day practice, pediatricians are confronted by clinical problems, questions, and surprises. Many of these questions may be answered almost instantaneously with tacit knowledge; other questions may provoke a quick search for an answer by accessing information sources (eg, looking up a drug dose or side effect). When a question stimulates thinking about how to answer or resolve the issue, the process is referred to as “reflection-in-action.” Inferences and conclusions drawn from these brief reflective moments may pro- vide a broader understanding of the topic or lay the groundwork for future learning. It is not clear whether knowledge gained from accessing rapid in- formation sources in this manner results in learning that is enduring.
Empirical research evidence indicates that continuous learning and professional development among paramedics empowers them with skills that enhance recovery outcomes of emergency patients and in generation of new knowledge crucial to advancement of the profession [1, 2]. A research study by Guy and Brachet  found that paramedics that trained on the use of pre-hospital Advanced Life Support (ALS) reported a decline in the seriousness of injuries and mortality of trauma patients within 24 hours. Moreover, ALS intervention was found to enhance recovery from multiple traumatic injuries . Evidence based research studies on delivery of EMS services in remote areas have also indicated an improvement in survival rates for trauma patients after administration of on scene interventions in Ireland  and prediction in occurrence rate for pre- hospital cardiac arrest in Hong Kong . All of these studies underline the research importance of continuous professional development of paramedics. A study investigating the effects of continuous professional development on paramedics indicated found that the learners reported significant benefits, including gaining new knowledge and updating their skills and introducing new evidence based practices into the profession. However, there is shortage of research on various aspects of EMS, including evidence based studies investigating the efficacy of out of hospital interventions and management for patients with trauma injuries in addition to promoting paramedics welfare as crucial stakeholders in the healthcare sector.
Clearly, knowledge acquisition is not situated exclusively within anyone of these three contexts, but the iden- tification of the different contexts is useful in analytical terms. Additionally, various strategies can be used to enable nurses undertake Continuous Professional Development . State that Continuous Professional Devel- opment can be formal or informal whereby learning can take place in formal setting such as module courses at diploma, degree and higher degree levels, study days and half-day shorter programmes. A study done in Malawi  to describe the current status of CPD of health care personnel within MOH revealed that health workers practiced their CPD mainly through reading professional journals and attending seminars and workshops al- though all of them expressed the need to receive these journals for free and very few were willing to pay. Addi- tionally, a study done to identify training and development needs of midwives in Indonesia by  revealed that although nurses were practicing CPD, all of the midwives expressed the need for further development and train- ing with junior midwives expressing more needs. In Kenya, nurses are encouraged to upgrade themselves through distance learning & part-time learning so as to address the shortage of staff, which is a key to quality of care in the health care systems although there is no clear monitoring to show whether this development is needs driven or not. This means that for one to undergo Continuous Professional Development one does not necessari- ly have to go to class . For distance learning, one has to be away from his or her workstation during face-to face tutorials, study days or during exam times. For part time mode of study the off duty duration is shorter. On the other hand professional development by nurses can be hindered by poor support by their employers and these employers not making full use of their potential . Found out that those employers must use this excel- lent opportunity of knowledge gained through professional development which will allow flexibility in employ- ing nurses across shared work places.  suggested the following CPD activities which can help health profes- sionals to update their knowledge and skills: self directed study, organizing study days, formal study, conference attendance, clinical supervision, and clinical activities, reading nursing articles/journals, and clinical activities. These will address the barriers that hinder nurses and midwives from participating in CPD. This is supported by  in a study on integrating performance and the practice of CPD among Canadian pharmacist who found out that pharmacist must practice informal CPD activities in order to continuously update and assure the public of the continuing quality of care provided by the practitioners.
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According to Knowles, adult learning is based on the following seven principles: 1) To promote effective environment for learning, adults should feel that the environment is safe and all opinions are respected; 2) people should be self-directed and involved in assessing their gaps in knowledge; 3) learners should be involved in planning their curriculum; 4) they should accept responsibility for their own learning and design their own learning objectives; 5) students should identify resources and devise strategies for using these sources to achieve their objectives; 6) they should receive support in an informal and personal environment; and 7) learners should be involved in self-reflection and evaluation of their own learning experience.4 There are other theories of on how adults learn including social cognitive theory, reflective practice, transformative learning, self-directed learning, experiential learning, situated learning, and learning in communities of practice [6-12]. Though many of these principles of adult education would apply in practice-based medicine, for our review, we will refer on the principles of Knowles adult-learning theory due to its widespread applicability .
