Coping with fatigue

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Living with fatigue : how patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus describe and evaluate their way of coping with fatigue

Living with fatigue : how patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus describe and evaluate their way of coping with fatigue

29 The research questions central in this study necessitated a qualitative research design, as this was the most suitable way of gaining data from a patient perspective. An open, semi-structured interview as research setting allowed patients to share their experiences regarding coping with fatigue, without being largely restricted by the interview scheme or the questions. The questions asked during the interview were intended to be a starting point for the patient to begin his or her story and were thus used as indication of the overarching topic the patient should talk about. This study had a sizeable number of participants for a qualitative study. This helped in identifying less common coping tactics and allowed for a better evaluation of conceptual saturation in the data. A limitation of the sample of this study was the way the participants were recruited. Aside from the patient reporting experiencing severe SLE related fatigue, there were no hard exclusion criteria. The patients that participated in this study were all contacted at the World Lupus Day 2014 (Wereld Lupus Dag 2014) in Ede (The Netherlands). It could be argued such an event attracts a rather homogenous group of patients, so the sample in this study might not give a good representation of Dutch SLE patients in general. The fact all patients in this study coped fairly well with their fatigue could be considered an indication that patients that are more maladaptive in coping with fatigue are not included in the sample of this study. However, all except two patients were identified having severe fatigue, as measured with the Fatigue Severity Scale (see table 3). So it is clear that the majority of the patients in this study were heavily affected by their fatigue. Two patients had a different systemic autoimmune disease than SLE. Five patients had more than one systemic autoimmune disease. However, since this study solely focused on one particular symptom of SLE and other systemic autoimmune diseases share this symptom, it should not have made much difference, if any.

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The partners’ perspective on giving social support and coping with fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus :
a qualitative study

The partners’ perspective on giving social support and coping with fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus : a qualitative study

With regard to how the partners have learned to cope with their spouse’s SLE related fatigue nearly all respondents reported that it had been a ‘process of gradually growing into the situation’: “Ja, ik ben nog aan het leren denk ik wel ook. Het gaat ook geleidelijk” (PR 6), “Dus wat dat betreft maak je dan wel een ontwikkeling door” (PR 2), “Dat is, ja zeg maar langzaam ingegroeid” (PR 3). By other respondents this process was described as ‘finding a way that fits’: “Op één moment denk je dan ja dat is een weg die bij me past en dat denk ik wel op dit moment” (PR 2). The only female respondent did not describe a process, she rather reported that she had learned to cope with her partner’s SLE related fatigue by ‘pressing a button’ and that it did not take her much time to do that: “En ja hoe doe je zoiets? Ja, dat weet ik niet (…) Ja, ik vind het gewoon een knop omzetten, zo gaat het leven eruit zien en dan kun je mee dealen of niet mee dealen…Nee, nee(niet veel tijd gekost om knop om te zetten). Ik kan heel snel situaties, eh…” (PR 7).

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Coping with fatigue

Coping with fatigue

During or after cancer treatment you may need to reduce your hours or stop working altogether. It can help to talk to your employer, human resource manager or occupational health department. Let them know that you may need some time off due to the cancer or its treatment. Don’t feel that you have to work if you are too tired. Some people find that their tiredness is mild and does not interfere much with their work. Others find that it has a greater impact. For example, you may find it hard to concentrate or make decisions. This can affect the quality of your work. Fatigue can also change the way you think and feel, and this can affect your relationships with your colleagues.

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Coping with Fatigue : Caring for people with cancer

Coping with Fatigue : Caring for people with cancer

During or after cancer treatment you may need to reduce your hours or stop working altogether. It can help to talk to your employer, human resource manager or occupational health department. Let them know that you may need some time off due to the cancer or its treatment. Don’t feel that you have to work if you are too tired. Some people find that their tiredness is mild and does not interfere much with their work. Others find that it has a greater impact. For example, you may find it hard to concentrate or make decisions. This can affect the quality of your work. Fatigue can also change the way you think and feel, and this can affect your relationships with your colleagues.

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Fatigue and quality of life in
rheumatism: Sex and SES differences

Fatigue and quality of life in rheumatism: Sex and SES differences

significantly related to the patients’ quality of life. They also showed that different aspects of fatigue are related to different aspect of quality of life. The difference is that they focused exclusively on patients affected by RA while this study takes various forms of rheumatism into account. Thus, it was shown that fatigue has a major unique contribution to quality of life among several forms of rheumatism as it led to improvement of the explained variance in all domains of quality of life. Therefore it is an important symptom to address in all patients affected by rheumatism. It can be said that sex and SES were not as much related to quality of life as it was expected. Sex was not significantly associated with one of the domains of quality of life. Because the present study found sex differences in pain it can be assumed that this difference outweighs the effect of sex on quality of life. Furthermore, SES was associated with the patients’ role-emotional functioning, which provides information about problematic functioning in everyday lives due to emotional problems. Thus, patients with a higher SES experience fewer problems with regard to their emotional state than patients with a lower SES. This is consistent with the finding that there was also a SES difference in role-emotional functioning and a SES difference in coping with fatigue. But SES was not associated with the other domains of quality of life.

