The Italian version of the REM-71  is a self-report questionnaire consisting of 71 items to evaluate defen- sive strategies. Defenses are divided in two categories: Factor 1 corresponds to unadaptive or immature defenses, while Factor 2 corresponds to more adaptive e flexible ones. Defenses here are defined as reactions of which the individual is unaware, reflecting both innate traits and learned copingmechanisms which are not necessarily pathological and may exclude information from awareness . A total of 21 defensemechanisms (each composed of three or four items) are evaluated on a 9-point Likert scale. Scores assigned to items, referring to each defense mechanism are summed to form a defense mechanism score, and can be further calculated to obtain Factor 1 (immature) and Factor 2 (mature) scores. Factor1 includes 14 defenses namely acting out, conversion, displacement, dissociation, fantasy, omnipotence, passive aggression, projection, repression, somatization, splitting, sublimation, undoing, withdrawal. Factor2 includes 7 defenses namely altruism, isolation of affect, humor, idealization, intellectualization, reaction formation, sup- pression. Cronbach’s alpha for single defenses ranges
Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with two study groups conducted in Hamadan Province from March 2018 to June 2018. The simple random sampling method was used to select the study subjects. The sample included 27 men and 27 women with BPD who were referred to the offices of 3 psychiatrists during the study time. The study variables included the severity of Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms assessed based on Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index (BPDSI) and mature, immature and neurotic defensemechanisms assessed based on the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and coping styles of emotional, problem and avoidance- focused assessed based on the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) questionnaire among women and men with this disorder. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and t-test for independent groups and Mann-Whitney U test in SPSS V. 24.
Our findings are consistent with MacCann et al., show- ing mature defensemechanisms to be associated with better academic performance than immature defenses . The clustering of increased academic productiv- ity with mature defenses can in turn be explained by a number of factors; firstly, Grebot et al. found the asso- ciation of mature defenses with problem focused coping and immature defenses with avoidance coping . Sec- ondly, some predictors of good academic performance amongst constructive personality traits of self-compe- tence, self-esteem, proficiency, sociability and confidence are strongly linked to the use of mature defenses; in con- trast trouble indicators of recklessness, egocentricity and ambiguous thinking style were associated with the use of immature defense mechanism [15–18]. Thirdly, the use of mature defenses is an indicator of later positive adjust- ment in young adults. Finally a higher IQ has generally been linked with the use of mature defenses associated with a higher academic productivity in this cluster [19, 20].
stressors that give rise to anxiety.” According to psychoanalysts, everybody displays these mechanisms to some extent. But this does not imply that they are all favorable. As a matter of fact, classic psychoanalysts recognize defensemechanisms of ego as undesirable form of mental functioning and state that these mechanisms should be given up after they have realized the function of protectingimmature ego (Plutchik, 1995, p.17). Recent research has attempted to extend this classical view and asserted that certain defensemechanisms are useful and adaptive. There exist adaptations in every one’s life whichhelp individuals developing their ego. By means of these adaptations, individuals abandon particularly primitive defensemechanisms (White, 1963; as cited in Plutchik, 1995, p.18). Defensemechanisms are sometimes mistaken with coping styles. This discrimination may work best: Although defensemechanisms are immature and unconscious processes of mental development, coping styles are deemed as mature and conscious problem solving methods (Plutchik, 1995).
Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) devised by Andrews, Pollack & Stewart (1989) was employed to measure the defensemechanisms proposed by Vaillant. Andrews et al. (1989) state that the DSQ is intended to be an instrument which can measure those aspects of defensive functioning to which an individual has sufficient conscious access. It lists a hierarchy of defenses from immature to neurotic to mature defenses. The short version, consisting of 36 items was used in this study. The short DSQ emphases the mature and immature factors at the expense of the neurotic factor. Since the aims of this study do not include measuring neurotic defenses, the short form sufficiently meets the needs of this study. Andrews et al. (1989) found that for
The DSM-IV (1994) defines ego mechanisms of defense as “automatic psy- chological processes that protect the individual against anxiety and from the awareness of internal or external dangers or stressors ” (751). It differentiates thirty-one mechanisms from each other, regrouped in seven defense levels. For example, the highest adaptive level includes eight defenses: anticipation, affilia- tion, altruism, humor, self-assertion, self-observation, sublimation and suppres- sion. These mechanisms “ result in optimal adaptation in the handling of stressors” for they “usually maximize gratification and allow the conscious awareness of feelings, ideas, and their consequences ” (DSM-IV 1994: 752). On the other hand, defenses at the lowest adaptive level are “ characteristic by failure of defensive regulation to contain the individual ’ s reaction to stressors, leading to a pronounced break with objective reality ” (DSM-IV 1994: 753). Each individual uses a combination of those thirty-one different defensemechanisms, which constitutes his/her own coping style. Some of these defenses are located at the same adaptive level. Others are not.
