EPA has made significant efforts to broaden its monitoring program focus by involving the scientific community in the speciation and supersite network planning. For example, since the Academy’s 1998 report, EPA has sought expert external scientific advice on the siting, sampling, and measurements needed to address health, exposure, and atmospheric research questions and jointly sponsored a workshop with over 200 individuals to further involve the scientific community in EPA ’s planning for the speciation and supersite monitoring networks. As a result, the agency reevaluated its monitoring plans and decided to slow down the rollout of the speciation monitors and supersites pending greater input from the scientific community. EPA also reduced the number of mass-only monitors planned from 1,392 to 1,094 and increased the number and frequency of analyses at 54 speciation sites. EPA also more than doubled the number of continuousmonitoring sites, from 62 to 137, and added plans for up to 9 supersites—an increase of $15 million in EPA ’s PM
Abstract: Chittagong, the commercial capital of Bangladesh, is experiencing crucial health impacts resulting from deficient air quality. The ambient air quality data for particulate matter as well as criteria of gaseous pollutants were assembled during December 2013 to December 2015 from the ContinuousAir Quality Monitoring Station (CAMS) located at Agrabad, Chittagong. Analysis showed that during April- October, 24 hour average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were within the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) level but it increased about three times during the whole non-monsoon period (November-March).The highest values found of PM2.5 were 321.1µg/m 3 in January, 2013 and 220.34µg/m 3 in December 2015. Whether, the highest alarming concentration of PM10 was reported as 474µg/m 3 in January 2007.The other gaseous pollutants such as SO 2 , NO 2 , O 3 and CO remain well within the permissible limit except dry non-monsoon period. The
Abstract: The ambient air quality data for particulate matter as well as criteria of gaseous pollutants were assembled during December 2013 to December 2015 from the ContinuousAir Quality Monitoring Station (CAMS) located at Agrabad, Chittagong. The observation showed that during April- October, 24 hour average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were within the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) level but it increased occasionally by more than two and a half times during the whole non- monsoon period (November-March). The highest values found of PM2.5 were 321.1 µg/m 3 in January,
The met-one particle counter was used to measure the number of particles in the selected DCCs.The met-one particle counter is a small, easy to use and completely portable hand-held particle counter that provides fast and accurate measurement of particulate contamination in particles per cubic foot. The particle counter has a NIST traceable calibration in accordance with JIS B 9921 and ASTM F328 andASTM F649. The sampler takes a total of 10 samples after which it averages them to represent the result per location. A conversion factor from the Air Quality Sensor Network for Philadelphia-Data Validation- was used to estimate the PM₁₀ levels in / 3 .Measurements were taken both indoor and outdoor. The ambient and indoor measurements were determined at two periods of the day between 8am-11am and between 12pm-3pm. Measurements were taken three days in a week for 16weeks spanning the rainy and the dry seasons respectively.
Globally, a lot of research has been conducted and focused on urban population in developed countries and where issues relating to air pollution is readily apparent. Ambient air quality in developing countries has always been of concern because of the continuous increase in urban development, increasing population and the continued reliance on fossil fuels as the main source of energy. Most of the populace in developing counties live in the rural areas whereby households still rely on unprocessed biomass fuels in the form of wood and crop residues. The gaseous pollutants released from the combustion of these energy sources have varying and significant effects on human health and one that is of importance to this study is the effect it has on cardiovascular health. As a developing country, the most commonly known or traditional risk factors to cardiovascular diseases in Fiji are being overweight or obese, smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels, being physically inactive, having an unhealthy diet, diabetes and prediabetes and having a family history of early heart disease. My area of specialization in Fiji is Environmental Health, hence a systematic investigation of the association between an environmental variable (pollutants in air) and a health effect (acute myocardial infarction) will provide the nous amongst health researchers in Fiji on the influence of environmental factors on cardiovascular health. Air pollution is one of the largest risk factors that lead to a range of diseases. Heart disease is a common cause of death and disability worldwide. In Fiji alone, 34% of annual deaths is from cardiovascular diseases (WHO, 2018). Being from Fiji and an ardent advocate on impacts of environmental exposures on human health, this research will provide the impetus in developing explanatory models of the linkage between air quality and risk of heart disease among the populace in an urban area.
Table 2 shows the values of temperature, rela- tive humidity and flow rate of air during sam- pling. The highest values of PM10, regardless of temperature and humidity, was observed in the vicinity of arterial roads. The conditions of high relative humidity (series V and VI at the measur- ing points PP1-PP3) yielded high levels of dust concentration. In order to minimize the effect of humidity on the results, the measurements should be repeated with a probe which includes a con- ditioning air circuit (heated air inlet). Increased concentrations of PM10 measured in this way during the heating season could be attributed to emissions from local sources of heat.
