In order to measure standard volumes of naturalgas we use volume-conversion devices (VCDs) or correctors. The European standard EN 12405-1 specifies the requirements and tests for the construction, performance, safety and conformity of VCDs associated with gas meters. VCDs are used to convert measurement flow, temperature, pressure and gas composition under operating conditions into base conditions. Gas-volume conversion devices consist of a calculator and a temperature transducer, or a calculator, a temperature transducer and a pressure transducer that are locally installed. On the basis of this standard we separate VCDs into type 1 and type 2. Type 1 VCDs are complete instruments, while type 2 VCDs are made of separate elements. The measuring errors for type 1 VCDs are determined for three different temperature ranges and for five different pressures. With the intention of determining the detected quantity of naturalgas as accurately as possible, this article introduces the possibility of using measurement errors that are obtained by the national verification procedure. With the European MID (Measuring Instrument Directive 2004/22/EC) the maximum permissible error for type 1 and type 2 VCDs is ±0.5 %. Using the suggested methods of implementing measurement errors in this article, we can meet the MID requirements for any type 1 and type 2 VCDs, the estimated measurement uncertainty, in addition to the 1/3 tolerable measuring errors, also takes into account the measurement uncertainty from the approximation of the proposed method.
constant for 2006 to 2020 in this study. Naturalgas (NG) equivalent to liquid fuel consumption has also been estimated based on lower heating value of the respective fuels. The lower heating values of petrol and diesel have considered 44.5 MJ/kg and 42.0 MJ/kg respectively and that of NG is 43.6 MJ/kg [Aslam et al. 2006]. Calculations of emission for using 100 percent liquid fuel and then gradually substituting the liquid fuels by 20, 40, 60, and 80 percent NG have also been made. Emission patterns of full substitution by NG for
The existing four stroke engine CNG mixers are usually not properly refined and optimised to enable good air fuel mixing. In addition, the efficiency of the current mixer design is also an issue as it is designed for simplicity which only offers practicality but lack in efficient air flow performance throughout the engine speed. Therefore, a straight forward conversion is not possible.
decomposition at high temperature. This deduction is based on the fact that palladium oxide is more active than palladium metal in the methane combustion and is decomposed to palladium metal at high temperature . On the other hand, both conversion profiles at the upward and downward tests on the Pd catalyst with titania loading [Ti(10)–Pd(2)/KIT-1] are nicely coincident. There is no decrease in the activity at downward test, indicating that thermal stability of the Pd catalyst is significantly improved by titania loading. The decomposition of palladium oxide is suppressed with the interaction between titania and palladium. The hydrogen uptake on Pd catalyst varies with the oxidation state of palladium. Additional hydrogen is required to remove surface oxygen of palladium oxide compared to palladium metal. The amount of hydrogen uptake of the Pd catalysts with titania loading and the dispersion of palladium obtained from hydrogen uptake are summarized in Table 1. The dispersion of palladium on the Pd catalyst increases with titania loading, indicating the retention of palladium oxide on the titania-loaded Pd catalyst. Titania inhibits the reduction of palladium, resulting in the improvement in the stability of palladium oxide. Titania loaded on mesoporous material by liquidphase reaction of titanium alkoxide is dispersed on pore wall
There is one opportunity in which government of Indonesia can intensify the conversion, which is using CNG for motor vehicle to replace Premium gasoline. In August 2012, Premium gasoline consumption in Jakarta topped 1.41 million kiloliters, 37.4 percent more than the government's allocation of 1.03 million kiloliters for the month, according to state energy firm PT Pertamina. The subsidised Premium gasoline is sold at 4,500/l at pmp. IN the $100 /BBL crude oil FOB (free on board) price , Pertamina has reckoned that the full cost breakeven price is circa 8,000 / liter, or Indonesia government is subsiding 56% of fuel cost. Imagined for 1.41 kilo liter at IDR 3,500/leter, that was a sudidy of IDR 4.9 tillion or US$519 million. If governemnt can use naturalgas through an intensive development program with higher incentive to oil and gas players, the subsidy can be elimated. The way is to convert the Premium gasoline users (four wheel car to start with) to use CNG, compressed naturalgas.
Abu-Zahra, M.R.M., L.H.J. Schneiders, J.P.M. Niederer, P.H.M. Feron, and G.F. Versteeg, CO2 capture from power plants: Part I. A parametric study of the technical performance based on monoethanolamine. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2007. 1(1): p. 37-46. Alie, C., L. Backham, E. Croiset, and P.L. Douglas, Simulation of CO2 capture using MEA scrubbing: a flowsheet decomposition method. Energy Conversion and Management, 2005. 46(3): p. 475-487.
