classification of relaxation was detected, probability of subject relaxed when classification of concentration was detected, and probability of subject focused when classification of relaxation was detected. These probabilities were used in equation 15 to compute the mutual information. For this binary system, the maximum mutual information is 1 bit. The maximum ITR is 2 bit/s because the transmission time is 0.5 second. Furthermore, we achieve a higher ITR as a BCI system because the BCI requires more than one subject to drive the ball. In Table 4, we observed lower error rate with the classification using SVM than the classification using LDA. Hence, we used SVM weights in the real-time cooperativetask. The ITR of a typical visual cortex
This paper aims to achieve the goal of path planning and task assignment through cooperative control of UAV formation. In the process of research, a cooperativetask assignment model for UAVs is established, and an obstacle environment model is constructed. The improved ant colony algorithm is used to optimize the path of multiple UAVs. Combined with Hungarian algorithm, task assignment for multi UAV formation is carried out. By designing the effective constraints, the evaluation function of two index functions is established by allocating the weights of the path cost and fire assignment value. Finally, through the GUI function of MATLAB software, a user independent UAV formation task assignment simulation platform is developed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Social species can depend on each other for survival, help in the rearing of young, predator defense, and foraging. Personality dynamics between individuals may influence cooperative behaviors. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) live in social communities and cooperate with other conspecifics to achieve goals both in the wild and in human care. We replicated a test of cooperative problem- solving in dolphins. In addition, we analyzed personality traits and affiliative behaviors that might lead to solving the problem. We tested 5 bottlenose dolphin pairs at the Roatan Institute for Marine Sciences, Honduras, with an apparatus previously used to experimentally test dolphin cooperation. Personality profiles of each dolphin were created using surveys completed by the caretakers, in particular noting 2 different categories of interactions: dolphin to dolphin and dolphin to world. We hypothesized that dyadic success in the cooperativetask would differ based on specific personality traits of individuals. We also hypothesized that the most successful dyads would show similar types of conspecific sociality and different means of interacting with objects. Although none of the dolphin pairs cooperated to open the apparatus, individual personalities were analyzed in relation to the dolphins’ individual and mutual interactions with the apparatus as well as the pairs’ social behaviors. Playfulness, curiosity, and affiliation were positively related to interactions with the apparatus. Our research may be useful in guiding future studies of social problem-solving in dolphins and other species.
The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products.
It is hypothesized that students who are categorized in the C-level (low level) Achievement Grouping (AG) in English instruction classes did not necessarily performed at their peak potential in English language competence. Furthermore, it is assumed that the underlying concepts behind the low achievement levels may lies in two assumptions. First, Brophy (2004) addressed the situation with four categories of students based upon how expectancy-related motivational problems might cause students to develop low expectations for themselves. Second, the concept involving the use of AG, might have cause some of the more capable students to lower their achievement levels in English. In response, an action research was accomplished using a CooperativeTask-Based Learning (CTBL) model, based on the concept of learning motivation for students with low achievement levels in an attempt to enhance the students’ English competencies. To evaluate the effectiveness of such teaching methodology, data were collected in the form of interview accounts, self-reflective logs, field notes, observations, and students’ work sheets. Results show that numerous positive outcomes from both the teachers’ and the students’ perspectives were noted from the use of the CTBL. In addition, results also show that cooperative group work has proven to be an effective learning strategy. Lastly, useful implications based on the findings were given to shed light on issues regarding the positive effects of skilled-based curriculum designs.
For the non-cooperativetask, we replicated the “public goods with punishment” game theory design [49, 50]. This is a variation on a prisoner’s dilemma style game that models the difficulty of cooperation between self-interested players. The goal of this game is to maximize individual returns on an investment. The game lasts six rounds. Each round has two phases, an investment phase and a punishment phase. At the start of each round, the investment phase begins and each member of the group is given one dollar in nickels. During the investment phase, all of the subjects simultaneously decide how much money they will contribute towards the group (i.e., the public good) and how much they will keep for themselves. Based on their choices, they are awarded payouts. Any amount invested with the group yields a 40% return to all players, regardless of whether or not a player invested their own money in the group. Any amount invested individually yields a 10% return. The payouts are designed to reward groups that act cooperatively; individuals who act selfishly and choose not to invest with the group can reap greater returns.
