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Critical approaches to continental philosophy: intellectual community, disciplinary identity, and the politics of inclusion

Critical approaches to continental philosophy: intellectual community, disciplinary identity, and the politics of inclusion

dialogues have the capacity to build enduring relationships that hold parties in responsibility to each other, and to each other’s investments and commitments. In neoliberal university environments organised around competitive metrics for output and impact, humanities scholars need strong, inter-connected academic communities through which to advocate for the worth of our labor, which so often cannot be sufficiently measured in monetary value or key performance indicators. Diversifying the themes, methods, and perceived canons of continental philoso- phy may be an important way to transform the meanings attached to the “con- tinental.” Nevertheless, we cannot escape the histories of colonial violence and epistemological injustice that have shaped imagined geographies of philosophi- cal competence, including the prestige still accorded to “European thinkers” and Western European languages (especially English, French, and German). Nelson Maldonado-Torres’ articulation of post-continental philosophy may be useful for thinking through these issues:
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Non philosophical Christ poetics beyond the mystical turn in conversation with continental philosophy of religion

Non philosophical Christ poetics beyond the mystical turn in conversation with continental philosophy of religion

The religious turn in continental philosophy has opened the door for postmetaphysical mystical theology. Postmetaphysical mystical theology seeks to understand the non-relation relation of language (text) to the Other. Yet, this non-relation relation to the Other, who is every other, can also be interpreted differently to the mystical understanding. For example, Žižek argues that the Other, which is often experienced as the uncanny, the unpredictable and the contingent (lived spirituality), is not necessarily the result of some mystical unknowable Otherness but is a consequence of the way the subject’s own activity is inscribed into reality. These experiences of lived spirituality or experiences of Otherness can, rather than being interpreted as an in-breaking of the mystical Other, be interpreted otherwise, as a grammatological consequence of the inability and impossibility of language (Lacan). Therefore, in this article, Žižek’s thoughts function as a bridge to bring this mystical turn back into critical conversation with continental philosophy and particularly with the thoughts of Derrida, Laruelle and Stiegler. The contemporary mystical turn in theology rediscovers something of this non-religious religion. Derrida’s thoughts are in close proximity to negative theology and yet there is an important difference. This difference will be explored and further developed towards Laruelle’s non-philosophy, which does not translate into a non-religion religion or postmetaphysical metaphysics but remains a non-philosophy or maybe a science of Christ. This article will conclude with a tentative exploration of a postmetaphysical Christ-poetics beyond the mystical turn.
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Continental Philosophy Commons Esthetics Commons History of Philosophy Commons Metaphysics Commons Philosophy of Language Commons , and the Philosophy of Mind Commons

Continental Philosophy Commons Esthetics Commons History of Philosophy Commons Metaphysics Commons Philosophy of Language Commons , and the Philosophy of Mind Commons

Deleuze's foremost concern in his early work is to establish a transcendental field adequate to real experience (transcendental empiricism). Given this, when confronted with the metaphysical impasses involved in language's relation to both bodies and ideas, Deleuze finds in the dimension of expression (or sense) a third term capable of reconnecting the two great lost worlds of the history of philosophy, but without, for all that, producing a higher term, capable of unifying supposed opposites. The surface—the geographical avatar of the metaphysics of sense—inheres both to the body and to the Idea, but remains irreducible to each. It connects one to the other, and language to each. For Deleuze, thought's consistency, a way of thinking has an orientation before having an object; “...[tracing] dimensions before constructing systems.” (LoS, 127). The dimension of expression (sense) in language (which is at the same time, not merely linguistic, but is also the logical attribute of the body or state of affairs), presupposes a metaphysics of surface, an orientation on this surface. This metaphysics in turn presupposes a distinction between its philosophically traditional rivals, and the terms which correspond and are proper to them, since the surface does not exist independently of a depth and a height (or a body and a proposition). Thus, a brief elaboration of metaphysical depth, surface, and height will provide us with the necessary context for the common theme of sense in Wittgenstein and Deleuze.
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The middle voice in Eckhart and modern continental philosophy

