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Verifying the contract net protocol: a case study in interaction protocol and agent communication semantics

Verifying the contract net protocol: a case study in interaction protocol and agent communication semantics

KQML [3], FIPA ACL [4]) specifies the individual communicative acts (CAs), typi- cally as classes of asynchronous messages modelled on the Theories of Speech Acts enunciated by Austin [1] and Searle [12] . The 1997 semantic specification for FIPA ACL is expressed using a logic of belief and intention and derived from work associ- ated with Sadek [11]. This specification is informative has been criticised on various grounds [10] [6], not least that it is unverifiable [16]. Relatedly, an IP (for example the contract net protocol (CNP) [15] or an English auction protocol) specifies message sequences that can lead towards a goal state. However to date, may of the published specifications for these protocols suffer from ambiguities and incompleteness [8]. This lack of precision can arise from the inherent inexpressiveness of diagrammatic rep- resentations such as Petri-nets [7] and AUML [4], or from the level of abstraction chosen when using informal language or formal logic. Such representations can never- theless be informative and helpful for comprehension. Commitment-based semantics have been used for modeling multi-agent interactions [17]. However this work remains focussed on the creation, fulfilment and discharge of an agreement, tends to be cen- tralised, through for example an instituion, and discourages interactions whose goals are to share experience and model their environment. The legal issues also are often not considered.
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An Improved Contract Net Protocol with Multi Agent for Reservoir Flood Control Dispatch

An Improved Contract Net Protocol with Multi Agent for Reservoir Flood Control Dispatch

Contract Net Protocol (CNP) has been widely used in solving the problems of multi-Agent cooperates and reservoir flood control optimization dispatch. This paper designs an Agent functional module based on the multi-Agent coordinated the construction of reservoir flood control optimization dispatch and the corre- sponding Agent to solve the problem of classical CNP in the Agent communication aspect, to enhance the efficiency of reservoir optimization dispatch and to improve the insufficiency of the classical CNP in the ap- plication of reservoir flood control dispatcher. Then, the capacity factor and the cooperation level are intro- duced in the module. Experiments are conducted on the Agentbuilder simulation platform to simulate reser- voir flood control optimization dispatching with the improved CNP. The simulation results show the com- munication interactive efficiency and the performance of new protocol is superior to those of the classical CNP.
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Developing Agent Web Service Agreements

Developing Agent Web Service Agreements

No Interaction Protocols Even with a more varied set of messages, WS-Agreement still suffers from the lack of an interaction protocol specified between parties. This is the second significant weakness. There is only a two step conversation, an offer followed by an agree. Without an adequate set of speech-acts and specification of how to construct interaction protocols, the usefulness of a WS- Agreement exchange is limited to cases such as buying from catalogues, with take-it or leave-it offers from the seller or buyer. For example the WS-Agreement specification is not expressive enough to specify the Contract Net protocol which is probably the most widely used interaction proto- col in the multi-agent systems field and which occurs in the insurance scenario for repair claims (section 2). Even if we increase the WS-Agreement schema with various speech- acts, there is no concept of how to sequence messages to form a valid conversation.
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Performance of Time-Bound Negotiation in Agent-Based Manufacturing Control

Performance of Time-Bound Negotiation in Agent-Based Manufacturing Control

The negotiation protocol in this case study is based on the contract net protocol. Figure 1 illustrates the negotiation process in a UML activity diagram. Each part agent interacts independently with all three machine agents via messages. When a part arrives, the responsible part agent will send out a task announcement message to all machine agents with details about the type as well as some physical characteristics of the part. If a machine is capable of processing the announced part, the responsible machine agent will respond by sending back a bid message containing the estimated amount of processing time; otherwise, it simply ignores the current announcement.
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A Nomadicity-driven Negotiation Protocol, Tactics and Strategies for Interacting Software Agents.

A Nomadicity-driven Negotiation Protocol, Tactics and Strategies for Interacting Software Agents.