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Understanding cancer of the oesophagus

Understanding cancer of the oesophagus

You may have ongoing tiredness or fatigue during treatment. This tiredness can last for some weeks after treatment has ended. Sometimes it can last for months. If you are fatigued, do take things easier. Do less than you normally would and rest more if you can. Ask your family or friends to help you at work or at home. Some gentle exercise like walking may help you to sleep better at night. Do tell your doctor about the way you are feeling as most side-effects can be eased with medication. See page 50 for more about fatigue. You can also call the National Cancer Helpline for a copy of the free booklet, Coping with Fatigue.

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Coping Complexity Model: Coping Stressors, Coping Influencing Factors, and Coping Responses

Coping Complexity Model: Coping Stressors, Coping Influencing Factors, and Coping Responses

The early work by Selye (1974, p. 27) identified stress as “a nonspecific body response to any demand place upon it”. This stimulated further interest in stress, identifying key stressors and coping. Coping was then defined by Lazarus and Folkman, (1984, p. 141) as “constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person.” Coping is a process involving an initial appraisal that an event or situation is a threat with a potential impact on one’s well-being. Lazarus and Folkman (1984), as early leaders in coping research, described personal percep- tion termed “appraisal” along with susceptibility and threats to wellbeing, along with problem-focused and emo- tional-focused responses as aspects of stress and coping. Their psychological theory of appraisal, stress and coping were presented as the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Folkman (1997) later revised the model to include event outcomes and negative feedback loops. Coping was defined as managing stressors (internal and external threats) via cognitive and behavioral efforts; manifested in actions, emotions, and thinking responses which can be adaptive or maladaptive. “Within the dominant discourse, stress is naturalized, normalized, problematized, and individualized… with similar views between the lay public and healthcare professionals (Donnelly & Long, 2003).” Due to the diverse array of health issues investigated in re- lation to stress and coping, a diverse range of evidence identifies the influencing variables used for the mechan- isms of coping.

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Coping Effects on Life Meaning, Basic Psychological Needs and Well Being

Coping Effects on Life Meaning, Basic Psychological Needs and Well Being

Coping strategies describe the personal self-perceptions and the behaviour aimed at maintaining balance in the course of the individual development and adaptation to the requirements of the environment. Traditional approach to coping is tracing reactive responses, used to diminish distress. In contrast, pre- ventive and proactive coping involve goal setting and are associated with re- sources for self-improvement. Behaviour is preconditioned by reactions in re- sponse to external events, but also by strive after circumventing, getting ahead and preparing for the forthcoming events. The reactive and proactive strategies are interconnected and often translated one into the other. We are interested in the process of awareness and choice of coping strategies mainly in result from the changes, provoked by the interrelated inner stimuli and external factors. We suggest the idea that the successful reactive coping strategies can become a part of the identity in the form of proactive coping strategies (ref. Bakracheva, 2017).

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Rheumatoid arthritis RA: more than an inflammatory disorder? A systematic review

Rheumatoid arthritis RA: more than an inflammatory disorder? A systematic review

extent to which the individual perceives the performance of the behavior to be within one’s control. In this connection, Tavousi (2009) implemented an exploratory factor analysis on self-efficacy and PBC. The author found two distinct constructs and defined self-efficacy as the confidence in one’s ability to achieve the target grade and perceived behavioral control as the extent to which the behavioral outcome can be influenced by one’s personal efforts. Therefore perceived behavioral control could provide an important contribution for the topics in demand of this review as it shed light on the locus of control of the people with RA and, thus, in a certain way on their ability to cope with the disease and the concomitant strains. However, the mentioned missing factors in the included studies are also a limitation regarding the literature search of this review. Keywords, searching for particular constructs as the above-mentioned PBC and hypotheses as the antecedent, consequence and scar hypothesis concerning the timing and relationship of mood problems to pain and fatigue are well-established for the questions in demand but were not applied in this review. Therewith, the field of research could possibly be not fully represented. In the antecedent hypothesis, depression precedes the development of pain, while in the consequential hypothesis the depression is a consequence and follows the development of pain. In the scar hypothesis, episodes of depression occurring before the onset of pain predispose to a depressive episode after pain onset. This implies that some people have a genetic predisposition to recurrent depression which can result in people becoming depressed when stressed by i.e. pain through physical illness (Fishbain, 1997).