The middle voice in Eckhart and modern continental philosophy

is made possible within the movement of recognition or recollection. By its capacity to subordinate itself to that upon which it looks, this erotic phenomenon is neither active nor passive, rather the participation of both is the precondition of any sight at all. Associating this participation with subjectivity Pickstock says, “This gaze does not arise from an autonomous subject, but by the ambiguous action/passion of recognition, becomes a gaze which receives into itself that which offers itself to be recognised” (1998, p. 32). As was suggested earlier, this participative ontology is very much a part of Greek thinking, and Pickstock is seeking to restore our sensitivity to its significance. More fundamentally, there is a concern to undercut the violence of the dualist order that imposes itself throughout the history of philosophy, a dualism that is not avoided by the medial undecidability of différance which renders both agency and object impossible.
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The MA Comprehensive Examination

The MA Comprehensive Examination

The department offers a comprehensive program in the history and problems of philosophy, allowing for concentration in the following areas: Ancient Philosophy, Medieval Philosophy, Continental Philosophy from Kant to the present, Philosophy of Science, and Practical Philosophy broadly conceived (Ethics, Political Philosophy, Social Philosophy, Philosophy of Law). A significant feature of the program is the extensive and diverse range of courses available to graduate students every semester.

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Understanding Philosophy in a Nurse’s World: What, Where and Why?

Understanding Philosophy in a Nurse’s World: What, Where and Why?

Philosophy as an academic discipline has many branches and subcategories. For our purposes, we present an overview of philosophy based on the approach used in most North American universities where philosophy is categorized as either analytical or continental in orientation [22,23]. Until recently, most introductory textbooks of philosophy take a narrow view in defining philosophy [16,24,25]. In these texts, philosophy is limited to Western ideas about reality, truth, knowledge, and ethics and what is often called analytic philosophy. Analytic philosophy is considered by many to be ‘mainstream’ philosophy [22,26] against which all other traditions are distinguished. For Hans Johann Glock [27], the tradition of analytic philosophy is a complex category of philosophies “held together both by ties of mutual influences and by family resemblances”. In this next section we briefly introduce some of these ‘family resemblances’ of the tradition of analytic philosophy and contrast them with the more contemporary tradition of continental philosophy. An introduction to these two approaches or categories seems useful since they comprise the philosophical traditions often taken up in nursing literature and research.
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The Study of Philosophy At the University of Oregon

The Study of Philosophy At the University of Oregon

With over 200 undergraduate majors, the Philosophy major at the University of Oregon is one of the most vibrant in the country. Our program emphasizes the study of ethics, social and political philosophy, American philosophy, continental philosophy, feminist philosophy, philosophy of mind, the philosophy of race, the history of philosophy, and environmental philosophy.

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Optical properties of different aerosol types: seven years of combined Raman-elastic backscatter lidar measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

Optical properties of different aerosol types: seven years of combined Raman-elastic backscatter lidar measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

Abstract. We present our combined Raman/elastic backscat- ter lidar observations which were carried out at the EAR- LINET station of Thessaloniki, Greece, during the period 2001–2007. The largest optical depths are observed for Sa- haran dust and smoke aerosol particles. For local and con- tinental polluted aerosols the measurements indicate high aerosol loads. However, measurements associated with the local path indicate enhanced aerosol load within the Plan- etary Boundary Layer. The lowest value of aerosol optical depth is observed for continental aerosols, from West direc- tions with less free tropospheric contribution. The largest lidar ratios, of the order of 70 sr, are found for biomass burn- ing aerosols. A significant and distinct correlation between lidar ratio and backscatter related ˚ Angstr¨om exponent val- ues were estimated for different aerosol categories. Scatter plot between lidar ratio values and ˚ Angstr¨om exponent val- ues for local and continental polluted aerosols does not show a significant correlation, with a large variation in both pa- rameters possibly due to variable absorption characteristics of these aerosols. Finally for continental aerosols with west and northwest directions that follow downward movement when arriving at our site constantly low lidar ratios almost independent of size are found.
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Nuclear and chloroplast DNA phylogeography suggests an Early Miocene southward expansion of Lithocarpus (Fagaceae) on the Asian continent and islands

