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Effect of cooking time on the physical, chemical and thermal properties of acha seeds

Effect of cooking time on the physical, chemical and thermal properties of acha seeds

Engineering properties of crops are essential pa- rameters in utilisation, development of process- ing methods and design of processing equipment (Akinoso & Raji, 2011). Such properties include rheological, thermal, optical, electrical, physi- cal and mechanical properties. Some published works on engineering properties of agricultural products are on dika nut (Ogunsina & Koya, 2008), soybean (Kibar & Ozturk, 2008), wheat straw (Tavakoli, Mohtasebi, & Jafari, 2009), maize grain (Chemperek & Rydzak, 2006), faba bean (Altuntas & Yildiz, 2007) and pea seed (An- drejko, Rydzak, Slaska-Grzywna, Gozdziewska, & Kobus, 2008). Researchers have clearly shown that engineering properties of biomaterial signifi- cantly depend on primary processing conditions. Therefore, improvement of the processing tech- nology of acha seeds requires accurate informa- tion on the chemical, thermo-physical and me- chanical properties of the grain, as affected by primary processing. Studies on cooking time re- duction, without compromising food value, will provide information that can be used to reduce energy demand and encourage interest in its con- sumption, thereby increasing its utilization. The aim of this research work was to determine effect of cooking duration on some engineering proper- ties and proximate composition of cooked acha seeds.
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Effects of Cooking Time on Some Antinutrients Contents and in vitro Digestibility of Leaves Proteins of Gnetum spp

Effects of Cooking Time on Some Antinutrients Contents and in vitro Digestibility of Leaves Proteins of Gnetum spp

Contents in phenolic compounds were lower than the 7.5g/100g (DM) found in Manihot esculenta [22] and higher than the 13.17mg/100g (DM) of Solanum nigrum [24] and 0.35mg/100g (DM) of Amaranthus hybridus [23]. There was almost 50% loss of phenolic compounds after 2h cooking (table 2). Processing, particularly under high thermal and pressure conditions, influence phenolic compounds by disrupting cell wall matrix of foods, followed by the release of insoluble-bound phenolics. Predominant polyphenols in fresh leaves are water soluble polyphenols which have number of hydrophobic functional groups. Release of leaf polyphenol is increased by slicing, heating and cooking time [28, 25]. But in our study, phenolic compounds had the highest percentage of retention which was more than 50% after 2 hours cooking (table 2).
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Pulping process for rice straw in basic ionic liquid [NH (C2H4OH)3]+

Pulping process for rice straw in basic ionic liquid [NH (C2H4OH)3]+

The infrared spectra of lignin are shown on Figure 2 (these curves are the spectra of 30, 40, 50 and 60min respectively from top to bottom). Figure 2 shows that (1) at 3397 (1/cm), stretching vibration relative strength of hydroxyl (OH - ) is largest. It can be speculated that that the lignin of high hydroxyl content is dissolved and separated out in a large amount and retain the activity of the functional groups. The relative intensity appears the tendency of decrease as the extended cooking time. It may be due to the ionic liquid damage the structure of the hydroxyl during the reaction process. Seeing 1226 (1/cm) phenol hydroxyl relative strength, the changing rules are roughly the same. (2) At 1700 (1/cm), the relative absorption strength of carbonyl (C = O mainly ester bond carbonyl) changes unobvious, only there is a decrease at the 60 min. Here is connected the lignin hydroxyl structure to other structural unit in the form of ester bond. This connection structure vibration is stronger for a long time. It shows that long time is in favor of the lignin dissolving out. (3) At 1328 (1/cm) of lignin phenol ether bond (Ar - O), the change of relative strength of absorption peak is not obvious. It can be concluded that there are lilacs lignin dissolved out with the extension of time, and it has a tendency to increase, but the amount of increase is not big. From 1029 (1/cm), we can see the relative strength also decrease gradually with time. It may make fatty ether bond of side chain fracture in a certain degree during the cooking process. (4) At 1421 (1/cm) of C-H on the lignin -OCH 3 ,
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Evaluation of Physical and Cooking Characteristics of Five Improved Lima Beans

