In frequent discussions and considerations on close- to-nature management or on management using selec- tion principles, one of possibilities is neglected how the principles can be fulfilled in oak forests, viz. to create and manage a coppice-with-standards. This type of a forest can include both diversity of tree species and age and thus also of storeys and origin (generative or vegetative). In addi- tion to the high forest where trees are of seed origin and the low forest or more accurately coppice forest where trees originate by the sprouting capacity of stumps or roots the coppice-with-standard represents the combination of a coppice forest forming the lower storey and uppermost storeys created from standards primarily of seed origin, i.e. the high forest in various stages of maturity. Height increment of standards is smaller, however, diameter in- crement is more marked as compared with closed stands of the high forest. Research into volume production of the coppice-with-standard forest is limited (D OLEŽAL et al. 1969). This type of the forest is considerably extended particularly in France and Greece. Sufficiency of trees of the seed origin is a precondition for growing the cop- pice-with-standards. In the Czech Republic, with respect to the small area of the forest (in 1930 some 2.3% forest land) it is included either into the low forest or in case of the higher number of standards into the high forest (P OLENO 1999).
1956). Regarding its character, production, silvicul- ture and biodiversity, the coppice-with-standards forest represents a valuable, close-to-nature forest management object. At present, however, the cop- pice-with-standards system has become so rare in floodplain forests that it is considered a natural monument (Míchal et al. 1992). The coppice-with- standards forest has had a long tradition in Czech lands. Within the territory of the present Czech Republic, the coppice-with-standards silvicultural system was most common around 1900, when it took up almost 3% of the total area, which was ca 60,000 ha at that time (figures from the Reambulated Cadastre), primarily in Moravia. In 1990, the cop- pice-with-standards system was not recorded in the territory of the Czech Republic (Kadavý 2007). This state contradicts the increasing interest of nature protection organizations in the relict remainders of the coppice-with-standards system, which ac- cording to Míchal (1998) is to be considered the closest to naturally preserved lowland forest type, and is, therefore, recommended as the final state of the biocentres and biocorridors in today’s floodplain forests.
ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the establishment of the coppice and coppice-with-standards research object under the project Biodiversity and Target Management of Endangered and Protected Species in Coppices and Coppices-with- Standards Included in the System of NATURA 2000. It summarizes reasoning which preceded the selection of the site and provides a detailed description of the methodology of experimental site establishment. It specifies the rules of felling which was planned with the objective to simulate the impact of coppice and coppice-with-standards on biodi- versity of endangered and protected species. It also describes the stand condition prior to and after the implemented felling, with additional emphasis on coppice-with-standards. Individual felling variants which were implemented were characterized by varying felling intensity. Close attention is paid to the evaluation of standards which is expressed by a system of score classes.
Today, livestock grazing on the woodland understory and collection of fuel wood and acorns are the principal objectives of traditional forest management of Persian oak by inhabitants in this forested region, while in pre- vious decades trees were cut to obtain poles for rural house construction . The ﬁeld inventory data in 2003 by HNRY (more details in the data section) shows that more than 50% of the inventoried plots did not have any woody species regeneration and that 54% of the oaks were in coppice form. The cutting of trees has been prohibited for around three decades, which has caused stability in crown cover density and in the number of large trees . Consequently, letting trees grow old also causes a relatively high rate (20%) of bad quality oak trees (HNRY’s inventory data).
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Biomass plays a key role among renewable energy sources in Europe, accounting for almost 70 % of all renewables, and showing steady growth. It is expected that the demand for wood as fuel for energy (heat and electricity) will increase, driven mainly by market forces and supported by the targets of national and European energy policies . Solid biomass from short rotation coppice (SRC) has been identified with high potential to significantly contribute to European renewable energy targets . The term SRC refers to biomass productions systems cultivated for energy purposes using fast-growing tree species with the ability to resprout from the stumps after harvest. Harvest occurs in short intervals (2-6 years). The management practices for SRC such as soil preparation, weed control, planting, fertilisation, harvest, resemble more those of agricultural annual crops than of forestry, despite that the currently used species in commercial SRC plantations in Europe are tree species. As SRC species, willows and poplars have been predominantly used in Europe, since they are fast-growing with good coppice ability that reach high growth rates even under very short harvest intervals. Other tree species such as black locust and eucalyptus have been also considered for larger implementation as SRC systems for energy. To avoid misunderstandings between SRC and the more general term Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), we need to point out that SRF is a broader term describing forest systems for biomass production not only for energy purposes but also for others. SRF uses also fast-growing tree species and having denser spacing and more intensive management than traditional forestry, and trees are typically harvested after 2 to 25 years depending on the desired end-product. In this context SRC represents a more specialised and intense practice of SRF dedicated mainly for energy purposes.