“children working with each other in small groups helps to raise attainment for disadvantaged pupils (Wegerif et al., 2004; Sharples et al., 2011; Higgins et al., 2013)…. [ but that]…effective collaboration has to be taught across the school and facilitated by teachers. Simply putting children together in groups to work does not result in effective learning for children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Effective approaches are those where pupils are provided with support in how to work in groups, where tasks are carefully designed by teachers to foster effective group discussion, where teacher instruction is clear and focused on the learning to be undertaken, and where lower-achieving pupils are encouraged to talk and articulate their thinking to develop reasoning and problem-solving skills (Wegerif et al., 2004; Swan, 2006). On the whole, mixed ability groups result in positive impact on the learning of children from economically disadvantaged households, while ability grouping has a detrimental effect (Higgins et al., 2013). For the above, teachers need training and coaching in the use of well-structured group work approaches (Gillies & Boyle, 2005; Sharples et al., 2011)” (extract from Sosu & Ellis, 2014, p.28).
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Teachers are more than technicians or purveyors of information. Accordingly, they must be committed to lifelong intellectual, personal, and professional growth. Because both faculty and teacher candidates must continually develop these habits of mind, teacher education programs must stimulate the exploration and development of the full range of human capabilities. Thus, all our teacher education programs foster intellectual curiosity and encourage an appreciation of learning through the sustained analysis of ideas, values, and practices; and through intuition, imagination, and aesthetic experience. Teacher candidates are expected to develop a philosophy of teaching and learning. This philosophy and continuous professional growth should include values, commitments, and professional development.
EMTs must embrace the multitude of activities that contribute to a professional’s development and the out- come of good CPD should be practitioners with increased competence and improved patient care . This is the first study of attitudes towards professional competence among EMTs in Ireland and indicates that there appears to be a genuine enthusiasm for the introduction of CPC and a positive link to professionalism, similar to other healthcare professions [9,11,12,23-26]. This enthusiasm towards CPC is reinforced further as a significant number of EMTs are already maintaining a learning portfolio and participating in CPC activities, as the vast majority of par- ticipants agreed that CPC should be a requirement for PHECC registration and as 95% believed that registration with PHECC is of personal importance to them. This view of CPD being a requirement for registration is sup- ported by legislation for some professions [27-29] or shown in previous studies to be shared by practitioners themselves [26,30].
As in many other organizations in western countries, Canadian universities are currently facing a high employee turnover due to the retirement of post-World War II baby-boomers (AUCC, 2007). Thus, the integration of large cohorts of new faculty and other academic staﬀ members represents a great challenge for universities. To take up this challenge successfully, new employees should be supported in their eﬀorts to embrace the academic culture of their universities and to optimize their professional development through their work practices. One way to accomplish this is to support the intergenerational transfer of academic expertise (Bratianu, Agapie, Orzea & Agoston, 2011; CSÉ, 2003), by encouraging experienced and new employees to meet regularly to discuss their work practice, in the hope that the former will externalize some of the tacit knowledge developed during their university careers and that the latter will learn from them. Conversely, these meetings can be occasions for newcomers to express fresh ideas that may lead to a re-evaluation of some encrusted rules and can instil innovative practices in the university.
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In modern conditions, the achievement of high student’s satisfaction is recognized to be the most important indicator of ensuring the required quality of future doctors' training, which can be assessed on the basis of feedback. At Kursk State Medical University anonymous questioning of students is regularly carried out to find out their satisfaction with various aspects of organization and conduction of class activities for the purpose of further improvement in the quality of the educational process. "Polyclinic therapy" and "general medical practice" are medical disciplines that provide the capture of theoretical material, professional competences and labor functions necessary for future work in the context of primary health care. At the same time, the study of outpatient therapy is aimed primarily at comprehending the foundations of patient's working capacity examination, preventive and rehabilitation technologies, palliative and medico-social care. General medical practice, in its turn, involves the assimilation of differential diagnostic and tactical procedures for patients with widespread clinical syndromes in outpatient practice: arterial hypertension, fever of unknown genesis, anemic, broncho-obstructive, etc.