Tribes are conducting air quality monitoring to gather information on the long-term air quality effects on the tribal community and on tribal lands. In many cases, tribes use their ancestral lands for subsistence hunting and fishing, traditional rites and harvesting native plants. Tribes are concerned that long-term exposures to air pollutants, acid rain, and heavy metal deposition will adversely affect these resources. It should be noted that this type of airmonitoring requires a long-term commitment of funding and resources (for operation of equipment and analyses/assessments of the data). Examples of this type of monitoring include operating trace level SO2, CO and NOy monitors, sulfate, nitrate, metals, and the operations of National Atmospheric Deposition Network (NADP), Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) and IMPROVE samplers. Data from this type of monitoring can also help to assess the short and long-term effects of long distance transport on tribal lands and the effects of atmospheric deposition on the ecology of their lands. The Nez Perce, Yakama Nation, Umatilla and Warm Springs Tribes are involved in a cooperative effort to look at air impacts in the Columbia River Gorge Scenic Area where all four tribes have treaty fishing rights. Part of this air quality assessment includes the impacts of air pollution on rock art.
These doors are automatically shut whenever a major scram signal is initiated. This signal goes to the door scram relays (DSRs). These relays start electric motors that close the doors. These motors are powered from electrical buses A-5 and B-6, the diesel-backed buses. The doors themselves have limit switches on them that stop the door travel when fully closed or open. Signals from these limit switches are sent to the DSRs, which cut the power to the electric motors. There is also a manual override switch on the outside confinement side near each door that will reopen the doors. The operators use this manual override, if necessary, for evacuation of personnel left inside the confinement after the doors are closed. It should be noted that if the major scram signal remains active, when this manual override button is released, these doors would automatically re-close. When the limit switch signals closure of each door, a signal is sent to the solenoids that inflate the seal on each door from the compressed air system. The door would not automatically reopen on clearing of the major scram signal. In order to reopen the doors and deflate the seals, the major scram signal has to be removed and the manual override used to return the doors to their open position.
contextual background. A number of new experiments have demonstrated very rapid effects of air pollution, such as vascular dysfunction, which argues for the existence of pathways that convey signals systemically within hours of PM inhalation. On the other hand, there is also support for chronic biological effects, such as the promotion of athero- sclerosis. At the molecular level, persuasive evidence sup- ports an integral role for ROS-dependent pathways at multi- ple stages, such as in the instigation of pulmonary oxidative stress, systemic proinflammatory responses, vascular dys- function, and atherosclerosis. In sum, new studies continue to support the idea that inhalation of PM can instigate extrapul- monary effects on the cardiovascular system by 3 general “intermediary” pathways. These include pathway 1, the release of proinflammatory mediators (eg, cytokines, acti- vated immune cells, or platelets) or vasculoactive molecules (eg, ET, possibly histamine, or microparticles) from lung- based cells; pathway 2, perturbation of systemic ANS balance or heart rhythm by particle interactions with lung receptors or
Meteorological and land use data was available for this research. Meteorological data from a fixed air quality monitoring station nearby to the study area was provided by the Malaysia Meteorological Department. Data provided include temperature, humidity and particle matter concentrations. These data were used to make comparison between actual ambient data taken in testing area. Malaysia naturally has plentiful sunshine and consequently solar radiation. On the average, Malaysia receives about 6 hours of sunshine per day due the cloud cover cuts off a substantial amount of solar radiation. This study was conducted in selected parking area (latitude 4.57, longitude 101.1) and altitude: 53m above mean sea level in Ipoh, the capital city of Perak state . The testing area surrounded by residential flats, terrace houses,
2012. Throughout this period, mean TSP readings matched closely with Canadian air quality standards. However, these standards do not attend to measure- ments of extreme peaks in dust levels or their potential health effects. Such peaks are observed in the data pro- vided, particularly in August and May 2012. Identifying these peak events require a different approach to sus- pended particulate data analysis. The method presented here identifies peak events occurring at or above the 99th percentile of by-minute suspended particulate data. This approach provides a data-driven way to identify and explore peak events without relying on the use of an arbitrary cut-point for peaks. Peak event analysis may complement conventional approaches to suspended par- ticulate analysis, and may provide opportunities to iden- tify airborne hazards to human health that would escape more conventional analyses.
fer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2) A prolonged retention of all three ele- ments in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimen- tation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3) A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen) that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.
The effect of longer term PM exposure on survival in gen- eral cohorts has been examined in a number of studies, which mainly focused on total or cardiovascular mortal- ity. The Harvard Six Cities prospective cohort study  showed an association between cardiovascular mortality and chronic exposure to air pollutants. Other studies [16,17] such as the American Cancer Society Cancer Pre- vention study population, most recently reported an association between long term average PM and specific causes of death, such as deaths from all cardiovascular dis- ease plus diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and dysrhyth- mias, heart failure, and cardiac arrest mortality.
The Nafion membrane is known to be semi-permeable to water vapor and relatively impermeable to other gases (Leckrone and Hayes, 1997). Nafion dryers are built with a tubing of semi-permeable membrane separating an inter- nal sample gas stream from a counterflow purge gas stream contained within a stainless steel outer shell. If the partial pressure of water vapor is lower in the purge gas stream, then water is removed from the sample gas stream. There are many different ways to supply the purge gas to Nafion dryers. Common methods include those with no consumables, like reusing the sample gas itself after it is partially dried passing through the inner Nafion membrane (as in this study) or sup- plying purge air from a dry-air generator, and methods with consumables that must be replaced, such as using molecular sieve to remove all the water from the sample after the Nafion and before it is reused as the purge gas (e.g. Stephens et al., 2011) or dry air from a tank. The choice depends largely on what the tolerance is for residual water in the sample gas and how frequently technicians are able to service the dryer.