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The structure of diameter class distribution was very much differentiated on PRP, which can be ex- plained by different silvicultural practices (type of thinning, transformation of coppice to coppice with standards and high forest) in the past. Heterogene- ity of results can also be related with the size of the studied plots (Paluch 2007). At the studied locali- ties Gaussian distribution, relatively even distribu- tion and clearly left-skewed as well as right-skewed distribution can be found. According to Král et al. (2010) the Gaussian distribution is typical of the stage of the optimum on a larger spatial scale. Left- skewed distribution is typical of old-growth close- to-nature beech stands (KorpeĽ 1995; Schütz et al. 2001) that usually reflect the regime of small- plot disturbances (Zeibig et al. 2005) and are at the growing-up stage or at the initial stage of disinte- gration (Podlaski 2006; Zenner et al. 2015).
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The Spinelli et al. (2002) and Strandgard et al. (2016) models focused on developing harvesting pro- ductivity models for Eucalyptus with regard to south- ern Europe and Australia, respectively. Ramantswana et al. (2013) considered harvester productivity effects on differently managed silviculture (coppice verse planted) Eucalyptus plantations. Despite different pri- mary objectives, the models were all based on tree volume as the continuous predictor and thus they were comparable with the combined dataset model. When models were compared, the productivity mod- el developed with the dataset model fits into the exist- ing range and follows the common trend based on literature models (Spinelli et al. 2002, Ramantswana et al. 2013, Strandgard et al. 2016).
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The production of woody biomass at agricultural sites is not yet widespread in Germany. Due to the high initial investment and high harvesting costs as well as comparatively low prices of energy wood, the land use systems such as src or Acs are cur- rently hardly profitable compared to conventional agriculture at marginal post-mining sites in lower lusatia. However, a moderate increase of the re- gional wood price would turn the combination of crop and woody biomass production in Acs into an economically advantageous land use system in the study area despite the unfavourable growth fig. 6. Annuities of short rotation coppice, alley cropping and conventional agriculture calculated for the post-mining area of the opencast mining “Welzow-süd”; (a) price of wood chips = 75 €·t DM –1 [average of the Brandenburg state;
Under the proposed Framework, an open development environment is assumed. Because most SDI developments start as closed projects, moving from the closed to open state is therefore a critical step, but one that has been little studied. Schweik & Semenov (2002) suggest that going open too early, when the software is not yet stable or does not have sufficient functionality to attract users or developers, can cause projects to fail at the outset. As a result the transition to an open development never really occurs. Conversely a robust, finely tuned product with lots of rich features can also be a disincentive because developers feel that they are unable to make a credible new contribution. Assuming an appropriate transition point has been determined, the next task is to grow the installed base as rapidly as possible. To build an open SDI using the idealised Framework, a priority should be given to adequately resourcing the Community Standards Coordinator and the Community Registry Manager actors to ensure continuity of personnel and performance in these key areas. Early on, after the transition from a closed development, seeding the Developer effort with funded personnel will also assist in presenting the impression that the infrastructure is growing and the development community is active. The aim, however, should be to use this funded effort to attract a pool of committed volunteers willing to contribute so that the funded activity eventually becomes a minor component of a much broader voluntary work-force. Studies by Shah (2006) have shown that voluntary developers may only contribute their services for up to one year. So a high turn-over in the development community should be anticipated. This potentially high turn-over rate implies that the systems implemented by the community to support infrastructure development activity should be easy for Developers to access, well documented, and record the history of interactions, decisions, and activities over time so that new entrants can quickly become familiar with issues and in turn create their own audit trails. Successful open developments make substantive use of mailing lists as a fast and effective medium for communication and coordination. Dedicated mailing lists with Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for different topics and well organised archives lower the barrier for new participants and may provide an alternative to creating extensive developer documentation (Michlmayr, 2005).