Specifically, the participants’ task was to repeatedly press a spacebar to advance a cursor along a progress bar, thereby causing virtual coins to appear at unpredictable intervals. In addition, each time a virtual coin appeared, their task was to press the ‘s’ key within one second to retrieve the coin. Over the course of each round, it became increasingly difficult to advance the cursor, i.e. participants had to press the space bar increasingly quickly to make progress. As a result, the effort cost increased progressively over each round, creating an increasingly strong temptation to disengage from the task – which participants could freely do whenever they chose to – by press- ing a button that would end the current round and initiate a new round. Participants perceived the likelihood of coin appearance to be evenly distributed across the line; they therefore make slower progress in progressing along the line because of the increasing effort cost required to advance the cursor. But since the coins increased in value over the course of each round, the optimal strategy with respect to maximizing the joint points total, and hence the partner’s monetary reward, was to continue each round until the maximum number of coins had been retrieved. This enabled us to operationalize participants’ commitment to the cooperativetask by analysing their persistence in obtaining as many points as possible.
aware cooperativetask offloading scheme is proposed, which employs C-MECs as computation platforms and WBANs as the communication interface. We first present the system architecture and the patient mobility model. Moreover, ex- isting approaches have been analyzed and compared with the proposed one. Algorithms regarding decision making and transmission mechanism have been proposed in detail. The results show that the traditional relay-based transmission scheme achieves poor performance in terms of the number of executed tasks. When comparing the previously published task offloading scheme with the proposed one, it is seen that the new mobility-aware cooperativetask offloading approach delivers better performance in term of several aspects such as average service time, the percentage of failed tasks and energy consumption balancing of all C-MECs.
Here the design and implementation of V2V communication system for smart cities along with an efficient communication protocol is proposed. Efficient communication protocol helps for providing cooperative collision warning messages with low latency and minimum delay . Expected outcome of the proposed system will be to develop a prototype vehicle models which will communicate with each other using and road side unit through wireless technology. There are many scenarios are considered for this application which are as follows;
Abstract: The study was conducted to ascertain prospects of cooperative society for sustainable agriculture among smallholder farmers in Benue state, Nigeria. Data were collected from eighty (80) respondents using questionnaire. Frequency, percentage, mean score and factor analysis were used for analyzing data collected for the study. Findings indicate that about 39% of the respondents were aged between 41 and 50 years while 7.5% were aged above 60 years, among others. A greater percentage (63.8%) of the respondents were males with majority (88.8%) being married, 40% of them acquired tertiary education with 50.0% having a household size of 1-5 persons while 68.8% had farming as a major occupation. Savings and contributions (57.0%) were major sources of fund for cooperative society. Major reasons for joining cooperative society were access to credit facilities (38.8%), greater access to farm inputs (26.2%), raise standard of living (11.2%), among others. Results on benefits of cooperatives society include access to information (94.5%), increases members income and food security (91.8%), high productivity/ increase in output (90.4%), easy access to loan facilities (89.0%), improved market competition and expanded market opportunities (89.0%), pulling of resources together (86.3%), easy access to credit facilities (80.8%), greater access to farm inputs (75.3%), availability of labour (61.5%), etc. Factors influencing performance of cooperative society were named institutional, funding and input- related variables. The study recommends that there is need for timely provision of farm inputs for the farmers in order to increase productivity for sustainable agriculture. Adequate awareness campaign is needed in ensuring that farmers become members of cooperative society so as to pull their resources together for greater productivity.
