There has been an unprecedented demand for equitable access to post-secondary education post 1994, perhaps because of the change in policies broadening participation of black people in traditional universities in South Africa. The dramatic increase of people of colour attending institutions of higher learning coincided with shrinking government subsidies, which led to universities redesigning their identity according to corporate culture. Thus, they turned to double digit fee increases and persistent long-term outsourcing of services to overcome the problem of funding insecurities. However, it is not clear how corporatization of institutions of highereducation enables equitable access and efficient delivery of highereducation to the majority of blacks who were previously disadvantaged by apartheid policies. The primary objective of this article is to conduct a meta-synthesis of a systematically retrieved sample of empirical academic literature to present an argument on the systemic deficits in corporatization of highereducation and the corporate identity which distort the ideal university. The PRISMA statement is followed to ensure transparent and complete synthesis of the literature reviewed to maintain the integrity of individual studies. Thereafter, the article presents a detailed account of how corporatization of universities deepens inequalities; ignores social injustices and restricts access to highereducation. In addition, the article makes a claim that corporatization of universities impairs the academic quality and freedom of the university as well as portrays education as “private good” for self-actualization. Keywords: corporatisation of universities, education as private good, restricting access to highereducation
There are several areas within the literature on organisational change in highereducation that are under researched or under theorised and to which this thesis makes a contribution. The following gaps in the literature were identified from the review of literature in Chapter Two. First, in relation to method, research on academic life in Australia has been largely based on quantitative surveys at a single point in time. There are few qualitative case studies and even less longitudinal research. Second, theoretical approaches to empirical work on highereducation change are sparse. Slaughter and Leslie’s (1997) extensive study of academic capitalism is a rare example of research employing a theoretical approach in its design and interpretation. In line with the general positivist approach to research in highereducation, most research tends to be descriptive without an explicit theoretical framework. This thesis attempts to add flesh to Laughlin’s (1991) ‘skeletal’ theory of organisational change by adopting a Middle Range Thinking (MRT) (Laughlin, 1995; 2004) approach to the design and interpretation of the research. Third, there is a paucity of studies whose content is focused on the values of academics, specifically business school academics. With the exception of Henkel’s (2000; 2005a; 2005b) work, only a small number of studies have a direct focus on academic values. Of the research concerned directly with the impacts of corporatisation on academics, few studies directly address the question of value change or address it in a way that focuses on the “collective experience and inter-relationships” of academics within their lifeworlds (Tight, 2003, p. 166). Although there is growing attention being given to entrepreneurial academic units (Clark, 1998; Slaughter and Leslie, 1997; De Zilwa, 2007), there are even fewer, if any, studies that focus on the values of academics engaged in the most commercialised and globalised of academic teaching activities, such as graduate schools of business. In Australia, there is little empirical research at all on business schools and business education in relation to organisational change.
Abstract: The closing days of the twentieth century have seen two extraordinary developments: an information technology revolution and the end of ideological confrontation between major powers. These developments have had a profound effect on the social, political, economic and cultural organisation of humankind, often generically called globalisation, and in the field of highereducation this has led in many countries to the adoption and implementation of a single paradigm of a university. This university is expected to operate like a business corporation in a market place producing and purveying technical excellence in knowledge to a large number of students and other clients. But the corporate university does have fundamental problems: first, in that the problems selected for solution through the application of technical excellence are determined by marketing considerations and therefore may not be very deep or great in significance, and second, that the organisational principles employed under this type of regime do not engender the long-term commitment of academic staff, and lastly that the human contact which is a necessary concomitant of excellent teaching and which is by its nature labour-intensive, must be reduced to the barest minimum in a cost-conscious corporatised university. Some realistic and practicable strategies to minimise educational costs of corporatisation are suggested.
nonprofit knowledge organizations, such as museums and libraries that have entered the postsecondary market. There are already more than 1,000 corporate universities that provide instruction and staff development for their own companies. Some are far more advanced than traditional colleges in terms of pedagogy, curriculum design, and evaluation. Nonprofit and for-profit foreign universities will also join the fray. There will also be hybrids, such as the Western Governors University created by 17 states in collaboration with at least 14 business partners that include IBM, AT&T, and Microsoft. We will see competition between for-profits and not-for-profits as well as partnerships between and among sectors. For instance, in a recent conversation, an auto executive told me his car-making company was talking with a for-profit educator about turning now underutilized showrooms, the result of a rising level of Internet car sales, into for-profit community education centers.