R. G. Smith, [24], has stressed the same distinction showing ARPANET and other similar protocols at this time as examples of high-level negotiations. He showed his standpoint by considering the high-level protocols as methods that lead system designers to decide ”what [agents] should say to each other”. And low-level protocols make system designers decide ”how [agents] should talk to each other ”. The Contract-Net protocol Smith presented assumes the simultaneous operation of both; agents asking to execute tasks and agents ready to handle it. The asking agents broadcast a call for proposals, and the helping agents submit their offers and then one is granted the pending task. In [27], a service-oriented negotiation model was presented to handle the interactions of autonomous agents operating in a business process manage- ment application, which is a client / server communications. However, Re- search efforts to come up with a negotiation protocol that increases the ser- viceability of agents in highly dynamic environments are few. That shall make our research effort as one of the early steps taken on the way to tackle such an interesting and critical topic.
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CONTRACT Study   CONservative TReatment of Appendicitis in Children (feasibility): study protocol for a randomised controlled Trial

CONTRACT Study CONservative TReatment of Appendicitis in Children (feasibility): study protocol for a randomised controlled Trial

AE: Adverse event; CONSORT: Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials; CONTRACT: CONservative TReatment of Appendicitis in Children - randomised controlled Trial; COS: Core outcome set; DSMC: Data and safety monitoring committee; HE: Health economics; IV: Intravenous; NBM: Nil by mouth; NHS: National Health Service; NIHR: National Institute for Health Research; PPI: Patient and public involvement; RCT: Randomised controlled trial; SMG: Study management group; SPIRIT: Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials; SSAG: Study-specific advisory group; TENALEA: Trans European Network for Clinical Trials Services; TM: Trial manager; TSC: Trial steering committee
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Add woman and stir : the applicability of the theories of distributive justice of Rawls and Dworkin to social, political and economic equality for women

Add woman and stir : the applicability of the theories of distributive justice of Rawls and Dworkin to social, political and economic equality for women

Reconciling Equality of Resources and the Family 7 Social Contract Theory and the Family , Hobbes and the Marriage Contract Locke and the Marriage Contract The Social Contract and Male B[r]

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To Net or Not to Net: Singapore’s Regulation of the Internet

To Net or Not to Net: Singapore’s Regulation of the Internet

Internet Code of Practice, supra note 47; Singapore Broadcast- ing Authority, Internet Content Guidelines [hereinafter Internet Content Guidelines] (on file with the Federal Communicati[r]

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The piggery contract growing scheme in the Philippines : a study on cost-benefit

The piggery contract growing scheme in the Philippines : a study on cost-benefit

For the owner, the 60 per cent and 100 per cent contract growing schemes are more remunerative than the 0 per cent scheme, assuming 100 pigs per grower, prevailing market prices, and a 15 per cent opportunity cost of capital. In terms of IRR, NPV, NPV'/K ratio, and B/C ratio, the 60 per cent scheme ranks first, followed by the 100 per cent and 0 per cent schemes. This is shown in Table 6.1. Table 6.1 also shows that raising 100 pigs by the grower gives him an average yearly present value of net benefits of about P2,700 when discounted at 15 per cent.^

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Contract Net Secure Establishment Protocol (CNSEP)

Contract Net Secure Establishment Protocol (CNSEP)