The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the causes of anxiety or trauma and the defensemechanisms employed by the main character for coping with those anxieties in the novel “My Feudal Lord” of Tehmina Durrani. Durrani is one of the initiators and pioneers among Anglo- Pakistani narrators who raised her voice against the cruelty of feudal lords in Pakistan. Her works give a vivid picture of societal complications of feminine population like psychological sufferings, trauma and domestic violence and issues related to sexuality in Pakistani elite society. So, the main emphasis of this paper is on character’s inner working particularly protagonist’s mind and how she succeeds or fails in tackling her social and domestic problems. Psychoanalysis in literature is hermeneutics particularly the theory of anxiety and defense mechanism presented by the father of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud will be used as a lens for interpretation of the text of Tehmina Durrani’s My Feudal Lord. Perhaps Sigmund Freud’s theory of defensemechanisms is most appropriate for investigating the narrative because this theory lets one to examine the characters psyche and psychological effects of society on the characters.
Several mechanisms for the antibiotic resistance capabilities of bacteria within a biofilm have been elucidated. One such mechanism is the inability of the antibiotic to diffuse through the EPS. If an antibiotic cannot reach the bacteria, it is impossible for it to have any bactericidal activity. This phenomenon has been observed for the aminoglycoside family of antibiotics, which have been shown to adsorb into the matrix of the biofilm. 7 In a similar study, the rate of diffusion of ciprofloxacin in a P. aeruginosa biofilm suggests that the antibiotic is binding to components within the biofilm, rather than the bacteria themselves. 8 While the inability of antibiotics to penetrate the biofilm plays a role in antibiotic resistance, it is not the only mechanism at work. Anderl et al. demonstrated in a Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm that ampicillin was only able to diffuse throughout the EPS when β-lactamase enzymes were not present. This indicates enzymatic degradation of ampicillin was responsible for the lack of diffusion through the EPS, as opposed to direct interaction with structural components of the EPS. 9 Most notably, even when the bacteria did not produce β-lactamase enyzmes, treatment with ampicillin was unable to kill all the bacteria encased within the biofilm. This illustrates that β-lactamase production is not solely responsible for antibiotic resistance of bacteria within a biofilm.
It can be concluded that there are two causes for Feroza‟s repression. First, Feroza represses that she dislikes her family because she has family problems. From the previous chapter, Feroza‟s family does not fulfill her desires. Generally, the family is considered a place for safety and understanding; however, for Feroza, it is the place that she gains painful feelings. Moreover, Feroza likes freedom because Feroza lives with conflicts in these circumstances and it is no doubt that she has anxiety due to her family problem. Feroza has to repress herself and her anxiety is mistreated. The repressed impulse forces Feroza to escape. The second cause for Feroza‟s repression is the American society. This study reveals that Feroza has American conflict with the society because she leads her life differently from those of the mainstream. As a result, living in difficult circumstances is against her will, so this leads Feroza to be in anxiety. However, Feroza does not want to put herself into trouble; therefore, she chooses to repress her anxiety in order to live peacefully in the society. Feroza‟s repression is also used in some situations later. For Feroza, her suppression is related to the society and her experience. Feroza has a conflict when the American society tries to civilize her. Living in a new family, Feroza is forbidden to do what she wants to do. It leads Feroza to have frustration because she realizes that her behavior is unaccepted in the society, but she has to associate with other people. Through defense mechanism of Feroza, this study revealed that her character uses the same devices: repression, suppression and rationalization when they have anxiety. The causes of their anxiety are similar. Their family background and society are the main causes for their anxiety.
Cramer defines defensemechanisms as constructs acting as a counterforce against the push of the drives for discharge . Defensemechanisms refer to unconscious mental mechanisms directed against both internal drive pressures and external pressures, especially those threatening self-esteem or the structure and the self- integration. They develop according to predictable sequences with the child maturation, are a part of normal personality function, can lead to psychopathology, if one or more are used excessively; they are distinguishable from one another .
Due to the design faults and faulty implementations of TCP / IP protocol suite several vulnerabilities have been reported. Different types of network based attacks have been identified which adopt the computer networks as transportation mechanism to carry out the intrusion or attack the communication system itself. Some of such attacks are sniffing, spoofing, denial of service, session hijacking, traffic redirection, authentication and routing attacks. Several tools and defence mechanisms have been developed to identify, analyse and mitigate such attacks. We describe some of these attacks against TCP/IP suite, analysis tools and various defence mechanisms.