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Growing these species using a short rotation cop- pice (SRC) sometimes termed as short or mini-ro- tation forestry (SRF, MRF) is characteristic of using agricultural land (most o en arable land) for plant- ing clones of fast-growing tree species. The stand re- mains on the site some 15–30 years being, however, harvested in regular intervals (3–7 years). A poten- tial of these stands is used to create high amounts of shoots and to create coppice shoots a er harvest. Through repeated felling natural death of a stand is simulated, for example a er a windstorm or ﬁ re. At the same time, thanks to a developed root system, the creation of bulky biomass occurs (SENNERBY- FORSSE et al., 1992). Thus, the total yield of bio- mass is markedly increased during the ﬁ rst rotations thanks to the development of the tree root system. Subsequently, however, its depression occurs thanks to the gradual exhaustion of the stand site.
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youngest age class 1), in chestnuts we showed an increase in species turnover in the forest renewal stage (age class 2) due to different coppice management practices (Spinelli et al., 2010). Indeed, the physical structure of commercial cop- piced chestnuts is substantially different from that of other types of broadleaved coppiced woods (Fuller and Moreton, 1987): in these woods, during the renewal stage there is rapid growth of the shrub layer with large leaves, increasing habi- tat heterogeneity and favouring many species linked to these new shady conditions (e.g. Turdus merula, Erithacus rubec- ula, Troglodytes troglodytes), with a consequent increase in species turnover at patch scale and at community level.
The plants was stable (location conditions) in the site and not able to change location. So ecological conditions of site have a most effect on thesurvival of plantspecies. In the plant species the tree has a more ageand more dependent the site conditions, because establishment of tree need the desirable site conditions and establishment other species in the nearer the seed tree. Site conditions are dependent the seed tree to sexual or unisexual regeneration (Spurr, 1964). Environmental variables are include the forest environment (climatic and soil factors, nutrient cycle, soil/plant water cycle etc.) and forest community (competition, succession, disturbance effects, forest description and measurement). To study of major Environmental element on the establish coppice regenerations of Iranian Oak used the literature review in the Zagros forest and other forest in the Iran and other country. Environmental element include the:
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In the period 19961999 field trial was performed in Obory near Kwidzyn on heavy textured Fluvisols. The experiment was aimed to determine yield, chemical composition, heat value of wood of six genotypes of willow coppice in relation to cutting frequency and on determining the costs and profitability of willow production on arable land for purposes of energy generation. Yield of wood dry matter in one-year cutting cycle amounted to 14.09 t.ha 1 .year 1 and significantly
Čater 2015). One of the main future challenges for the plants would be adaptation to changes in their environment as it will be crucial for their survival (Merchant 2016). Our study showed that sessile oak coppice sprouts are advantageous over seedlings, as they showed the better wa- ter status during the entire measurement period, regardless of weather conditions (Figs 5 and 6). Sprouts and seedlings largely differ in root systems (Bond, Midgley 2001). Coppice sprouts have a fully functional root system of a previously estab- lished tree (Bond, Midgley 2001) which ensures them more stable water resources (Vilagrosa et al. 2014). Therefore, coppice sprouts are mini- mizing the effect of water oscillations during the season by reaching the deeper soil layers (Vila- grosa et al. 2014; Pietras et al. 2016). Shallow roots and small root absorptive area were sug- gested as main reasons for lower transpiration rates of seedlings compared to sprouts (Pietras et al. 2016). Since seedlings rely on water in shal- low soil layers where soil moisture availability is depleted rapidly (Gaines et al. 2016), this may justify the lower transpiration rates of seedlings as compared to sprouts. Nonetheless, the midday leaf water potential of seedlings was always found lower (more negative) than in coppice, these dif- ferences were pronounced mostly during drought conditions (Fig. 7). This confirms sufficient water availability to coppice sprouts, as it is known that tree species with deep root systems have a higher (less negative) pre-dawn water potential (Abrams 1990) due to an increase of soil water availability with depth and faster water refilling (Gaines et al. 2016). Drake et al. (2012) compared transpiration rates in Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière coppice and in its high forms, and they found higher rates of transpiration in coppice at a stand as well as in- dividual tree level. Their findings were explained by the significantly higher leaf area index in cop- pice stand compared with high stand. However, in our case the high regenerated stand had the ap- proximately 56% higher leaf area index than cop- pice, due to the higher number of individuals per hectare (Table 1), yet the high stand transpired less (Fig. 5). Likewise, it should also be taken into account that the year 2015 was extreme in terms of drought (CHMI 2015; Van Lanen et al. 2016), suggesting different water status and different sto- matal control of both sprouts and seedlings when the soil water is limited.