In recent years, multi-agent systems have attracted increased interest of researchers. These multi-agent systems are composed of interacting entities known as agents that work together in a concurrent systems to solve a complex problems. These problems can be further subdivided and distributed among other agents to increase the problem solving speed. The vast amount of research has been done for agent communication, along with the semantics of agent communication. As communication is an important aspect for agent interaction in multi agent systems, this paper provides an introduction for secure communication between agents residing in an heterogeneous or distributed environments. In fact, an analytical study of literature indicates that researchers have made attempts to lay a smooth floor for the working components of semantic web but the same careful investigation also reveals the fact that the floor laid is not yet smooth. In this research paper, an attempt is made to present a standard protocol for KQML named as Contract Net Secure Establishment protocol (CNSEP). The protocol is used to perform a communication between two or many multi-agent systems. The major emphasis is done on the security of messages that is being transferred or shared between agent systems. This protocol has been developed using Contract Net Trust Establishment Protocol (CNTEP) as a reference. The main aim of this research work is to enhance existing CNTEP protocol by imposing security mechanism in it and for this a new component i.e. Security agent has been introduced.
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Recent progress of seismic observation networks in Japan —Hi net, F net, K NET and KiK net—

Recent progress of seismic observation networks in Japan —Hi net, F net, K NET and KiK net—

After the disastrous 1995 Kobe earthquake, a new national project has started to drastically improve seismic observation system in Japan. A large number of strong-motion, high-sensitivity, and broadband seismographs were installed to construct dense and uniform networks covering the whole of Japan. The new high-sensitivity seismo- graph network consisting of 696 stations is called Hi-net, while the broadband seismograph network consisting of 71 stations is called F-net. At most of Hi-net stations strong-motion seismographs are also equipped both at depth and the ground surface. The network of these 659 stations with an uphole/downhole pair of strong-motion seismographs is called KiK-net, while another network consisting of 1034 strong-motion seismographs installed at the ground surface is called K-NET. Here, all the station numbers are as of April 2003. High-sensitivity data from Hi-net and pre-existing seismic networks operated by various institutions have been transmitted to and processed by the Japan Meteorological Agency since October 1997 to monitor the seismic activity in and around Japan. The same data are shared to university group in real time using satellite communication for their research work. The data are also archived at the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and stored in their database system for public use under a fully open policy.
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Contents of a Contract

Contents of a Contract

exchange investment contracts made with the bank by a wealthy couple who were a civil engineer and a lawyer. Longmore J took the basic line that entering into foreign exchange contracts was ‘not part of a person's trade as a civil engineer or a lawyer’ and that ‘the only question’ was whether they ‘were engaging in the trade of foreign exchange contracts as such’ and he did not believe that they were. He took the view that ‘they were disposing of income which they had available. They were using money in a way which they hoped would be profitable but merely to use money in a way one hopes would be profitable is not enough … to be engaging in trade’. In addition, he took the view that the scale of the transactions – 28 contracts with a total exposure of $7 million – did not make any difference. The fact that the definition of consumer looks to the purpose of the transaction seemed to him to ‘militate against looking at a general consequence or scale of value’. In relation to the line taken in Benincasa, he thought that the description there of contracts ‘concluded for the purpose of satisfying an individuals own needs in terms of private consumption’ was met in the instant case – ‘the contracts made … were for the purpose of satisfying the needs of Mr and Mrs Apostoliakis, defined as an appropriate use of their income, and that the need was a need in terms of private consumption’ He made the point that ‘consumption cannot be taken as literally consumed so as to be destroyed but rather consumed in the sense that a consumer consumes, viz he uses or enjoys the relevant product’. Undoubtedly a contract for the investment of disposable income must be regarded as being capable of being a contract made by a consumer, and the size of that investment will be relative to the financial situation of the individual consumer. There must, however, come a point at which a secondary means of making money becomes a secondary trade or business of the individual in question 10 . In Office of Fair Trading v Foxtons Ltd 11 it was indicated that the number of properties which a landlord had was relevant in determining whether he was a consumer when entering into a contract for the services of a letting agent 12 .
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Market vs. contract? The implications of contractual theories of corporate governance to the analysis of neoliberalism

Market vs. contract? The implications of contractual theories of corporate governance to the analysis of neoliberalism