Denial of service through server flooding can be thought of as simply filling up a pipe with enough material to prevent anything else from getting through. Denial of service may occur reluctantly if a server receives more traffic than it was designed to handle. This happens many times, such as when a low-trafficked website becomes famous. Numerous tools could initiate DDoS attacks from thousands of compromised hosts. Denial of service attack programs are out and about for several years from now. The sources of single source attacks are answered easily by numerous prevailing defensemechanisms. These can be easily deactivated with improved tracking techniques.
The livelihood diversification strategies adopted were: income diversification, crop diversification and livestock diversification. Income : diversification of resources and enterprises like depending on ivity, share cropping, engage in prostitution, send household members for work; whereas reliance on some ecologically well adapted crops like Enset production. Livestock diversification included small ruminant husbandry and adjustments within cropping and headed households lack productive resources such as farm agricultural income. Severity of risk and perception of actors affecting behavior of risk management. Thus, given, their headed householdss in their locality adapt and engaged in various coping
This study was conducted in Sidama zone, Dale woreda taking 150 sampled households with objective to assess micro level risk factors for food insecurity and identify copingmechanisms in general and to assess households’ level of food accessibility, to identify the main socio-economic and demographic factors associated with food security status, to identify food insecurity copingmechanisms employed by the households and to recommend suggestion and appropriate food security intervention options in particular. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that 38.7 percent of sample households were found to be food insecure in study area. The household hunger scale measure result also indicates that 34.7 percent of respondents under study area were under moderate household hunger to severe household hunger. The main perceived risk factors for above mentioned food insecurity in the study area were erratic rainfall, food and inputs price rise, drought, shortage of income, lack of off-farm activities, land shortage, population pressure, poor saving practices, lack of credit, poor fertility of land and soil erosion. It is also concluded that the main household food insecurity copingmechanisms employed by respondents were diversifying livelihoods strategies, reducing diversity and frequency of meals, reducing size of meals, decreasing social event, selling of firewood and charcoal, petty trading, sale of livestock, eating immature ‘enset’, selling and renting immature crops in the field and engaging oneself socially undermined jobs in the study area.
ence, closely followed by physiological, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes that focus on chan- ging the event or adapting to its effects. Any situation or occurrence that requires adaptation can be experien- ced as a stress, even positive situations and circumstan- ces may be stressful, whether they come from the out- side world, or the sources of stress is internal. While acute stress does not necessarily have a negative effect, if it lasts for a long time, or is frequently repeated, it be- comes chronic, and can cause various serious disor- ders. During chronic stress, there is an exhaustion of the body’s capacity for an adequate reaction, which can lead to long-lasting immunological dysfunction, which significantly impairs health and quality of life. According to the WHO (2017), stress is one of the cau- ses of even 60% known diseases, and in a number of mental disorders a direct connection with stress has been reported: in acute stress reactions, “posttraumatic stress disorder”, adjustment disorders and other reacti- ons to severe stress. In addition, in all categories of mental disorders (ICD-10), the stressful situation or event plays a significant role in occurrence of the symptoms. A particular category of stress-related dis- orders are psychosomatic disorders. These are functio- nal disorders in which there is no pathoanatomic sub- strate. In contrast to these, psychosomatic diseases are the type of illness in which there are structural changes of tissues and organs, the etiology of which is based on chronic stress, in addition to a number of other factors (Adamovi}, 1983) and which occur when there is a bi- ological predisposition. The paper presents the mecha- nism of development of these diseases and some of the ways of coping with stress. According to the DSM-V, psychosomatic diseases are divided into skin diseases,
Coping is a psychological process developed at a con- scious level used when one tries to manage difficult and stressful situations in life. Coping styles may be adaptive (meaning that the individual tries to reduce the stress) or maladaptive (described by a situation in which the individual keeps or even amplifies the current symptomatology). Coping has been demonstrated to be able to influence the individual’s response at a biological level, leading to a normal or patho- logical reaction in humans, a mechanism that depends on its efficiency in reducing the psychological distress. 5 Different
They usually involve a huge variety of relatively easy personal units, which act in similar and communicate only regionally. For example, the mind includes a huge variety of easy nerves (more or less comparative to on-off switches), each of which is connected only to a relatively small portion of all other nerves. Yet quantity of details handling is going on in the mind, where each neuron works only aspect of the handling, but they all do so in alike. In social pest hives, such as bugs and bees, a huge variety of relatively easy individuals manage to build complex nests or find the quickest path between the home and a food source, again in a similar and allocated way. The human immunity processes is another example, where (simple) personal defense cells perform only aspect of the complete task, but there are many of them working together in similar.