Availability of information is an important factor in VANETs. It enables a system to work all the time and provides information to vehicles. The goal behind DoS attack is to bring the network down and unavailable . Jamming is to disrupt the communication channel [44, 45]. Spamming are messages that have no useful- ness for users [46, 47], and DoS are well-known attacks on availability in VANETs. In , insider and out- sider DoS attackers are mitigated through hash mes- sage authentication code (HMAC) and threshold value in VANETs. The drawback of this scheme is that a mali- cious node can attack with the help of fake messages. In network security, non-repudiation means to ensure that the communication entities are original and cannot be denied after communication happened. Non-repudiation is normally achieved by public key-based techniques . Manipulated data related to safety and privacy is always verified for non-repudiation. In privacy, the attacker anal- yses vehicle and driver information throughout the jour- ney. The single identity of vehicle create issues for privacy [7, 50]. The user can easily trace or compromise their personal details . Therefore, it is more important to protect the vehicle owner’s privacy. However, for privacy to provide anonymous authentication with low compu- tational cost is a challenging task . Therefore, in VANETs, a set of names are assigned to vehicles called pseudonyms. The actual identity is only known to CA that provides pseudonyms. The other nodes and RSUs only know pseudonyms. Pseudonyms are generated in such a way that actual identity cannot be predicted from pseudonyms. The pseudonyms are changed from time to time specially in mix zone, where nodes are not able to observe . If there is only one vehicle in mix zone, then change in pseudonyms belongs to same node. In , a trade-off between security and privacy in VANETs is proposed because trust information is not use- ful due to frequent change in pseudonyms from time to time.
The financial performances of Urban Cooperative Banks (UCBs) improved in 2010-11 though there are some concerns with regard to some of the UCBs reporting negative CRAR. Within the rural cooperative sector, State Cooperative Banks (StCBs) and District Central Cooperative Banks (DCCBs) reported profits but the ground level institutions, i.e., Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS) continued incurring huge losses. The financial performance of long term cooperatives was found to be even weaker than their short term counterparts. Also, it was observed that the branch network of cooperatives, though widespread across the country, continued to be concentrated in certain regions.
In the Welfare State, one of the Primary duties of the State is to provide food security to its people. Distribution of essential commodities on family cards has been in vogue in Tamil Nadu since 1964. The Public Distribution System has been the lifeline for a section of people in our country especially for those living below poverty line. The distribution system envisages sale of essential commodities such as Rice, Sugar, Wheat, Kerosene etc. at subsidised rate through fair price shops both in the urban and Rural areas. In Tamilnadu the Public Distribution System is being implemented by the Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation and the Cooperative Department. Out of the total number of fair price shops 95% of the fair price shops are run by the Cooperative Department through various Cooperative Institutions such as District Consumers” Cooperative Wholesale Stores, Cooperative Marketing Societies, Primary Agricultural Cooperative Banks, Primary Cooperative Stores, LAMPS etc. Thus Cooperatives play a predominant role in the distribution of essential commodities under Public Distribution System .
research hotspot in recent years, Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) have provided solutions for various internet services such as electronic commerce, 020, medical care, online game, finance, content delivery and so on, the users also have higher QoS demand than before which requires a higher bandwidth and lower latency service. In addition, the energy consumption is becoming a bottleneck which limits the scale and service capacity of the cloud. As cloud computing carries more and more network services, its system load is very large, the task of the system is divided into many small sub-task sequences, and then processed by various distributed cloud servers collaboratively. In addition, cloud computing provides a flexible resource allocation scheme, it can allocate computing resource according to the amount of tasks, then the servers will have higher resource utilization and lower energy consumption. As the current scale of cloud computing system is expanding, there are all kinds of cloud servers with different performance parameters and the cloud service resource is heterogeneous. Therefore, how to accomplish task scheduling and computing resource allocation efficiently in the complex cloud system becomes one important topic of cloud computing.
the Czaja Functional Assessment Battery (CFAB) [13, 14], as well as with an established subjective IADL scale, the Alzheimer ’ s Disease Cooperative Study ADL prevention in- strument (ADCS ADL-PI) , and another recently devel- oped and yet to be validated subjective IADL scale, the Subjective Study Partner and Participant-reported IADL (SSPP-IADL) scale. We explored performance on these measures within a cohort of CN and MCI participants who may be at risk for AD. The nature of our analyses was ex- ploratory to compare multiple aspects of the Harvard APT with the other IADL tests. Convergent validity is an import- ant psychometric property for a test which is often not assessed or reported, especially for IADL assessments tar- geting individuals at risk for early-stage AD. Examining these different instruments provides an opportunity to compare performance-based versus subjective measures and compare the modality of administration—the com- puter or tablet vs. the phone — which is more commonly used by the elderly. Moreover, the subjective IADL assess- ments used in this study include participant (self) and study partner (informant) reports, which will give us the oppor- tunity to look for different association patterns based on the reporting source in this sample of CN and MCI participants. We hypothesized that the primary out- come reported for the Harvard APT will have moder- ate to strong correlations with the primary outcomes reported for the other performance-based and subject- ive IADL tests. Moreover, the Harvard APT may have the advantage of being a sensitive measure across both CN and MCI participants when administered directly to the participant, whereas the subjective IADL scales may have differential sensitivity depend- ing on administration to participant vs. study partner in CN vs. MCI. We are not aware of a precedent for describing this differential sensitivity with IADL tests. However, a similar phenomenon has been seen with subjective cognitive concerns when comparing partici- pant and study partner report of cognitive concerns to objective cognitive assessment. This is presumably due to a growing lack of awareness in individuals with MCI .