If rankings did not exist, someone would invent them. They are an inevitable result of mass highereducation and of competition and commercialization in postsecondary edu- cation worldwide. Potential customers (students and their families) want to learn which of many highereducation options to choose—the most relevant and most advanta- geous. Rankings provide some answers, to these questions. Mass highereducation produced a diversified and complex academic environment, with many new academic institu- tions and options. It is not surprising that rankings became prominent first in the United States, the country that expe- rienced massification earliest as a way of choosing among the growing numbers of institutional choices. Colleges and universities themselves wanted a way to benchmark against peer institutions. Rankings provided an easy, if highly im- perfect, way of doing this. The most influential, and widely criticized, general ranking is the US News & World Report America’s Best College Ranking, now in its 17th year. Nu- merous other rankings exist as well, focusing on a range of variables, from the “best buys” to the best party schools and institutions that are most “wired.” Most of these rankings have little validity but are nonetheless taken with some seri- ousness by the public.
The 21st century is an information society, a society that is globalized, interconnected and, often termed a knowledge economy. The students presently in universities are known as digital natives: raised with digital technologies; born well after the advent of video games. The ATC21S, an interna- tional educational research organization, states that we need future professionals that are capable of higher order thinking skills that enable them to apply new understandings to uncharted contexts. Creative problem solving, critical thinking, systems thinking, collaboration in cross-disciplinary teams, and integrating multiple sources of knowledge are the capabilities needed by proactive learners to negotiate the demands of the 21st century, as are the skills that foster media literacy and life-long learning (Binkley et al., 2010). Education and professional development should be aligned to produce a support system that produces 21st century outcomes for today’s students (Binkley et al., 2010). At present, a number of education applications relating to the learning theories outlined above are based on creating learning environments where learning is a creative, active, experiential process, a process in which knowledge is built in a social context through meaningful, intrinsically motivating interactions in a multisensory environment. The focus is learner-centered; teachers are seen as facili- tators or coaches. There are a significant number of educators that support such an approach, stating that that new models of learning with a more holistic approach are needed (Brown, 2006; Squire, 2007). These models need to be connected more firmly to the emerging research from neuroscience, in order to equip future professionals for the fast changing society they (will) live in (Davis, 2011). Another idea supports the reconceptualization of the role of the educator “from sage on the stage to guide on the side”, from providers of knowledge to designers of learning. Emerging technologies are leading to the development of many new opportunities to guide and enhance learning that were un- imagined even a few years ago, of which gamification in education is one (Norman & Spohrer, p. 27).
Prior to joining AR7 in 1997, Stuart spent 16 years as an architect in New York City. As an associate and project architect at Mitchell/Giurgola Architects, Stuart acted as designer and project architect of both public and private sector work. His projects included highereducation buildings, parks, primary and secondary schools, corporate facilities, and museums winning local, state, and national design awards. At AR7 Stuart has focused on facilities for student housing and highereducation.
We also need to recognise properly integrated dementia education is best taught by profession specific experts, who are best placed to weave the condition specific skills and knowledge into their academic modules and programmes. However, the people to whom this educational responsibility may fall may not themselves have had the opportunity to develop the required dementia expertise. This is creating a rapid gulf between the type of education many HEIs wish to deliver and what is feasible given current staff skills sets.