A standard contract – or boilerplate contract – is a contractual arrangement in which one party – usually buyer or consumer – has no input in determining the terms of the contractual agreement (e.g. Slawson, 1971; Bebchuk and Posner, 2006; Gilo and Porat, 2006; Trakman, 2010; Zamir, 2014). An everyday example would be an end user license agreement (EULA) between software provider (or similar) and customer – this is a generic contract we enter into on an almost daily basis. Standard contracts are, in this sense, no longer negotiated or even negotiable. It is hard, therefore, to consider them to be free and voluntary arrangements since one party has no power to enact their demands; yet, as Hayek claimed, they are necessary for modern capitalism since without them every transaction would need to be individually negotiated, monitored and enforced – an enormous cost for any society to bear. Consequently, it is hardly surprising that standard contracts now represent ‘more than 99% of the contracts currently entered, whether consumer or commercial’ (Zamir, 2014: 15). They are everywhere, and they are not limited to individual consumers – business, the state and consumers use them on a daily basis. According to Zamir (ibid.) it is not ‘coincidental’ that US law has failed to address problems with standard contracts (e.g. asymmetric power) since such contracts reflect:
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Cricket pair "not out" in doping row

Cricket pair "not out" in doping row

demonstrate that his positive test was due to exceptional circumstances as defined by the ICC code. It may be suggested that Akhtar had been at best grossly negligent in his attitude towards vitamins, supplements and other substances which might theoretically lead to or contribute to a positive test. The suggestion was also hinted that he was being rather disingenuous in suggesting he had no knowledge of the status of nandrolone, nor of the important details from the appropriate anti-doping code. He had signed a central contract with the Pakistan Cricket Board in 2004 which dealt with precisely these issues, and therefore the suspicion may be justified that this was not an entirely honest response. The ADC commented:
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Effectiveness and feasibility of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) in patients with borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder – a pilot study

Effectiveness and feasibility of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) in patients with borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder – a pilot study

TF-CBT was superior to both the wait-list control group and the common therapeutic procedures (e.g., DBT with- out PE). In a recent randomized controlled trial, Harned et al. (2014) compared DBT with DBT-PE in patients with BPD and PTSD and showed that integrating exposure- based PTSD treatment into DBT did not negatively impact treatment acceptability in an outpatient setting. Patients who completed the DBT-PE protocol demon- strated significantly greater improvements in PTSD sever- ity over time than did those who received DBT alone. The large improvements in PTSD symptoms were achieved without compromising patient’s safety [19]. However, a patient was only exposed when several criteria were ful- filled: the patient was not at imminent risk for suicide; had no recent (past 2 months) suicide attempts or NSSI; could control intentional self-injury in the presence of cues for those behaviors; did not have serious therapy-interfering behaviors; had PTSD as the highest priority target as determined by the patient; and was able and willing to ex- perience intense emotions without escaping. Of the 17 pa- tients who started the DBT-PE protocol, only eight participants received PE due to treatment drop-out (not further specified), PTSD remission or not meeting criteria for sufficient stability. An additional two patients dropped out during the PE period because they were unwilling to continue and had difficulties controlling NSSI. Therefore, it is questionable whether DBT-PE is completely safe in this sample. These drop-outs might be problematic for DBT-PE safety. Apart from suicidality and self-injuries, BPD severity was not directly assessed. Therefore, it is unclear whether the BPD severity became worse in this sample (at both the sample and single-subject levels).
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Volume 37: Kommunikation in Verteilten Systemen 2011

Volume 37: Kommunikation in Verteilten Systemen 2011

For each network interface we need to store specific information related to this interface. This is the case for the data link layer, ARP layer (Address Resolution Protocol for IPv4) and ICMPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol Version 6). Those layers for example store information about the neighborhood of each connection on a link and thus they are associated with their correspond- ing data link layer. If a packet is sent from EZgate TCP layer for example it passes it to a router object which determines the right network interface based on the address information, subnets or passing the packet to the default gateway. There is a single router instance in the stack which is created during stack initialization. Configuration of this stack is controlled via Java Property files which consist of key-value pairs.
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Volume 17: Kommunikation in Verteilten Systemen 2009