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latitudes 43°53' - 43°47' and the eastern geographical longitudes 18°16'-18°27’ in central Bosnia and Herzegovina (Figure 1). Forest stands of state-owned beech (Fagus silvatica L.) coppice forests surrounding the capital city of Sarajevo were selected as study areas. The selected beech coppice stands are situated on plane and hilly positions at altitude range of 550 to 1700 meters, but mostly below 1000 meters (about 60%). About 80% of forest stands are situated on humid expositions with deeper and moist soils. More than 65% of forest stands are located on a position with an inclination above 20o, while less than 15% is on planes. The study area is influenced by moderate continental climate with subalpine character at higher altitudes.
sample was removed from the glass sample vials via a syringe with a 2 - way open/closed valve. These were attached to a 16 - port distribution manifold (Picarro Inc. USA) feeding into a Small Sample Inlet Module (Picarro Inc, USA) and a Picarro G-2131i CRDS isotopic analyser. Linearity was checked by running 3 reference gases in triplicate ( 9.98 ‰ at 414 ppm, 32.60 ‰ at 496 ppm, 36.51 ‰ at 1063 ppm) (BOC Gases, UK) whilst one reference gas sample (414 ppm, 9.98 ‰ ) was run after every 8 samples to account for linear drift and results were calibrated against these. 5 ml of the remaining ﬁ eld sample was transferred to a 3 ml evacuated boro- silicate glass sample vial (Labco, Lampeter, UK) and run on a Per- kinElmer Autosystem XL Gas Chromatograph (GC) (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA, USA) ﬁ tted with a Flame Ionisation Detector (FID) operating at 130 C. The GC was ﬁ tted with a stainless steel Porapak Q 50 e 80 mesh column (length 2 m, outer diameter 3.17 mm) maintained at 60 C. Three calibration gas standards (500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 4000 ppm CO 2 ) (Air Products, Waltham on Thames, UK)
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Spatial patchiness (illustrated by significant replicate and incomplete block effects) and coppice vigour played highly significant roles in determining the distribution of damage caused by Myllorhinus spp. (Table 2). Such patchiness is commonly exhibited by insect communities (Linhart 1989; Farrall et al. 1991) and may be due to meso-scale environmental variation (within tens of metres) (Linhart et al. 1981) or insect dispersal patterns (Clarke et al. 1997). However, no obvious correlation between
Among the types of management for coppices, the most pertinent to rockfall protection are those closest to high forests. For example, the coppice selection system is charac- terised by ideal features, even though this system is not often practiced in the region (0.1% of regional forest). In this sys- tem, two or more coppice shoots, having an age equal to, or a multiple of, the rotation (i.e., the time that elapses between one harvest and the following one), are always left growing on the stump. The traditionally silvicultural systems recog- nised that the benefit of such silvicultural systems lies in the possibility of obtaining fuel wood for the local population. This study suggests that a further benefit is a reduction in the Average Distance between Contacts and an improvement in the Structure of Interception function, which could lead to an increase in rockfall protection.
In the structure of utilization of sources of re- newable energy in Poland biomass has a leading position. For energy generation the following plant materials have been used: forestry residues, wood wastes from wood processing plants, agricultural wastes and wastes from green areas. In the close future the important source of biomass supplying will be energy plantations of perennial crops as: willow (Salix spp.), Virginia mallow (Sida her- maphrodita Rusby), miscanthus (Miscanthus sinnen- sis giganteus). Among the mentioned energy crops under the conditions of the Polish climate the best results can be obtained using fast growing willow coppice (Salix spp.) (Szczukowski et al. 2003).
We applied three strong thinning measures in four replications. Our intention was to instantly create both horizontal and vertical stand structure, similar to that of an ideal coppice-with-standards. We found out, that it is possible to perform such a change, when the initial structure allows it, e.g. the initial diameter distribution must contain a broad range of tree diameters. It is therefore temporarily possible to create a c-w-s like stand structure.