only a requirement but a dire necessity at the backdrop present period of crisis evoking out from consumerism and globalization. Without value education, the highereducation has become lopsided and we all crave for responsible citizens for the state. The corruption becomes rampant and the economy is crippled. Hence, if sustainable development is the prime objective of all the individuals across the nations in this 21 st century, then the pre
One of the first activities will be a skills-competency assessment of current class teachers. This assessment will be designed by NIET working with the EFTs and international and local technical assistance providers. Each HEI will be responsible for its own data collection, with assistance from school principals and inspectors. Data analysis will be conducted by the HEIs with technical assistance from a competitively selected international institution. The results of this assessment will be used to design a modular program that will be offered to under-qualified teachers to enable them to meet the minimum requirements to obtain a Class Teacher Professional Certificate (CTPC). This Certificate will indicate that their qualifications are equivalent to that of a licensed teacher graduating from an accredited teacher education program. Each HEI will prepare its own proposal (including a detailed implementation plan, deliverables and cost estimates) on how it intends to contribute to the design of the modular program, and to undertake the development and implementation of the in-service teacher upgrading programs. The MOEHE will sign individual contracts with each of these HEIs. This component will fund:
at the possible undesirable consequence ‘that a number of relatively high achieving school-leavers abstain from highereducation’ (Hillmert and Jacob 2003, 332) because of the existence of various vocational alternatives to HE. Hillmert and Jacob (2003) also show how (social) inequalities influence, or hinder, mobility and student pathways, especially transferring to HE. One difficulty, when taking into account neoliberal conditions, arises from a difference between MBO and HBO. Rauner (2006), in identifying qualification strategies, distinguishes between two types of VET systems. The first is aimed at occupation, with qualifications based on programmes developed in cooperation with social partners. The second targets higher employability through certifying competencies and work experience, partly based on individual choices within programmes. Germany, which like the Netherlands has a binary tradition, fits the first system, England the second, while the Netherlands would be somewhere in between (Brockmann, Clarke, and Winch 2008). While Dutch MBO clearly resembles the first type with a large social partners component, in HBO there is more space for individual choice (e.g. through minors) and marketable competencies. This benefits HBO
According to RRI Tools, in order to integrate RRI into universities, institutions need to act at four levels (RRI Toolbox, 2016). The first and perhaps more obvious level is the institutional level itself. To integrate RRI, highereducation institutions should refer to a normative RRI framework (such as those, previously cited, adopted by EPSRC and the EU). This also focuses on activities to engage with the public and promote an open public dialogue. An ethical code of conduct should be set in place for research and development activities and policies to promote openness and transparency across the scientific pro- gress are essential. A formal training in RRI should also be delivered to the students. An- other level at which RRI should be implemented is the university community. The staff at the university at all levels (PIs, researchers, lecturers, lab technicians, communication officers) should be familiar with the concept of RRI. This can be achieved through formal training but also by fostering a dialogue and participatory methods across the institution. Research teams are added to the acting levels as they should be always up to date with new RRI requirements and implement them in calls for funding. It is thus important to highlight the benefits of incorporating RRI to obtain funding. Finally, the teaching body (such as professors or lecturers) should incorporate RRI principles in their syllabi and introduce RRI policy agendas in their curricula.
financial returns. In 2011 the British government produced a ‘White Paper’ Highereducation: Students at the heart of the system, setting out the eleventh new ‘framework’ for the UK sector since the Robbins Report of 1963. As Williams points out, ‘[t]his means in practice that roughly every three years universities in the UK have undergone fundamental ideological and practical upheavals . By interpreting reports such as these, Williams goes some way to articulate their impact on the psychology behind students’ understanding of HE and university life. Through the discursive association with HE as a means towards securing social and personal betterments like ‘employment,’ ‘social mobility’ and ‘social justice’, Williams argues that these reports were central to changing the values, behaviours and expectations of students. Since the most recent student-centric documents have been brought in alongside rising tuition fees, we will never know whether putting students at the heart of HE would have constructed them as consumers alone, however it can be deduced that the financial issue has only consolidated the matter.
Globalization is the process of global integration of activities related to national markets, economics, technology and related resources for national and international trade with the use of modern information technologies. Countries are becoming interdependent and globe has to monopoly as such. Globalization is now not an optional. The global education market is too big to be ignored for instance the World Trade Organization (WTO) was established. in globalization the education has become a marketable activity. the highereducation is treated as market commodity and it is selling at higher prices. GATS have provided global facilities in highereducation at local level.