Nuclear and chloroplast DNA phylogeography suggests an Early Miocene southward expansion of Lithocarpus (Fagaceae) on the Asian continent and islands

The ancestral area of Lithocarpus inferred from the combined-marker tree is located in mainland China (Fig.  5, Additional file  1: Figures  S2 and S4), implying a continental-Asian origin of the genus. Except for the genera Lithocarpus and Trigonobalanus (cf. Manos and Stanford 2001), most extant species of Fagaceae are dis- tributed in temperate areas, suggesting a temperate ori- gin of Fagaceae, which was also evidenced by the fossil distribution (Crepet and Nixon 1989). Given the appar- ent ecological niche conservatism throughout the evo- lutionary history of Fagaceae, it seems more likely that the subtropical and tropical genus Lithocarpus origi- nated in a temperate region and expanded southward with adaptive divergence (Manos and Stanford 2001). The southward expansion was extended to the Greater Sunda Islands (Fig.  5, Additional file 1: Figures S2–S4). The estimated time of the southward migration places it in the Early Miocene, during which the sea level had not begun to rise and Sundaland was not yet submerged (Hall 2002), showing no or less relationship between the southward range expansion and recent dramatic climate changes, such as the Quaternary glacial oscil- lations. In fact, the early long-distance dispersal events did not occur only in Southeast Asia. Oligocene leaf fossils of the extant Lithocarpus analogs, L. saxonicus, discovered in Europe (East Germany) suggest a west- ward expansion of ancestors of extant Lithocarpus (Kvaček and Walther 1989). However, another exam- ple of out-of-Asia dispersal of L. densiflora into North America in the mid-Eocene (Manos and Stanford 2001) is paradoxical because this species is now recognized as a novel genus Notholithocarpus which is sister-grouped with Quercus instead of Lithocarpus (Manos et  al. 2008). The Late-Miocene and Early Pliocene sea-level fluctuations that accompanied the disjunction and con- nection of Sunda Islands (Susilohadi et al. 2009) might have caused continual divergences and secondary con- tact with Lithocarpus species and resulted in rapid diversification. The following Pliocene fragmentation of island blocks (Susilohadi et  al. 2009) further accel- erated species divergence (e.g., Cyrtudru, Atkins et al. Fig. 6 Skylines of the lineage‑through‑time (LTT) plots (a) and
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Cascading over the continental slope of water from the Celtic Sea

Cascading over the continental slope of water from the Celtic Sea

In the Celtic Sea, to the south of Ireland, water in some winters becomes sufficiently cooled and heavy to flow to the edge of the continental shelf and to run down the continental slope[r]

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III. 3. Rights Claimed By Littoral States in Adjacent Seas. Claims to the Continental Shelf

III. 3. Rights Claimed By Littoral States in Adjacent Seas. Claims to the Continental Shelf

tional sovereignity over the whole continental shelf adjacent to the continental and insular coasts of the national territory what- ever its depth may be, claiming, consequent[r]

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Continental growth seen through the sedimentary record

