a selected sample of legal entities, representing both conventional and organic farms (with conventional farms prevailing at the ratio of 89:11). As a novelty, the performance of purely organic farms is presented separately (since 2013) but it is only done in the form of the FADN EU standard output (at the level of items such as Gross Farm Income, Farm net value added, Family Farm Income, i.e. items used for the purposes of comparing farms among all EU Member States), while the items required for determining the profit/loss (in the same structure as that in the overall FADN database) according to Czech financial statements is missing. The IAEI also collects data from organic farms in regular yearly intervals (through supervisory authorities). The exercise is commissioned by the Czech Ministry of Agriculture and the data, defined by Eurostat, is used for the purposes of comparison among the EU Member States (Sejnohova et al., 2015). Within the framework of the basic statistical data, the development of the share of profitable farms (by production focus) is also monitored to assess the economic performance. However, more detailed economic categories (selected profit/loss items, selected assets/liabilities items) which are monitored at the level of the FADN sample as a standard and could be used to establish the economic profit of the organic farming sector as a whole (through the application of selected economic methods) are missing.
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Millionaire contains more 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 3-acetyl-5-caffeoylquinic acid, and total phenolic acids under both conventional and organic environ- ments than Blackbell. However, N-caffeoyl putrescine in Millionaire was signifi- cantly higher than its organic counterpart. Eggplants cultivated under organic growing conditions are potentially exposed to a larger number of environmental stressors such as insects, soil nutrient quality, relative to conventionally grown eggplants  . Therefore, it is possible that organic grown eggplants pro- duce more phenolic acids in reacting to the heavier environmental stresses expe- rienced as part of the organic growing condition. As phenolic acids e.g. chloro- genic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid have been shown to possess various health beneficial activities    the organic growth environment could potentially improve eggplant skin health promoting potential.
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Due to the more abundance of microarthropods in the organic system, it was believed that the organic matter decomposition rate would be higher in this system, because these organisms contribute for organic matter degradation and stimulate microbial activity in the soil (Nosek, 1981). Accordingly, when the presence of Oribatida and Collembola in litterbags incorporated into the organic and the conventional systems was evaluated, a larger number of individuals in the litterbags was found for the organic system (Melo & Ligo, 1999), indicating that this system contributes for an increase in biological diversity. Since the presence of these organisms in larger numbers was not accompanied by a higher decomposition of organic matter, one can say that the differences in arthropod density found in the soil between the organic and the conventional systems did not reflect on the organic matter decomposition rate, as evaluated by the litterbag method. The community of microarthropods in the soil might have, among other factors, influenced microbial activity, since the organic system showed a higher microbial activity potential than the conventional system. The influence of the soil fauna on the organic matter decomposition rate of forest soils is well documented, but this is not true for agricultural ecosystems (Crossley et al.,
The key point is that there may not be a uniform farming knowledge. Kloppenburg (1991) (but see also Molnar et al., 1992; Flora 1992; Kloppenburg, 1992; Hassanein & Kloppenburg, 1995; Feldman & Welsh, 1995) develops this point in his analysis of the failings of formal agricultural extension. The position taken by Kloppenburg is that agricultural knowledges and skills are often generated over long periods of time in specific locations involving complex interactions of different factors. Given that agricultural production takes place in such a situation, generalised knowledge systems and models - as provided by agricultural science - can often be unsuitable in specific situations. The most striking examples are taken from the failure of North American seeds and farming systems to be adapted to local conditions in the Green Revolution in India. For another example, in New Zealand, Campbell (1994) illustrated adaptation of general principles to specific settings during the rural downturn of the 1980s as experienced conventional farmers, who had a long- term knowledge of one piece of land, were able to reduce inputs and manoeuvre their farm operations in ‘crisis-mode’ with more success than newly arrived farmers (often with large capital outlay) who were farming ‘by the book’. Organic agriculture requires complex variables to be taken into account and often this can only take place through long-term experience attained on one farm. Thus, generalised scientific principles need to be specifically adapted to particular locations using local knowledge. One implication of this point is that for organic farmers who are forced into a different approach to problem-solving, this is not necessarily ‘unscientific’ or characteristic of unsuccessful farmers. In fact, the opposite may apply as is being increasingly advocated in newer systems of agricultural extension like ‘farmer first’.