Evaluation of Physical and Cooking Characteristics of Five Improved Lima Beans

anti-nutrients such as trypsin inhibitors and flatulence- causing oligosaccharides, resulting in improved nutritional quality [5]. It also renders legumes edible and ensures they have acceptable sensory properties [6]. Cooking time that gives an indication of cooking quality is one of the most important factors responsible for consumer’s choice for a particular food. Of the major limitations that make lima bean like other legumes uneconomical and unacceptable to consumers is its longer cooking time. Besides cooking time, the assessment of texture is also critical to the determination of cooking quality and plays an important role in determining consumer acceptance of cooked legumes [7]. Some examples of cooking characteristics are: Cooking time, cooked length– breadth ratio, Water uptake ratio, Hydration capacity and hydration index, Swelling capacity and swelling index.
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Delignification reaction kinetics for wheat straw in neutral ionic liquid
1 methyl 3 ethyl bromide imidazole

Delignification reaction kinetics for wheat straw in neutral ionic liquid 1 methyl 3 ethyl bromide imidazole

Traditional pulping technology is the general method which is applicable to non wood fiber pulping process [1-4]. For organic solvent pulping process, it generally uses the flammable solvents with low boiling point as cooking agent. In the pulping process, low boiling point solvent generally needs a higher pressure, which the corresponding temperature arrives at 180-220 ℃ . This method is not only waste of drug resources, large energy consumption, high cost, serious pollution, and the reaction time is long, the pulp yield is low. So it makes the pulp and paper industry development seriously hindered [5-7]. Ionic liquid is a new type of green solvents, which has been found in recent years. It has strong dissolving ability, low vapor pressure and other superior performances [8-10]. The grasses solvent pulping with ionic liquids to replace the traditional organic solvent will become a new research direction to improve the pulping process [11-13]. It can not only greatly shorten the cooking time, improve the efficiency of cooking, speeding up the chemical reaction and dissolution of lignin, greatly improve production efficiency, reduce the cost, and expect to achieve the maximize use of plant fiber resources value in the field of pulp and paper [14-17]. This paper studies delignification process during pulping process for wheat straw in neutral ionic liquid 1 - methyl - 3 - ethyl bromide imidazole [Emim]Br. Results show that the pulping process is in line with the grasses pulping characteristics. This study will provide new ideas and method for innovation and development of papermaking technology.
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Ionic liquid cooking wheat straw pulping and delignification reaction kinetics

Ionic liquid cooking wheat straw pulping and delignification reaction kinetics

relative strength of hydroxyl (OH - ) reflects that the relative intensity appears the tendency of decrease as the extension of cooking time. It can be found that the lignin is decomposed and hydroxy damaged as the extension of cooking time; (2) at 1600 (cm - 1 ), the relative absorption strength of carbonyl (C = O mainly ester bond carbonyl) reflects that quantity of hydroxyl lignin separation gradually increases with the extension of cooking time and its content is nearly constant after 35 min; (3) at wave numbers of 1330 and 1120-1124 (cm - 1 ), relative vibration strength of lilacs type lignin can reflect that the relative strength of lilac aldehyde decreases gradually. It explains that a large number of lilacs type lignin has been dissolved into the cooking liquor at the beginning of the reaction. The lilacs type lignin dissolved out comes up to decompose at a certain extent as the extension of cooking time; (4) at 1262 (cm - 1 ) and 835 (cm - 1 ), it can be seen that the vibration relative strength of guaiacol type lignin has a little change with the extension of time.
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Cooking Qualities of Thin Layered Humidified Paddy

Cooking Qualities of Thin Layered Humidified Paddy

passed through heater coils. There was a nozzle located after the heating unit, which sprays water as tiny droplets. The heated air was passed on the tiny droplets of the water, now the air gets humidified and is passed on to the paddy which was placed in a perforated tray as a thin layer. After undergoing humidification (soaking), steaming, drying and milling, the cooking qualities of the humidified paddy were determined. The extent of humidification of paddy was studied by knowing the cooking characteristics of the parboiled rice. The different cooking qualities determined during the study were cooking time, water uptake ratio, grain elongation ratio on cooking.
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Changes in pasta properties during cooking and short-time storage