Continental growth seen through the sedimentary record

sediment. To do so they considered that the sources of the sediments can be considered in terms of two continental blocks (Fig. 7): a young block of mass fraction [x] made of juvenile crust (green block), and an older block of mass fraction [1-x] that represents the average of all the continental segments formed in previous events (brown block). A major difficulty was to evaluate the extent to which the proportions of different source rocks in the sediments may be biased through erosion processes. Allègre and Rousseau (1984) argued that young orogens have a higher relief than older continental segments, and that since rocks are more prone to erosion as the relief increases due to their greater potential energy (Ahnert, 1970; Pinet and Souriau, 1988; Summerfield, 1991; Milliman and Syvitski, 1992; Summerfield and Hulton, 1994), the preferential erosion of high-relief young crust over low-relief old crust ultimately results in an over-representation of younger source rocks in continental sediments. It follows that in the two-block model of Allègre and Rousseau (1984), sediment extracted from the young block has a mass fraction, here termed [y], such that [y] is > [x], because relatively more sediment is derived from the younger source block of mass fraction [x]. Reciprocally, sediment derived from the old block has a mass fraction [1-y] that is < [1-x] (Fig. 7).
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Philosophy of Computer Science - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Philosophy of Computer Science - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

According to the philosophy of science known as “physicalism”, our sensory per- ception yields reliable (but corrigible) 4 knowledge of ordinary, medium-sized physical objects and events. For Mach, because atoms were not observable, there was no reason to think that they exist. Perhaps it seems odd to you that a physicist would be inter- ested in our sensations rather than in the world outside of our sensations. This makes it sound as if science should be done “in the first person, for the first person”, just like philosophy! That’s almost correct; many philosophically oriented scientists at the turn of the last century believed that science should begin with observations, and what are observations but our sensations? Kant distinguished between what he called ‘noumena’ (or “things in themselves”, independent of our concepts and sensations) and what he called ‘phenomena’ (or things as we perceive and conceive them as filtered through our conceptual apparatus). He claimed that we could only have knowledge about phe- nomena, not noumena, because we could not get outside of our first-person, subjective ways of conceiving and perceiving the world. This is why some philosophers of sci- ence have argued that sciences such as quantum mechanics are purely instrumental and only concerned with prediction, rather than being realistic, or concerned with the way the world “really” is.
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The Continental Army & Washington

The Continental Army & Washington

In the winter of 1777, George Washington’s Continental Army found themselves, once again, overwhelmed. After suffering several major defeats at the hands of the British, in particular the Howe brothers, American morale was at a low, and Washington was concerned that the army might mutiny entirely. Washington decided to encamp that winter at Valley Forge close to the continental capital Philadelphia, which had fallen into British hands. While it was a strategic location, the Continental Army went through a winter of cold, hunger and extreme discomfort. At Valley Forge, Albigence Waldo, a surgeon in the army, kept a diary of his experiences and observations.
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Fluids in the Continental Crust

Fluids in the Continental Crust

Magmas inevitably contain dissolved volatiles, and release of fluids from crystallising melts into their country rocks is also a locally-important source of fluids. This is especially important in shallow crustal settings, whereas in the deeper crust the magmas generally crystallise without reaching volatile satura- tion, and the volatile species are incorporated into minerals (hydrous phases, carbonates, sulphides/sulphides). It was noted previously that most of the water that circulates in near-surface, high-temperature geothermal fields is derived from local rainfall, but the same may not be true for all the volatile components (or the metals) of geothermal fluids. Certainly the thermal energy to drive the geothermal system is magmatically derived in most cases, and helium isotope studies of continental geothermal systems show variable deep (mantle) and crustal input into the systems (Kennedy and van Soest, 2007). Moreover, high levels of As, Sb and reduced S in geothermal waters such as the famous Cham- pagne Pool at Ohaaki, New Zealand (Fig. 3.2) are undoubtedly of magmatic origin, even if the local precipitation has diluted the magmatic water component beyond recognition. At depths of a few kilometres, fluids released from magmas are recognised as playing a major role in the formation of porphyry-Cu, Fe-oxide – Cu – Au and some other types of ore deposit, especially acting as the source of metals (Bodnar, 1995b), even though later circulation of heated meteoric waters has also often taken place and overprinted the magmatic fluid processes. As noted by Norton (1984) and many others, over the lifetime of a magmatic-hydrothermal system associated with an epizonal pluton in the continental crust, the amount of meteoric water that circulates through the cooling pluton is on the order of 10 to 100 times the amount of magmatic water that is exsolved from the magma.
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From the Shoals of Ras Kaboudia to the Shores of Tripoli: The Tunisia/Libya Continental Shelf Boundary Delimitation