The results of our experiment can be summarised in three points. First, we confirm earlier observations that when the contributions of fellow group members to a public good are more heterogeneous, people on average respond by contributing less. However, this is not the whole story; more heterogeneity in peer contributions also leads to more variable (and more extreme) contributions in response (‘variation begets variation’). Second, we observe substantial individual differences in how people respond to the degree of heterogeneity in peer cooperation. Some individuals consistently contribute more when there is more heterogeneity, whereas others consistently contribute less. Smaller fractions were either neutral or incon- sistent in their response to increased heterogeneity in peer cooperation. Third, we find a clear relation between general cooperation tendency and conditional responses to heterogeneity in peer contributions. Individuals that respond positively to heterogeneity in peer contributions tend to be more cooperative in a public goods game than individuals that respond negatively. Individuals that respond neutrally or inconsistently are intermediate in their cooperation tendency.
But, difficulties in the access to the banking system and high interest rates on loans had been the main reasons for the creation of cooperative banks. Small enter- prises, mainly commercial, had great difficulties in this access as well as in suffering such expensive loans. The creation of cooperative credit institutions, that could fa- cilitate the access to less expensive loans, seemed an alternative solution. These main problems do not have the same significance any longer and will probably not have it for the next years either, because of the changes in the banking market and the par- ticipation of Greece in the Economic and Monetary Union, which demands a strict monetary policy.
4 the motor buffer. The motor processor can use these chunks as a single stimulus, after being triggered by the cognitive processor to read the codes for each movement and execute the series of movements relatively autonomous (Abrahamse et al., 2013). studies showed that longer sequences are executed as more than one successive segment (Abrahamse et al., 2013). The process of these rapid successive segmentation is called concatenation, where different chunks within a sequence are executed as smoothly as possible. When a sequence contains more than one chunk, only the first key-specific stimulus of each chunk needs preparation. The point where the first key-specific stimulus of the next chunk within a sequence is initiated, is called the concatenation point. At the concatenation point, the reaction times can be slower, due to preparation for the motor chunk. When the circumstances are right, the motor processor and the cognitive processor will race each other. In the race the motor processor will trigger a response from the motor buffer and the cognitive processor select each key-specific response (Verwey, 2001). The cognitive processor may also use explicit sequence knowledge or spatial/verbal coding in the race with the motor processor. During the execution of the DSP task participants can obtain explicit knowledge about the sequences. The explicit knowledge about the structure of the sequences can be verbal knowledge as well as spatial knowledge (Abrahamse et al., 2013). Spatial knowledge means the knowledge about the spatial position of the different elements of the sequence. Verbal knowledge refers to being able to verbally reproduce the different elements of the sequences.
The table 1.2 exhibits the employment pattern of various primary handloom cooperative societies of Prakasam district. The cooperative societies under the study have been providing the total employment to 6933 consisting 5573 males representing about 80 percent and 1360 females of which represent about 19 percent of the total. Table 1.2 reveals that the total employees in sample cooperative societies in three districts of Andhra Pradesh comprise 18 clerks, 18 peons and 6897 weavers. Among the total weavers, female constituted only 19 percent of the total. The share of the employment provided by the societies at Guntur district is as much as 59 percent, whereas in Nellore district 27 percent and it is recorded only 13 percent at Prakasam district. On an average each society has providing employment to 462 members in Andhra Pradesh.