Changes in pasta properties during cooking and short-time storage

ponents (Micale et al., 2018). The quality of pasta could be estimated from its colour, cooking attributes, such as weight increase, cooking loss, texture (Lee et al., 2002; Ozyurt et al., 2015) and sensory properties (Micale et al., 2017). The cooking quality of pasta mostly depends on its kind and the ingredients used (Fares et al., 2015; Biernacka et al., 2017). Moreover, cooking time has a strong influ- ence on quality (Martinez et al., 2007). During cooking, the product becomes hydrated by a diffusion-controlled pro- cess, and the temperature-moisture conditions induce the gelatinisation of starch (Larrosa et al., 2015). As a result, starch absorbs water and swells. On the contrary, if the pro- tein network lacks elasticity, or its formation is delayed, starch granules easily swell, and a part of the starchy mate- rial gets mixed up with the cooking water, resulting in a product characterised by stickiness and poor consistency. This increases the volume and causes pressure on the pro- tein network (Delcour et al., 2010). In addition, cooking time has an influence on the texture, chemical composition and nutritional values of pasta (Sobota et al., 2013). Dziki and Laskowski (2005) revealed that extending the cooking time leads to a decrease in the firmness of pasta, which is expressed as cutting work. Extending the cooking time also causes an increase in cooking loss. De La Pena et al. (2015) found that when the cooking time of pasta was extended to 18 min, the total starch content decreased up to 5.7% units, starch damage increased up to 11.7% units, and both pasting
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The Effect of Different Time Interval in Micro- Waved Meat On the Meat Quality

The Effect of Different Time Interval in Micro- Waved Meat On the Meat Quality

IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The higher the microwave time the more the percentage cooking weight losses of broiler chicken and beef meat. Cooking time of meat types in microwaves had little or no effect on crude protein content. Crude fat was more affected by cooking time in beef and independent in chicken meat, while mineral content in the meat types were independent of cooking time in microwaves. Recommendation

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Environmental Impacts (ER CO2) of an Improved Multi Fuel Gasifier Forced Air Cookstove in the City of Kinshasa

Environmental Impacts (ER CO2) of an Improved Multi Fuel Gasifier Forced Air Cookstove in the City of Kinshasa

emissions is the adaptation of efficient and clean energy technologies [7] [8] [9]. The authors [9] in their study attempted to examine the energy efficiency of cookstoves in the Amboseli ecosystem by comparing the cooking time, the use of energy, and wood fuel consumption and the emissions of carbon as referential of comparison with famous and old traditional three-stone fireplace. The study showed that improved cookstoves enabled the saving of 12.7% - 33.3% of fire- wood compared to traditional three-stone stove [9]. The sources of renewable energy, including bioenergy, currently attract considerable attention as a possi- ble substitute for fossil fuels. Among the different sources of bioenergy, biomass can no doubt play an important role in the reduction of greenhouse gases and the provision of a stable energy supply. The study answers these questions by re- ferring to a case of a Japanese rural community using the firewood for residen- tial heating [10]. The results showed that the use of woody biomass to solve the needs of residential heating allows to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and to mitigate climate change. These results provide new perspectives on sustainable development in rural communities [11] [12].
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Texture analysis of blanched vegetables using high- and low-speed measuring methods

Texture analysis of blanched vegetables using high- and low-speed measuring methods

Quality reductions of raw and cooked vegetables are caused by forces generated during industrial high-speed manufacturing. However, the transferability of low-speed texture measurement methods to high speed processes is limited. Therefore, analyses with a low-speed uniaxial compression test (breaking strength σ, breaking strain ε) and a high-speed pendulum test (relative fracture height ∆h) at different speeds (3.6, 4.4, 5.3 m s −1 ) were carried out. Textural values for potatoes, carrots and celeriacs (0 to 25 min cooking time) were recorded to compare the two measurement methods. Furthermore, whether the increase of textural values of blanched vegetables measured with low-speed methods, was also observable with high-speed methods, was also investigated. Low to medium rank correlation coefficients (r S < 0.659) between parameters of the two methods were calculated. In
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Cooking and drying process optimisation of shea (Butyrospermum parkii) butter extraction

Cooking and drying process optimisation of shea (Butyrospermum parkii) butter extraction