From the Shoals of Ras Kaboudia to the Shores of Tripoli: The Tunisia/Libya Continental Shelf Boundary Delimitation

The International Court of Justice [ICJ] first addressed the issue of delimitation of the continental shelf between adjacent States in the North Sea Continental Shelf C[r]

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the two dimensions of philosophy education with children: curricular and extra-curricular philosophy activities

the two dimensions of philosophy education with children: curricular and extra-curricular philosophy activities

The Twenty-first Century promises to be the age of information, a century in which only those societies that aspire to the production, transmission and marketing of information can achieve success. As such, the individuals of this century must possess, along with the basic skills, the new and significant abilities of problem-solving, creative thinking, decision-making, research skills, and the capacity to assume responsibility for one’s own knowledge as active subjects. It is necessary to teach students how to think, and the education of thinking is one function of philosophy. Only an adequate philosophical education can create individuals with the qualifications listed above, and such an education has to be supported by both curricular and extra-curricular activities. This article will review these two dimensions of philosophical education, using recent educational developments in Turkey as an example.
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SCI20UnitCCh3_SuggestedAnswers.pdf

SCI20UnitCCh3_SuggestedAnswers.pdf

Effects on Solar Radiation Received on Earth’s Surface Geologists suspect that when the plates of continental crust move to the poles, continental ice sheets can form that increase the a[r]

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Concept, Sensation, Intensity: Deleuze's Theory of Art and Cinema

Concept, Sensation, Intensity: Deleuze's Theory of Art and Cinema

In What Is Philosophy? Deleuze and Guattari talk about the work of art in the terms of a being of sensation. “The thing or the work of art – is a bloc of sensations, that is to say, a compound of percepts and affects” (26). “Sensations, percepts, and affects are beings whose validity lies in themselves and exceeds any lived” (27). And further: “The aim of art is (…) to extract a bloc of sensations, a pure being of sensations” (28). That is, to create a set that functions as a vector of sensations, a coordinated accumulation of sensations. To produce something that is first of all sensation. And in the horizon of art we can see realized “some great monumental types, or “varieties,” of compounds of sensations: the vibration, which characterizes the simple sensation (…); the embrace or the clinch (…); withdrawal, division, distension” (29). These are movements, different processes that at once mark the producing of the sensation and diffuse it through absolutely unique paths and tensions. It is significant that the concept of vibration is also one of the most relevant knots in Kandinsky’s reflection on art, albeit it pointed towards an absolutely different direction (30). The vibration conceived by Kandinsky is a deep spiritual adventure investing the soul, not something operating on the senses. Nonetheless, it is a unique psychic configuration underlining the creation of dynamic-intensive effects provoked by art and its fruition.
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Summary of Northeast Asia geodynamics and tectonics*

Summary of Northeast Asia geodynamics and tectonics*

A regional geodynamics map was initially compiled at a scale of 1:5 000 000 (Nokleberg et al., 1997b, c; Parfenov et al., 2003, 2004a, b). However, in order to display ma- jor features of host rock geology and structures and major belts of mineral and hydrocarbon resources a page-size il- lustration, a summary regional geodynamics map (Fig. 2) was constructed at a scale of about 1:34 000 000 in order to display: (1) the regional surface extent of major geologic units (cratons, craton margins, tectonic collages of island arc, continental-margin arc, accretionary wedge, and passive con- tinental margin terranes, volcanic and plutonic igneous arcs); (2) major fault and rift systems; and (3) active subduction zones. A list of major host-rock geologic units in the expla- nation and a description of major geologic units for the map is provided in Appendix A. The tectonic interpretations for the summary map are derived from the major publications of the collaborative international studies on Northeast Asia and the Circum-North Pacific (listed above).
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