Caspian Sea, in the north of Iran with total power generation capacity of 2170 MW. The power plant capacity was enhanced and expanded in 2000s with dual gas modern gas turbines with capacity of 270 MW. Also the plant is benefited by a combined cycle unit, combination of gas and steam turbine cycles for electric power generation with highest efficiency and capacity of 140 MW. This thermal power plant consists of 4 thermal units, each has power generation capacity of 440 MW, with 4 concrete type stack gas chimney of 134 m height. The major combustion fuels are dark fuel oil (Fuel no. 6 and Mazout) and naturalgas. The standard heat of combustion for the fuel oil is known as heating value of the fuel that is about 39700 Btu/kg and for naturalgas 42500 Btu/m 3 . Since there is shortage of naturalgas in cold season, the plant may depend mostly on fossil fuel. The number 6 fuel oil is a complex blend of hydrocarbons derived from various refinery streams, usually residues, and can contain small amount of hydrogen sulfide. Typical streams include atmospheric tower bottoms, vacuum tower bottoms, catalytically cracked gas oil, slurry oil and acid soluble oil. The composition is complex and varies with the source of crude oil. This kind fuel is combustible at high temperature with auto- ignition temperature of 315.59°C (600.1°F), Flash point of higher than 60°C (140°F). The products of combustion are carbon oxides (CO, CO 2 ), nitrogen
Law is a reflection of the balance needs, the requirement of the coastal transportation of Liquefied NaturalGas (LNG) demand at the moment it is passed. Therefore an extraordinary attention needed focusing largely on the safety and security of Liquefied NaturalGas (LNG) of the hazardous chemicals transported by marine transportation at commercial facilities near populated areas is required. As the nation Liquefied NaturalGas (LNG) facility policies getting develop and mature, there is no special framework for the Liquefied NaturalGas (LNG) coastal transportation. In response to the overall safety and security environment, it is likely to seek a coastal water legal framework and a broader understanding of hazardous chemical marine shipments and efforts to secure them.
Abstract: This paper is on the development of adequate mathematical model of electricity price via Fourier series. Fourier series is the representation of a function as an infinite series in sine and cosine terms. Our choice of Fourier series model for electricity price is as result of its volatility, fluctuation trends of hydro flow and poor market designs and we use actively- traded naturalgas to hedge against electricity price in Nigeria. The naturalgas prices are volatile but do not have a clear seasonal pattern, thus eliminating naturalgas price volatility through hedging substantially reduce the electricity price, this development of logical mathematical frame work in the form of hedging tools assures an investor of his or her safety in the power sector.
Desulphurization of this study base on hydrogen sulphide reduction in naturalgas. Reduction of hydrogen sulfite in naturalgas treated by bio-filter. The bio-filter contains substrate, additive, and microbial. Active carbon used as substrate and thiosulfat medium used as additive. There is three way of the treating for desulphurization process. Method number one (M-1) is hydrogen sulphide reduction treatment without microbial addition, the second (M-2) is treatment with Thiobacillus thioparus culture addition, and the third (M-3) is treatment with additional mixed culture. The capability of three type treating within hydrocarbon sulphide reduction is showed on Figure 3.
According to the Global Fuel Crisis, it seems necessary to use alternative fuel instead of gasoline. Since the naturalgas is cheaper, have higher frequency than gasoline and less pollution, it is a suitable fuel. Many efforts have been done in order to replace gasoline with naturalgas. One of the methods is to inject naturalgas and gasoline fuel simultaneously and to use the benefits of both fuels. The purpose of this paper is studying naturalgas and gasoline blend effect on engine power, torque and emissions. The simulated model was validated in different engine RPMs for gasoline and naturalgas, were separately injected into the engine at full load condition. The results of simulation was had good agreement with experiments. The results show that by naturalgas and gasoline Simultaneous injection power and torque have been reduced. NOX, HC and CO2 Pollutants change periodically, but their production level is generally lower than gasoline mode, but the CO pollutant increases.
national security and a decrease in federalism, state theory could also be supported but appears not to be as strongly associated. Energy industry executives were requested to testify before Congress and work with the National Energy Policy Development Group (NEPDG) to increase government and corporate cooperation for energy development. The policy tactics of the Bush administration focused on centralizing policy formation and streamlining the approval and implementation process. This increases the influence of capital while limiting access to the democratic process. The results show an increase in profits at the expense of the public and the environment. Following the terrorist attacks, national security has been added to the equation pitting the economy against the environment. The policy process which created offshore liquefied naturalgas (LNG) terminals shows that an adequate, constant, and secure energy supply is seen as an absolute necessity for economic development and national security. Democratic access and environmental concerns are secondary to economic and security needs under the Bush administration.