Cooking and drying conditions of the shea butter extraction process were determined using a response surface meth- odology. The influence of cooking time, temperature, and nuts/water mass ratio, drying time, and temperature on the content of free fatty acids, the peroxide value, as well as on the extraction yield was investigated. Results showed that both the free fatty acid content and the peroxide value were significantly affected by cooking and drying tem- perature; the cooking time and nuts/water ratio also affected significantly the peroxide value. Increasing cooking and drying temperature reduced the FFA content but contributed to increase the peroxide value. The cooking and drying temperature range of 75–80°C and < 54°C, respectively; cooking time of 70–100 min; drying time < 40 h, and cook- ing nuts/water mass ratio < 400 g/l of water were found to be optimum conditions for the extraction of shea butter. Keywords: shea nuts pretreatmen; response surface methodology; shea butter quality
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Physical and Technological Parameters of Maize Varieties (Zea mays L ) Grown in the Southern Parts of Benin and the Influence of Chemical Composition

Physical and Technological Parameters of Maize Varieties (Zea mays L ) Grown in the Southern Parts of Benin and the Influence of Chemical Composition

The grouping of the different varieties according to the physical and technological parameters is presented in a dendrogram of three classes (Figure 1). The first group consists of 16 varieties, the second group includes 13 varieties and the third group con- sists of a single variety. The varieties classified in each group are shown in Table 4. The results of the principal component analysis on these different groups of maize and the analyzed parameters were used to describe the relationship between them and refine their analysis. These results indicate that the first two axes explain 100% of variations for which the first axis account for 80.3% and the second 19.7% (Table 5 and Figure 2). Table 6 shows the correlation between the physical and technological parameters and the axes. The first principal component opposes the hardness before cooking and the cooking time to the hardness after cooking, the weight of 1000 grains, the length, the width and the thickness of the grains. It appears that any maize variety with hard grains before cooking and high cooking time showed low hardness after cooking, low weight of 1000 grains and low dimensions and vice versa.
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Development and quality evaluation of noodles prepared from wheat flour supplemented with tamarind kernel

Development and quality evaluation of noodles prepared from wheat flour supplemented with tamarind kernel

and K. the Noodles were prepared from locally available raw materials such as whole wheat flour, semolina, tamarind kernel powder. The quantity of tamarind kernel powder added was increased to improve the protein content of the product. The proximate analysis of the noodlesS1, S2, S3, S4 obtained values in the range of12.73-15.26% protein, 1.91-2.68% of fat, 1.68-2.57% of crude fiber, 72.59- 67.56%of carbohydrates, 2.81-3.29% of minerals,59.96-77.84mg/100g of calcium,140.4- 152.87g/100g of potassium. The moisture content was being increased maximum 9.62% but was still in the range of less than 10% as per FSSAI. Sensory evaluation results showed that the S2 (10% tamarind kernel incorporated) as the most accepted product as compared with the other S1, S3, S4 formulation. On increasing the incorporation of tamarind kernel powder, cooking time increased and the cooking loss decreased. The noodles were tried with various flavors and forms to improve its palatability. Shelf life studies of the extruded samples showed changes in various factors which include increase in the moisture content, decrease in protein, and fat, crude fiber in a period of storage from 0 to 180 days in polyethylene stored at room temperature. After a storage period of 150 days there seemed to be development of slight off flavor due to the rancidity of fats.so, recommended storage life for the noodles S1, S2, S3, and S4 is 150 days i.e. 5 months when stored at room temperature in polyethylene.
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Development of Micronutrient Fortified Extruded Rice Analogues