Volume 17: Kommunikation in Verteilten Systemen 2009

Das im Abschnitt 2 genannte Szenario kann von den oben genannten neuen Funktionen profitie- ren. Das verwendete Transportprotokoll l¨asst sich an das Netzwerk anpassen. So ist bei instabilen Funkverbindung lokal ARQ m¨oglich. Bei Ausfall oder ¨ Uberlastung einer Strecke wird automa- tisch eine Alternativroute gew¨ahlt. Pakete k¨onnen getrennt nach Stream behandelt werden. Die Datei¨ubertragung nutzt die qualitativ schlechtere Strecke, damit das VoIP-Gespr¨ach auf der bes- seren nicht gest¨ort und die Sprachqualit¨at einwandfrei ist. Ein weiterer Faktor ist, dass die neuen Funktionen wie FPEs kein komplett neues Netz ben¨otigen. Herk¨ommliche Router sollen diese Pakete ohne Beeintr¨achtigung routen und Self-NET-f¨ahige Router die neuen Funktionen nutzen k¨onnen. Zwischen zwei Self-NET-Elementen k¨onnen somit beliebige herk¨ommliche Netzwerk- elemente vorhanden sein. ¨ Uber eine gew¨ohnliche Protocol Translation (PT) k¨onnen nicht Self- NET konforme (End-)Anwendungen einen Großteil der neuen Funktionalit¨aten nutzen, indem am Host, oder auf einem Netzwerkelement auf dem ¨ Ubertragungsweg, herk¨ommliche Daten- str¨ome von TCP und UDP um das Self-NET-Protokoll erg¨anzt wird. So ist eine vollst¨andige Abw¨artskompatibilit¨at gew¨ahrleistet.
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LAW OF CONTRACT

LAW OF CONTRACT

A contract does not exist simply because there is an agreement between people. The parties to the agreement must intend to enter into a legally binding agreement. This will rarely be stated explicitly but will usually be able to be inferred from the circumstances in which the agreement was made. For example, offering a friend a ride in your car is not usually intended to create a legally binding relation. You may, however, have agreed with your friend to share the costs of travelling to work on a regular basis and agree that each Friday your friend will pay you GHC 20.00 for the running costs of the car. Here, the law is more likely to recognize that a contract was entered into.
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An Energy-efficient and Real-time Anonymous Routing Protocol for Ad hoc Networks

An Energy-efficient and Real-time Anonymous Routing Protocol for Ad hoc Networks

ANODR is an identity-free and on-demand anonymous routing protocol, which has many good features, but it uses public key encryption to construct the trapdoor, and this may cause some problems. Take node X for example, in the RREQ phase, when node X receives a RREQ packet, it will try to decrypt the trapdoor with its private key to check if itself is the destined node. Combined with RREQ flood policy, this will incur a great deal of public key operations and consumes a large amount of energy. Although ANODR uses the shared session key which is established in the first RREQ phase to construct the trapdoor in the following RREQ phases, the indeterminate nodes can not distinguish whether this RREQ packet is the first RREQ packet, so the indeterminate nodes must try both the session key and the private key to decrypt the trapdoor. As a result, the session key does not advance the performance of ANODR.
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Analyzing the Impact of Signal Strength and Network Size on Energy Consumed In MANET´s

Analyzing the Impact of Signal Strength and Network Size on Energy Consumed In MANET´s

ABSTRACT: The Aim Of This Project Is To Study The Impact Of Changing The Signal Strength And Network Size On Energy Consumed Under Aodv Routing Protocol In Mobile Ad Hoc Network(MANET´s) Using Fuzzy Logic.From Simulation Results, We Found That The Effect Of Network Size And Signal Strength By Using Fuzzy Logic Minimized The Energy Consumption In Transmit Mode , Receive Mode And Idle Mode.

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