D eterm in istic m odels seek to establish a causal link betw een th e p o llu ta n t em itted and th e ground level c o n c en tra tio n t h a t may be expected a fte r atm o sp heric tra n s p o rt and dispersion. S p atial and tem po ral v ariatio n in c o n c en tra tio n s m ay then be p redicted depending on th e model used. T hro ug h th is app ro ach it is possible b o th to regulate the em issions from specific sources, thereby m ain ta in in g acceptable a m b ie n t c o n cen tratio n s, and to o b tain fu rth e r insights in to the physical processes involved in air pollution episodes. It is no ted , how ever, th a t th is link is only a d eq u ately generated by d e te rm in istic m odels for co n c en tra tio n s t h a t occur m ost frequently; th e prediction of m ore extrem e events, such as m axim um co n c en tra tio n s, can be qu ite poor (Ja k e m an et al, 1987a). Large errors in th e e stim a te s of these high c o n c en tra tio n air p o llu tio n episodes result prim arily from th e tu rb u le n t and sto c h a stic n a tu re of atm o sp h e ric diffusion (Fox. 1981, P asquill and Sm ith, 1983) cu rre n tly not acco u n ted for in d eterm in istic m odels.
Nowadays, much attention is paid to environmental protection. Manufacturers of fireplaces improve their products, which give the user comfort. The economic reasons lead people to use in addition to central heating and heating stoves, fireplaces, fireplace stoves. Stoves and fireplaces are a modern heating source with a much smaller release of fumes than traditional stoves, and also makes better use of wood energy and thus saving fuel. Modern modifications allow an increase of heating efficiency and limit the formation of flue gas. In particular, the way of fuel combustion is reflected in fuel consumption and emission parameters. Based on this knowledge were carried out measurements and the results deals with the impacts of the amount of combustion air to the formation of particulate matter.
The Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) program was established in 1985 to help implement plans to reduce visibility impairment in Class I areas (large federally-protected national parks and wilderness areas) as stipulated in the CAA. There are about 110 IMPROVE sites in Class I visibility protection areas. These sites collect aerosol samples and analyze the filters for trace elements, major ions, and carbon fractions. Most of the IMPROVE sites are operated by federal agencies within the U.S. Department of the Interior.
For long-term EEG measurement, collodion-applied electrodes are usually used, instead of dish-type elec- trodes. Collodion-applied electrodes are preferred in the ICU setting because of possible electrode displacement during body repositioning, rehabilitation training, or other interventions performed by nurses, or due to sweating of the patient. When attaching electrodes, the scalp surface is wiped well with alcohol-soaked cotton and the electrodes are placed on the surface, which are then covered by a 2 × 2-cm piece of gauze and fixed with collodion. After the collodion dries, adhesive paste for electrodes is applied. A total of 21 electrodes, including 18 right and left electrodes (9 each), including earlobe electrodes and 3 midline electrodes, are used in accord- ance with the international 10 – 20 system. However, electrode attachment according to the 10-20 system may not be feasible in a busy emergency setting. In that case, fewer electrodes may be used for EEG measurement. A study comparing the 10-20 system and the use of fewer electrodes showed that the rate of detecting seizure from EEG signals was 93, 68, and 40% with 7, 4, and 1 elec- trodes, respectively . Thus, CEEG can still be per- formed with fewer electrodes as long as it is understood that the use of fewer electrodes is associated with a somewhat decreased diagnostic yield. Monitoring time is an important factor affecting the examination results. Claassen et al. have reported that longer measurement
Insulin administration represents the mainstay of T1DM treat- ment. he purpose of insulin administration is to prevent the development of DKA due to the absolute shortage of intrinsic insulin production and to maintain BG levels within the physi- ologic range. Insulin administration should thus ideally pre- vent, or at least delay development of micro- and macrovascu- lar complications of hyperglycaemia and, at the same time, should cause as little hypoglycaemia as possible. To achieve this, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of administered insulin should ideally, mimic those of physiolog- ic insulin release from pancreatic β-cells in healthy individuals in whom basal continuous insulin secretion into the portal vein together with super-added peak insulin secretions closely following the rise in plasma glucose concentration 30 to 60 minutes ater eating can be observed . his has proven to be a challenging task as the physiological mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are extremely complex. hus, current in- sulin formulations and modes of delivery are unable to fully reproduce the physiology of the β-cell . Since the discovery of insulin in the 1920s  remarkable steps towards achieving this goal have been made, but there is still a long way to go. he currently available insulin preparations in the UK, as listed in the “British National Formulary (BNF)” at the time of writing of the manuscript (December 2017), together with their chem- ical structure and action proiles are listed in Table 1. Histori-