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Effect of non pharmacological strategies on labor outcomes of parturients at selected hospitals, Mettupalayam

Effect of non pharmacological strategies on labor outcomes of parturients at selected hospitals, Mettupalayam

Women who had term gestation, that is more than 37 weeks of gestation and also who fulfilled the inclusion criteria participated in the study. The participants were assisted by the researcher in practicing the Non Pharmacological Strategies which primarily had 2 strategies during first stage of labor. Strategy I which consisted of respiratory exercises, Lumbo sacral massage and muscle relaxation were provided during the active phase of first stage of labor while Strategy II, ice massage on acupressure point LI4 was given during transition phase of first stage of labor. The effectivenesswas determined based on the behavioural responses measured as the labor coping scores of the individuals using the Sturrock’s labor coping scale, assessment of selected maternal and neonatal indicators during second, third and fourth stages of labor and satisfaction of birth experience rated using Marut and Mercer questionnaire.

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Immediate outcomes for tertiary students of dealing with stressful situations : interpersonal conflict or an exam

Immediate outcomes for tertiary students of dealing with stressful situations : interpersonal conflict or an exam

Finally, mention should be made of the nil finding for the appraised controllability of the situation in predicting psychological outcome variables, in contrast to the findings of Folkman and Lazarus (1980, 1985). One possibility is that there was no main effect for appraised controllability, and its influence was exerted in the context of specific ways of coping. This mode of operation has been identified in two studies. Forsythe and Compas (1987) found that severe psychological symptoms occurred only when coping strategies aimed at making changes were adopted in relation to a stressful situation that had been appraised as being uncontrollable. Conversely, symptoms were minimal when a stressful situation perceived as uncontrollable was dealt with by efforts aimed at controlling one's emotional reactions to it. Similarly, when problem focused coping was adopted in relation to an event perceived as controllable, symptoms were also minimal. Second, Conway and Terry (1992) found no significant main effect for appraised controllability, but a significant interaction between its operation and the use of self-denigration as a coping strategy in predicting depression. The negative effects of self-denigration were exacerbated in situations appraised as more controllable.

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Coping with occupational stress: the role of optimism and coping flexibility

Coping with occupational stress: the role of optimism and coping flexibility

The findings of this study, therefore, add further under- standing of what mechanisms are active in allowing people to cope with stress more effectively. Given that optimism appears to have a significant impact in this regard, it would seem logical to target the interventions that help to develop optimism. However, optimism is a personality trait that remains relatively stable over extended periods. Therefore, coping flex- ibility could provide a more accessible target for interventions that aim at increasing a person’s ability to cope with stress. Interventions based on the goodness-of-fit approach to coping flexibility have already been successfully implemented in a health employee sample. 14 Therefore, stemming from Kato’s

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The Effects of Customized Psychoeducation-Based Neurocounseling Interventions on the Coping Flexibility of African American Women with Multiple Sclerosis.

The Effects of Customized Psychoeducation-Based Neurocounseling Interventions on the Coping Flexibility of African American Women with Multiple Sclerosis.

In literature reviews on coping interventions with PwMS, specific guidance on which interventions work based upon symptoms, individual characteristics, and contextual factors is lacking. This is because the research on coping strategies in MS is hampered by numerous methodological weaknesses and therefore, it is difficult to draw robust conclusions that lead to practice guidelines (Finalyson, 2013). In general, the aim of coping interventions is to (a) establish a therapeutic relationship, (b) facilitate awareness of feelings and perspectives, (c) identify stressful situations and demands, (d) define coping goals, and (e) modify coping behaviors to improve adaptational outcomes (Heim, 1995; Schwartz & Rogers, 1994; Martz & Livneh, 2007). Unfortunately, the research methods employed in reviewed studies (e.g., Heesen et al., 2012) were overwhelmingly experimental designs and did not consider individual nuances within the coping process. However, intervention programs that provide individual service delivery for people living with a chronic disease are needed and desired and may be more efficacious than group-based interventions (das Nair et al., 2016).