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ABSTRACT: Among several alternative agricultural systems have been developed, organic agriculture has deserved increasing interest from. The objective of this paper was comparing both organic (OS) and conventional (CS) tomato cropping systems for varieties Débora and Santa Clara, through an interdisciplinary study. The experiment was set up in a randomized blocks design with six replicates, in a dystrophic Ultisol plots measuring 25 × 17 m. Cropping procedures followed by either local conventional or organic growers practices recommendations. Fertilization in the OS was done with organic compost, single superphosphate, dolomitic limes (5L, 60 g, and 60 g per pit), and sprayed twice a week with biofertilizer. Fertilization in the CS was done with 200 g 4-14-8 (NPK) per pit and, after planting, 30 g N, 33 g K and 10.5 g P per pit; from 52 days after planting forth, plants were sprayed once a week with foliar fertilizer. In the CS, a blend of insecticides, fungicides and miticides was sprayed twice a week, after planting. In the OS, extracts of black pepper, garlic, and Eucalyptus; Bordeaux mixture, and biofertilizer, were applied twice a week to control diseases and pests. Tomato spotted wilt was the most important disease in the OS, resulting in smaller plant development, number of flower clusters and yield. In the CS, the disease was kept under control, and the population of thrips, the virus vector, occurred at lower levels than in the OS. Variety Santa Clara presented greater incidence of the viral disease, and for this reason had a poorer performance than ‘Débora’, especially in the OS. Occurrence of Liriomyza spp. was significantly smaller in the OS, possibly because of the greater frequency of Chrysoperla. The CS had smaller incidence of leaf spots caused by Septoria lycopersici and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. However, early blight and fruit rot caused by Alternaria solani occurred in larger numbers. No differences were observed with regard to the communities of fungi and bacteria in the phylloplane, and to the occurrence of weeds.
Herbicide control and grazing time were the two main management differences between the organic and conventional grazing plots. Herbicide application at planting prevented the establishment of broad leaf weeds at planting in 2009. Organic plots were grazed 21 days earlier due to weevil pressure. Action was taken when the economic threshold of three weevils per stem was reached (Long, 2009). The less alfalfa production in the first grazing was expected from the earlier grazing date. Conventional plots were grazed at 1/10 th bloom because weevil pressure did not increase to threshold level. Weevil pressure was thought to be less because of the lack of henbit (weed) pressure that was treated with Eptam application. January and February biomass samples indicated high henbit pressure in organic plots. Previous research has suggested that some weeds, such as henbit can serve as an ovipositioning site for the alfalfa weevil (Norris, 2000). Although weevil larvae do not feed henbit, they use the stem as an ovipositioning site. Interestingly, the voluntary ryegrass production of the organic plots made the forage production of alfalfa not significantly
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More than 2,000,000 tons of silica nanoparticles (NPs) are produced annually in the world to cover the needs of nanotechnologies. Inevitably, a quantity of NPs, will be in industrial discharges and domestic, or even in water resources. Share their high surface reactivity, these NPs may also carry with them through a specific adsorption of other toxic chemical pollutants inherent to the industrial sectors. To preserve public health and the environment from this pollution, it is nec- essary to remedy the potential pollution. In this context, the main motivation of this work is to answer this environmental issue by proposing a scheme of remediation based on the use of a conventional treatment process. The process of elimination nanoparticles by coagulation/floccu- lation was selected for its simplicity and also for its universal use. The NPs of industrial silica S30R50 were used as support to develop the process. The optimization of coagulation/floccu- lation, was greatly facilitated by the use of laser diffraction online. This technique allowed to follow the dynamic character of the treatment and to determine the size and the most relevant textural parameters (density, porosity and fractal dimension) of the flocs depending on the nature of the used reagents. The critical concentrations of different coagulants and flocculants used were determined by electrophoresis and turbid- ity. The ratio of their charge density/molecular weight has conditioned the quality of separation, the floc size and their texture. Excellent coagu- lation/flocculation performances are reached using organic reagents authorized by the Di- rectorate General for Health of several countries. After optimization of the process, the size dis- tributions are between 10 µm and 1 mm, with fractal dimensions (compactness) ranging from 2.3 to 2.5. The performances obtained show that the use of cationic polymers is a promising
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Abstract: The changes in the basic physicochemical characteristics and the lipid composition of Bulgarian organic and conventional dairy products (cow's yoghurt and cow's cheese) during the winter and summer period have been investigated. There were no significant changes in the basic physicochemical characteristics for organic and conventional milk products (fat content in dry matter, content of milk protein, dry matter, acidity, salt content) in the studied periods. Organic yoghurt has lower acidity in comparison with conventional yoghurt. Organic cheese is the only one with a degree of maturity (21.7% and 20.5%), corresponding to the regulated value in the Bulgarian state standards for cheese (not less than 14%). The lipids have identical fatty acid composition, dominated by saturated fatty acids (68.7% -74.5%) and that their content is higher in winter. During the summer period quantities of trans fatty acids in mono- (C 18:1 ) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (C 18: 2 and C 18: 3 )
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Regular consumption of tomatoes and their products has been correlated with reduction in the risk of several types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Giovannucci et al. 1995; Clinton 1998). This positive effect is attributed to the antioxidants, and particularly to the carotenoids (lycopene and β -carotene) and other phenolic compounds. Bourn and Prescott (2002) showed that only a small number of properly implemented studies capable of allowing valid comparison between the foods cultivated in organic and conventional systems exist. It is also observed that there is a lack of research aimed at comparing the levels of secondary metabolites (antioxidants) of vegetables cultivated in these two systems. Thus, the objective of the present study was to compare the effect of organic and conventional cultivation on the antioxidant compound content and antioxidant activity of the Carmen tomato cultivar. The main hypothesis put forward was that the different forms of cultivation would affect the plants’ production of secondary metabolites.