Development of Micronutrient Fortified Extruded Rice Analogues

The fortified extruded rice analogues were assessed for cooking time, cooked weight, percent rehydration and cooking loss (Table 5). The cooking time was found to be 5 minutes for all formulations. Cooking time of rice noodle developed by extrusion technology ranged from 5 to 9 min [31]. The cooked weight of the fortified extruded rice analogues ranged from 2.80 to 2.94 g/g. The percent of rehydration ratio of the fortified extruded rice analogues indicates the degree of hydration which may affect the eating quality. The rehydration percent of the analogues was found to be 278 to 284 %. The rehydration values for fortified extruded rice analogues are consistent with the rehydration capacity (146 to 290%) of the rice extrudates [31,12]. Cooking loss indicates the ability of the fortified extruded rice analogues to maintain structural integrity during the cooking process. High cooking loss is undesirable because it represents high solubility of starch, resulting in turbid cooking water, low cooking tolerance and sticky mouth feel [32]. Cooking loss values of fortified extruded rice analogues were in the range of 0.30 to 0.50 g/g. This result shows that less amounts of solids leached out in the cooking water which indicates the preference for fortification.
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Communicating Health Risks Via The Media: What Can We Learn from MasterChef Australia?

Communicating Health Risks Via The Media: What Can We Learn from MasterChef Australia?

Rules,  have  also  been  popular,  MasterChef  has  been  one   of   the   most   successful   of   the   television   cooking   show   franchises,   combining   the   cookery   show   with   the   game   show   in   a   competition   format   that   features   amateur   cooks   progressively   eliminated   via   various   cooking   challenges.  MasterChef  originated  in  the  United  Kingdom,   but   versions   of   the   show   now   appear   throughout   the   world:   in   Europe,   the   Middle   East,   Africa,   Asia,   the   Americas   and   Australasia.   MCA   has   been   the   most   successful   iteration   of   this   global   franchise,   and   has   resulted  in  new  ratings  records:  the  2010  series  finale  was   the   most   watched   non-­‐sporting   event   in   Australia   since   television  ratings  began.  2    
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COOKING 101

COOKING 101

Mix: Combine ingredients most often using electric mixer Sauté: Cook in fry pan over med-high heat in a little oil or fat Boil: Heated liquid with large, rapidly breaking bubbles Simmer:[r]

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Cooking with Semantics

Cooking with Semantics

to approaches that interpret each sentence inde- pendently. This context represents the state of the kitchen, and statements in the recipes are inter- preted pragmatically with respect to the evolving context. More precisely, our model has the over- all structure of a discrete-time, partially observed, object-oriented Markov Decision Process, as il- lustrated in Figure 2. The states and actions are both hidden. What we observe is text and/or im- ages/video; our goal is to infer the posterior over the sequence of actions (i.e., to recover the “true” recipe), given the noisy evidence.

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Chemistry of Cooking

Chemistry of Cooking

As stated in the text, convincing examples that demonstrate the law of conservation of matter outside of the laboratory are few and far between. Indicate whether the mass would increase, decrease, or stay the same for the following scenarios where chemical reactions take place:(a) Exactly one pound of bread dough is placed in a baking tin. The dough is cooked in an oven at 350 °F releasing a wonderful aroma of freshly baked bread during the cooking process. Is the mass of the baked loaf less than, greater than, or the same as the one pound of original dough? Explain.(b) When magnesium burns in air a white flaky ash of magnesium oxide is produced. Is the mass of magnesium oxide less than, greater than, or the same as the original piece of magnesium? Explain.(c) Antoine Lavoisier, the French scientist credited with first stating the law of conservation of matter, heated a mixture of tin and air in a sealed flask to produce tin oxide. Did the mass of the sealed flask and contents decrease, increase, or remain the same after the heating?
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Learning cooking skills at different ages: a cross-sectional study

Learning cooking skills at different ages: a cross-sectional study

be eaten at home as your main meal (e.g. Indian meal kits or pizza) [Consumption of convenience food]?” This provided an indication of how often they did not cook. A higher score in these questions equated to a more fre- quent consumption of these foods. Participants reported the most common main meal that they prepared and following this were asked to choose the option that best described how they prepared this dish from six options denoting different levels of preparation and cooking op- tions; 1) Buy it ready-made and reheat it; 2) Use mostly pre-prepared ingredients and I assemble the dish; 3) Use mostly pre-prepared ingredients and some fresh, basic or raw ingredients; 4) Use mostly fresh, basic or raw in- gredients and some pre-prepared ingredients; 5) Use only fresh, basic or raw ingredients; 6) I do something else not listed here. Responses were classified into 3 cat- egories: mainly fresh ingredients; a mixture of fresh and pre-prepared ingredients; and mainly pre-prepared ingredients.
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