Compressed NaturalGas is composed primarily of methane (CH4) and other heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane and butane and also has significant quantities of carbon monoxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen. Natural gases form from the beneath of the earth when plant and animal matter are trapped under the solid rock under tons of pressure for millions of year. Due to its lower density characteristic, CNG will float above the other trapped substance such as crude oil and water.
multi-collector mass spectrometer with high precision isotope ratio performance, which is equipped with a high sensitivity ‘Nier’ type gas source and a low volume static vacuum analyser. NGX is characterized by a series of fixed collectors (mix of Faradays and Multiplier) that can be configured during manufacture. The collector array of the NGX at Lancaster University includes nine Faraday cups in fixed positions (H1-H4, AX, and L1-L4) and one ion counting electron multiplier (L6). The Faraday cups are denoted as H1, H2, H3, H4, AX, L1, L2, L3 and L4. H values represent high mass cups, AX represents the axial cup and L values represent low mass cups. L6 denotes electron multiplier. These fixed position Faraday cups are configured to enable a simultaneous measurement of all nine Xe isotopes whilst permitting all other noble gases such as He to be analyzed in peak jumping mode. The NGX operates at an accelerating voltage of 8KV ensuring high sensitivity and enhanced mass resolution (resolution > 600). This resolution is sufficient to resolve hydrocarbons and many other interfering species from the centre of the peaks of interest
The most outstanding outcome from the comparison is the fact that there is a substantial difference between current official projections and those made in 2002. As can clearly be seen in Table 7, official projections made in 2002 not only extremely overestimated demand but have also been extensively modified within just a few years. For instance, official projections in 2002 predicted 2007 naturalgas demand as 47.31 bcm, but it turned out to be 35.06 bcm, meaning that official figures overestimated demand by 34.9% in that year, which is an absolutely unacceptable deviation within such a short period of time. Probably to correct for such intolerable variations, official projections have been reduced by 24.64% for the year 2008. Moreover, some argue that the official naturalgas projections have overestimated naturalgas demand to justify the construction of new power plants to use excess amount of naturalgas . Here, the reasons for why past forecasts were so wrong in Turkey could not be enquired as the method used to develop these forecasts has never been exposed to public.
The feed gas enters from the bottom of the MEA scrubber and ﬂ ows from the bottom up through the ﬂ oat valve tray in contact with the reverse ﬂ ow of the amide solution. The poor amine solution absorbs the acid gas and the carbon dioxide reacts with the weak base in the solvent to form the weak bond Acid salt. At the top of the column, the purge gas is recovered by means of four additional trays, which are washed with water. The puriﬁ ed naturalgas from the top of the tower contains 50 x 10 books of carbon dioxide and 40 ° C of saturated water. The rich amine from the bottom of the scrubber is returned to the stripper and regenerated by heating the oil and the cooler. The carbon dioxide is Separation and puriﬁ cation of the poor amine solution back to the scrubber. To reduce the amount of acid A in the acid gas at the top of the stripping tower, the top of the column is provided with a water wash. The acid gas at the top of the column is cooled by the air cooler, and the gas and condensate tank separation, acid gas sent to the torch system emissions.
Moreover, the high heat of zeolite adsorption and ability to hydrate and dehydrate while maintaining structural stability has been found to be useful in various heat storage and solar refrigeration systems (Frost and Sullivan, 2001). Gas on solid adsorption is an inherently safe and potential high energy density gas storage method that could be more energy efficient than chemical or compressed gas storage. Consequently, as an alternative, encapsulation of gas in microporous media could be envisaged (Nishimiya et al., 2001). Reversible occlusion of gases in zeolites is a well-known phenomenon. The working principle is that the guest molecules are forced, under elevated temperatures and pressures, into the cavities of the zeolite host. Upon cooling to room temperature or below, gas is trapped inside the cavities. It can be released again by raising the temperature. Thereinafter, with the increase of zeolite stability by metal oxide dispersion, gas storage capacity or amount of
Ratable Taking of Natural Gas SMU Law Review Volume 11 | Issue 3 Article 9 1957 Ratable Taking of Natural Gas Charles Robert Dickenson Follow this and additional works at https //scholar smu edu/smulr[.]
Based on the results of the analysis of the discussion and some of the conclusions above, the suggestions that can be given to complete the results of this study are as follows: Companies should pay more attention to the prices of products sold because prices will be a determinant of the company's competitive advantage compared to competitors who also offer naturalgas products for applications in the electricity sector.