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Coping Strategies: Theoretical Dimensions and Classifications

Coping Strategies: Theoretical Dimensions and Classifications

Coping is the cognitive and affective responses used by individuals to manage stress”. It helps a person to adapt with environment. Uncontrolled stress may cause serious harm to the individual and the society he/she belongs. Therefore coping with stress is necessary for the well being of the individual and the society. Coping involves behavioral or cognitive strategies or both, a person may adopt to deal with stress. Coping is not a permanent individual trait or disposition. It is a transactional process, modified continuously by experience. Moreover, coping is not a reaction only to stress, but it may be viewed as a preventive strategy, if a probable stressful situation is anticipated.

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Kelly Silva & Daniel Simião, “Coping with ‘traditions’”

Kelly Silva & Daniel Simião, “Coping with ‘traditions’”

When state policies seize these “traditional” practices, they may enter a long process of imagining the nation. In this context, the use of colonial categories such as usos e costumes seems to be a return to the (not so distant) “past” to find a reference for the future. Thus, a comparison between the uses of “tradition” in East Timor and of adat in Indonesia and “traditional com- munities” in Brazil, may open up a new research perspective. In the last two countries, the idea of “tradition” can be understood as a semantic cluster that links rights and duties to history, law and land. This semantic cluster figures in the political scenario as important for advocacy in support of vulnerable rural people coping with state and international interests. At the same time, it plays a part in state formation and in the dynamics of people´s identifi- cation (Davidson & Henley, 2007). In East Timor, this seems not to be the case yet. “Tradition” has been used to refer to justice and nation in a context where the place of local identities is still to be defined. Further ethnographic research should reveal how close it will follow international trends.

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Coping and defending : age differences in maturity of defence mechanisms and coping strategies

Coping and defending : age differences in maturity of defence mechanisms and coping strategies

confounds. A more in-depth study would include a greater breadth of social groups, as well as respondents who were both educated and uneducated. In addition, the cross- sectional research designed was a limitation, as it did not allow for an examination of how an individual changes his/her defense styles and coping strategies over time. Indeed, Costa and McCrae (1993) posit that on the basis of longitudinal results that aging has little effect on coping and that enduring dispositional characteristic are more important for psychologists to examine.

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Relationship between psychological constructs of DASS scale and coping strategies

Relationship between psychological constructs of DASS scale and coping strategies

40- Smith NL, Frydenberg E, Pool CH. Broadening social networks for girls and particularity for boys: Outcomes of a coping skills program. Aus J Guid. 2003;13(1):22-35. 41- Gunzales NA, Tein J, Sandler IN, Friedman RJ. On the limits of coping interaction between stress and coping for innercity adolescents. J Adolesc Res. 2001;16(4):372- 95.

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Coping Strategies: Theoretical Dimensions and Classifications

Coping Strategies: Theoretical Dimensions and Classifications

IJSRR, 8(2) April. – June., 2019 Page 2904 identification, compensation(substitution), and sublimation are some sort of emotion focused coping strategies. Using humour, crying and ignoring problems are other emotion focused coping strategies. Self regulation or self control of the physiological aspect of functioning along with relaxation continuum is one among the main coping skills, Matthews, 1988 5 . Different people tend to use different coping strategies and the use of a particular strategy may also depend upon on the situation and the emotions aroused by it, Folkman & Moscowitz, 2004 6 .

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Association between Coping Strategies and Infertility Stress among a Group of Women with Fertility Problem in Shiraz, Iran

Association between Coping Strategies and Infertility Stress among a Group of Women with Fertility Problem in Shiraz, Iran

Ways of Coping Scale: The Ways of Coping Scale was used to assess strategies coping with infertili- ty stress. This scale was designed by Schmidt (15) and consists of 29 items and four subscales. The subscales include active-avoidance strategies (e.g. avoiding being with pregnant women or children), active-confronting strategies (e.g. showing feel- ings, asking others for advice), passive-avoidance strategies (e.g. hoping for a miracle) and meaning- based coping strategies (e.g. thinking about the fertility problem in a positive light, finding other goals in life). The authors developed their own scale based on Ways of Coping Questionnaire (16, 17). The responses to this scale are rated based on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not used) to 4 (used a great deal). A Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.62 to 0.77 for the dimensions of the scale has been reported (15). The reliability of this scale was examined in this study and Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the subscales ranged from 0.57 to 0.79. The scale showed good convergent validity with Ways of Coping Questionnaire (r=0.68, p< 0.01).

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Brief Cope Scale was used to find the coping strategies of cancer patients. The scale comprised of 14 subscales (self-distraction, use of instrumental support, behavioral disengagement, active coping, denial, substance use, use of emotional support, ,positive reframing, planning, humor, acceptance, religion and self-blame) with 28 items (two items for every dimension) and rated by the four-point Likert scale”. Responses are then added to obtain total score. The higher score specified the higher used of the coping strategies (Carver, 1997).

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