“According to Maeroff (1988, see Bogler & Somech, 2004), teacher empowerment consists of improved status, increased knowledge, and access to decision-making. Short and Rinehart (1992, see Bogler & Somech, 2004) identify six dimensions of teacher empowerment: decision-making, professional growth, status, self-efficacy, autonomy, and impact” (Bogler & Somech, 2004, p. 279). Regarding the six dimensions of teacher empowerment, decision-making refers to teachers’ participation in critical decisions that directly affect their work. Professional growth refers to the teachers’ perception that the school provides them opportunities to grow and develop professionally. Status refers to the professional respect and admiration that the teachers perceive that they earn from colleagues. Self-efficacy refers to the teachers’ perception that they are equipped with the skills and ability to help students learn, and are competent to develop curricula for students. Autonomy refers to the teachers’ feeling that they have control over various aspects of their working life. Impact refers to the teachers’ perception that they can affect and influence school life (Bogler & Somech, 2004).
prompting responses from the participants. It was difficult to elicit responses from all the participants, except for Diana. At the beginning of these sessions, the participating teachers would walk into Diana’s room, talking to each other animatedly, choose their usual seats, sit down, and almost completely stop talking unless spoken to. As I spoke there was a lot of head nodding as if in agreement with me, as well as smiling at me, but the interaction among me and the research participants had almost ceased. By now, the professional development had become stilted. The collegiality among participating teachers was present when they walked into the room, but ended as the professional development session began. It was difficult to ascertain what, if anything, had changed with the participants. It was as if the teachers were ‘doing school’, meaning they were behaving politely, listening to me as I talked, but they were not engaging in the learning process as they had in the first professional development session. The only aspect I could control was how I delivered the professional development. I knew a change had to be made.
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Close collaboration with schools is an important piece toward the continuous improvement of teacher education programs in TEIs. When TEI faculties, classroom teachers and principals are actively involved in determining teacher education programme improvements, school teachers gain a higher level of confidence in preservice teacher preparation, content knowledge and instructional skills. Additionally, program improvements developed with both best practices research and practical application experiences of teachers add meaning and depth to preservice teacher training.
incommensurable approaches, given that the models have different paradigmatic foundations. Below we consider philosophical considerations that can support the embrace of all these models as potentially useful. First, however, we address the question of how to choose between them in specific contexts or for particular purposes. The approach we offer here to select between the models draws, in part, on the conceptual framework used to analyse the five models. For simplicity we consider selection for the researcher or evaluator aiming to analyse a professional development programme. However, the same process could be adapted to inform the design of professional learning activities or indeed professional learning policy at network or system levels. This could be at a national level or in clusters of schools, for example, in England, in teaching school alliances that promote networked professional learning(Boylan, 2016). Considering the models as tools draws attention to different system levels that are important to pay attention to in such contexts.
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A focus on more effective instruction is only part of the purpose of the PLCs at Work TM model. Another part is a focus on student learning. Without these components working together, the PLC cycle is incomplete and student learning impeded. Again, DuFour (2004) said that in order for PLCs to ensure success for every student, educators and schools must ask three crucial questions: “What do we want each student to learn? How will we know when each student has learned it? How will we respond when a student experiences difficulty in learning?” (p. 8). Answering these questions determines how PLCs operate in schools to affect student learning. DuFour and Eaker (1998) described the collaborative inquiry process for improving instruction as one in which teachers reflect on their beliefs, assumptions, and practice; share their reflection with others in the PLC; create an action plan for improving instruction; and implementing the plan. Once the action is complete, teachers should collectively analyze the results and begin the inquiry cycle again.