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A deﬁnition of food quality is still developing and changing. At ﬁrst, the focus was mainly on quality as represented by quantiﬁable and measurable parameters, but now attention is increasingly being paid to a more comprehensive holistic approach. Luning et al. (2005) has extended the Evans & Lindsay model pro- posed in 1996, and called it the model of ‘quality viewpoints’; it includes ﬁve diﬀerent groups of criteria: assessment (a comparison of a product’s properties), product-based criteria (a function of speciﬁed measurable variables/reﬂection of qualitative dependence between speciﬁed measurable parameters), user-based criteria (determined by the consumer’s needs), value-based criteria (a propor- tion of price to satisfaction received) and production-based criteria (quality as a desired result of production practices or compliance with standards). By organ- izing and developing this model, Luning et al. (2005) proposed a distribution of food quality features into internal (directly associated with a product, meas- urable, resulting from its physical and chemical characteristics) and external (connected with a product indirectly). Among internal characteristics there are: safety and the product’s health aspects, sensory properties and durability as well as product reliability and the convenience of use. External quality characteristics include production characteristics (depends on the adopted production method, e.g. organic vs. conventional), environmental aspects and marketing.
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were significantly higher in conventional plots than the organic treatment, this was not a meaningful indicator of future larval populations in the conventional plots since the cotton was genetically engineered to contain the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. Plot means of total larvae and total damaged bolls were higher in both organic treatments than conventional, as expected due to the efficacy of B. thuringiensis at controlling H. zea larval populations. However, the organic plots were not strictly managed for yield, and insecticide applications were not always applied at times for maximum efficacy, due to the presence of delicate egg fate studies in the plots. In 2004, the second application of spinosad was applied three days after the first and in 2005 the second application was applied eight days after the first application. This most likely allowed for an increase in H. zea larval populations in 2005, which could have been reduced if spinosad had been applied sooner.
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Løes, A-K. Bioforsk Report 5(110 ) 2010 21 In addition to the rapid increase in the price of school milk and the significant premium price, schools tend to restrict the number of milk types they offer to simplify administration (Løes and Bårdsen 2009). Further, organic products are much less marketed, especially within the catering and public sector. Informants interviewed by Bårdsen in 2009 complained that Tine did not inform them about their organic assortment. Tine claims to heavily subsidize the school milk scheme, in spite of that the costs for the users are higher than for milk bought in shops. Large investments in refrigerators etc. are required to supply all schools and kindergartens with milk. The subsidies are paid by a purchase tax on milk that is administrated by Tine (cf. their role as a market regulator). One of their main reasons for Tine to support school milk is of course to establish loyal milk drinkers at an early age, and maintain the reputation of milk as a healthy product because it is recommended by the authorities as a part of the school meal. Obviously, these arguments are less important when it comes to organic school milk. During the spring of 2010, Tine made a strategy to increase the sale of organic milk and fulfil the demand for organic school milk raised e.g. by several project leaders of “Organic lift” municipalities (see chapter 4.1). The company now plans to produce long-term durable, raspberry flavoured organic milk in ¼ litre containers. The strategy has received criticism among organic stakeholders, arguing that this product design does not fit to the image of organic food as natural, with favourably little
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In Italy the current scenario, where children staying at school all day are provided with canteen meals, is settled: it’s a long tradition and now 3.4 million meals a day are served in public schools. Unfortunately there is hardly any national debate about the implementation of quality foods in school canteens at a political level, but all national parties agree with this goal. Some regions have produced specific laws and/or guidelines to drive and encourage the development of a quality school catering system and single municipalities frequently introduce organic and typical products in their menu. The municipalities manage by themselves or contract out school canteens, they are therefore the responsible of the concrete policies.
