curcuma longa (Turmeric) rhizomes 8, 9 , 700.00 g; Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) peels 3 , 1,144.52 g using Clevenger-arm apparatus. Water was added to the weighed quantity of plant material in a round bottom flask which was placed on a heating mantle and the flask was connected with the Clevenger-arm apparatus. Flow of water was allowed to run in the condenser. While boiling, the volatile oils were carried along with the steam into the graduated distillate receiving tube and excess water returned to the flask. A layer of solvent, mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether (1:1 ratio), was added to the distillation arm. The essential oils dissolved in the organic solvent mixture which was in the graduated distillate receiving arm. Heating was continued for about 5 hours and assembly was allowed to cool. At last, aqueous layer and organic layer were collected separately. Then the organic layer was allowed to dry over anhydrous sodium sulphate and aqueous layer was extracted twice with dichloromethane.