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The above background information underscores the need for strengthening Tanzanian teachers’ PL skills, in order to build the country’s capacity for engaging its teachers in regular and meaningful PL practices. In Tanzanian schools, it is common to hear complaints from some teachers that they have never participated in PL since graduating from their ITE programmes. This claim might have multiple interpretations; maybe teachers are not aware that there are opportunities in the workplace where they can engage in PL?; or schools do not have proper arrangements for supporting teachers’ PL apart from depending on the externally initiated training programmes? As argued by Kryvonis (2013), teachers’ perceptions of what constitutes PL are generally limited to attendance in traditional workshops and seminars. As professionals, Tanzanian teachers need to be aware of their professional responsibilities (Anangisye, 2013) that includes knowledge of and engagement in PL. However, in reality, it is difficult to conduct regular and structured PL in Tanzania, because it is poorly coordinated and rarely budgeted for at both local and national levels (Komba & Nkumbi, 2008). This lack of coordination tends to affect both PL initiatives in schools and teachers’ perceptions of it. Thus, teachers need to be supported to make extensive changes to their traditional PL practices and to experience the empowering and transformative effects of a learner- driven and cost-effective model of PL.
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I am very grateful and respectful to my supervisors, Associate Professor Sally Hansen and Associate Professor Alison Sewell. This research would not have happened without their constant generous and insightful guidance. Their expertise in teacher professional inquiry and encouragement helped me to be well on track to meet my expectations in the research process. Their timely and constructive feedback enabled me to reflect in my research work, challenge my thinking, which helped to shape my research and writing skills. Their overall concern for my wellbeing and family is deeply appreciated. I consider myself privileged to have been under the supervision of Sally and Alison.
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report that the goals are usually adopted for four to six years in order to attain significant results. In Japanese culture, Lesson Study is the mostly commonly practiced activity during Konaikenshu (Yoshida, 1999). Permeating the Lesson Study cycle are ways in which the district and school goals are realized. Research Lessons are the actual classroom lessons that teachers develop during the Lesson Study cycle. The Lesson Study cycle is the lifecycle of a Research Lesson beginning with its planning by its collaborators until its final publication. Any given Lesson Study cycle centers around a group of teachers who plan, conduct, and evaluate the Research Lesson. The Lesson Study Process is cyclical and doesn‘t focus on a ―product‖ at the end. Rather, the process generates new insights and investigations into the teaching and learning process (Yoshida, 2002). Inherent in the diagram is the circular nature to which the lessons are developed. Once an initial presentation of the lesson is made to students (with observers
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The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine a social justice-driven profes- sional learning community (PLC). Throughout their two-day professional learning experience, P- 12 educators explored and discussed teaching for social justice and equity. Educators explored and discussed what teaching for social justice means for both teachers and students in accordance with Sleeter’s (2013) framework. Sleeter’s framework included the following four key compo- nents: explicitly recognizing and working with students’ cultures as a basis for learning; teaching key concepts in the curriculum through content and examples drawn from more than one cultural group; involving students in structured dialoguing across their differences about social justice is- sues; and, preparing young people to act collaboratively on social justice issues. They also exam- ined multicultural children’s literature and engaged in critical conversations surrounding how particular texts can be used to teach for social justice and equity. The overall goal of this profes- sional learning community (PLC) was to provide a supportive space for open dialogue and criti- cal reflection as P-12 educators explored teaching for social justice and equity. Studying P-12 educators who participated in a social justice-driven PLC was important in determining how their thinking about social justice and equity were influenced by PLC activities. Further, the un- derstandings educators developed have implications for their instructional practices and could inform future professional learning opportunities for educators.
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A test-oriented training session was offered in June. In the university, more and more students try to take the IELTS exam since universities in the United Kingdom and some other countries require students to submit an IELTS score. However, half of the advisors had not taken IELTS before and had difficulty when they were asked IELTS questions. The IELTS focused training was offered due to the situation and advisors’ request. Kato and Mynard (2016) introduced different perspectives of an advisor being an ‘expert’ of exams. If advisors are not familiar with exams, students may be able to take a more active role in their learning. Advisors must consider how much they initiate student learning since the purpose of advising is to empower students’ self-directed learning. PD opportunities should be an opportunity to remind advisors of their role.
Fourth, these teachers display core values that are synonymous with being a true professional. These include a total commitment to those they teach; a willingness to share their knowledge, skills and strategies with others; and an insatiable desire to improve their own practice and ‗reinvent‘ themselves in response to new demands, challenges and opportunities. Innovative teachers are regarded as role models and mentors for others, within and beyond the schools in which they work. They follow a personal code of ethics and are invariably driven by what they consider to be in the best interests of their students. They also view themselves, and are seen by others, as actively contributing to school and professional communities.