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EU Directive 2001/18/EC calls for member states to take appropriate national measures on coexistence (“living side by side in mutual toleration”) in order to avoid unintended presence of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in other products. This has resulted in a consultation from the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the issue in England (Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland will hold their own consultations soon). The Government's current proposals for coexistence between GM, conventional and organic crops in England will allow routine GM contamination – ”pollution” – of our food, crops and the countryside.
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1. For plants and plant products to be considered organic, the production rules […] must have been applied on the parcels during a conversion rules […] must have been applied on the parcels during a conversion period of at least two years before sowing, or, in the case of grassland or perennial forage, at least two years before its use as feed from organic farming, or, in the case of perennial crops other than forage, at least three years before the first harvest of organic products.
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It's a seductive message. Everyone loves to hear that corporations are bad, that all-natural is good, that chemicals and synthetic compounds are poisons. This is not a message that's difficult to sell. It's little wonder that organics have been the fastest growing agricultural market segment over the past decade. It's an ironic little secret that those very same corporate food producers taking our money to sell us organic foods are the same ones spending it on the ad agencies to stroke the anticorporate message that drives them. Nearly 100% of organic food in supermarkets comes from a producer owned by one of the major food companies that also sells regular food. Don't think for a minute that any well- managed food company has not already been on this bandwagon since it started rolling.
expressed a variety of opinions on the value of minimum quality standards for organic kiwifruit. Two of the smallest producer-handlers, who market only their own fruit, said that the minimum size requirement tended to result in more culls for organic than conventional fruit. One, however, added that the economic impact was minimal because organic consumers would not buy the small cull fruit. Four of the eight han- dlers were very positive and supportive of the existing quality standards for kiwifruit. They stated that the quality standards help them sell their organic kiwifruit by maintaining consistent quality and by giving buyers confidence in the product. Each of the four also believed that the current standards are fair. One handler criticized the maturity standard for having sugar levels that are too low (the average minimum maturity of 6.5% soluble solids was reduced to 6.2% for the 2000-2001 season).
The organic unit at ADAS Redesdale was established to evaluate the physical and financial implications of converting a progressive hill/upland unit to an organic system. Conversion of 400 ha, 600 breeding ewes (in 3 self-contained flocks) and 35 suckler cows was completed in 1993. One organic flock (Organic Dipper ) was managed as a direct comparison with a conventionally managed system (Conventional Dipper). During the first 5 years following conversion, an organic system was developed which, financially, enabled the organic unit to compete favourably with a comparable conventional system. This was on the basis of maintaining similar stocking rates, and pushing the organic system towards maximum output. As the experiment progressed, it became increasingly clear that a different balance of farming and environmental objectives were required if the broader ecological and ethical objectives of organic farming were to be met more fully. Stocking rate reductions had already been made in two of the organically managed flocks (Cairn and Burnhead) in 1995. On the basis of the substantial divergence in flock and individual animal performance at similar stocking levels, and following recommendations by the Project Steering Committee, sheep stocking rates were reduced by 25% on the Organic Dipper flock from November 2000. From mating in November 2001, breeding ewe numbers on the Burnhead flock were reduced by a further 45% in line with Countryside Stewardship prescriptions. The 2000/01 production year covered in this report, represented the eighth year under full organic production, and coincided with the redirection of management on the unit more towards better integration with agri-environmental objectives.
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With the exception of lemons, we found no significant difference between the vitamin C content of organically and conventionally grown fruit. A lack of significant difference in vitamin C content of conventionally and organically grown fruits and vegetables has also been previously shown by Masamba and Nguyen . We also found a fairly high variation in the vitamin C content within the same fruit groups, with organic kiwi showing a range of 18.5 mg/100 g in our data set. Other factors such as growing season, storage, and shipping conditions may have a more important influence on vitamin C content than the growing methods employed by organic and conventional farmers. Warman and Harvard  found that storage influenced the vitamin C content in cabbage and carrots.
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Some problems arise within this general approach, mainly for the country- level analyses. The first one is which crops should be considered, or, in other words, which level of crop aggregation should we work with. For example, should cereals be considered as a whole, or should they be split into soft and durum wheat, oats, barley, rye, etc.? Of course, much of the answer depends upon how much detailed information we can obtain. The second problem is that organic farming involves different crop rotation schemes, which can by themselves produce substantial differences in crop outputs. Due to differences in farming systems, it is quite difficult to assume a general scheme of crop rotation applicable to organic agriculture in all of the countries considered, and upon which to calculate the effects these can have on output. A simple solution (if no other information is available) is just to consider that the observed differences in crop areas shared between organic and conventional farming also reflect the different rotation schemes adopted.
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