European Commission in Document EUROPE 2020 - A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth state as one of the three priorities: “smart growth – developing an economy based on knowledge and innovation” which means “strengthening knowledge and innovation as drivers of our future growth. This requires improving the quality of our education, strengthening our research performance, promoting innovation and knowledge transfer throughout the Union, making full use of information and communication technologies and ensuring that innovative ideas can be turned into new products and services that create growth, quality jobs and help address European and global societal challenges. But, to succeed, this must be combined with entrepreneurship, finance, and a focus on user needs and market opportunities” . It is obvious that the role of European universities is crucial in the further development of EU. European Commission in the document Europe 2020 Flagship Initiative from 2010 said that to achieve Innovation Union EU Member states need the following: “Our strengths in design and creativity must be better exploited. We must champion social innovation. We must develop a better understanding of public sector innovation, identify and give visibility to successful initiatives, and benchmark progress . Document Smart People for Smart Growth is statement by the European University Association (EUA) on the EU Flagship Initiative ”Innovation Union” of the Europe 2020 European Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth. First of six key messages was that “Europe’s universities play an essential role in the “innovation chain” through their research and teaching activities which strengthen our knowledge base and skill development to provide new jobs for the future” . Part six of that Document is dedicated to “Promoting openness and capitalizing on Europe’s creative potential” .
BL2 has been positioned as black and asked to teach race words in the extracts suggest very clearly that these three academics have a common pedagogical purpose for empowerment, student-centredness and critical thinking, thus arming students with the tools to want to change themselves and the world/s around them. They themselves, as academics, have experienced racism in its ‘guises’ and have transformed their lived experience, in the classroom and in HE, into one of profound concern for full inclusion and development of critical thinking. They also all seemed to be engaged in a critical, feminist and anti-racist approach to Education, whether in the classroom, in the design of modules or in the influence they had on policy (including national policy). Are they all, with me, playing the role of the subversive ‘trickster’ or is it what ‘black pedagogy’ is all about? Or is it even what Ladson-Billings calls ‘culturally relevant pedagogy’? Whatever the label I give to myself and to these colleagues, I know for certain that there is an even stronger need for me now to document further the experiences of ‘black’ academics in HE.
Page | 5 academic delivery) and sources of funding. As per the current UGC guidelines, a private university can be set up only through a State Private University Act and has to be unitary in nature, thereby limiting the scope for expansion. A study of the Private Universities Acts of various states reveals the difference in governing mechanisms as well as operational guidelines, including admission of students. Besides, restriction on jurisdiction of the state, there are regulatory restrictions with regard to mode of delivery, like distance education. Restrictions on type of sponsoring institutions constraints the sources of funding.Need for compliance to guidelines of multiple regulatory bodies (Central and State government) affects governance. What is Accountability?
Kothari Commission righty said, “The destiny of the nation is shaped in the classroom” So the education system of India mainly developed during the colonial rule, demands major change as well as innovation. After 60 year of independence we did not change the colonial pattern of education. Still we are following the Macaulayian system of education and hence producing the „Brown Englishmen‟. So the need of time is to establish our own kind of education system which suits our environment with the contemporary changes. Curriculum is required the major changes. Instead of opening the uncountable colleges/institution we need to emphasize on quality Institutions. If we really want to bring innovations in our education, we need root level changes in our education system and honest implementation.
Unsurprisingly, once university education is rated at a specific monetary value, once it is sold and consumed like any other consumer object, it becomes harder to see it as a learning process (by definition more or less chaotic, unpredictable and uncontainable). Instead students may view their education as speculators looking for investment gains, and/or as consumers with regular expectations of their purchase. Such attitudes are generally encouraged by the universities: what course does not now mention its bearing on career plans, or sport a list of ‘learning outcomes’, as if it were a definitively finished mechanical product capable of delivering predictable and repeatable effects? The attempt to remake students as investors and consumers is also sharply enforced by state bodies like the funding councils and their successors. These require that universities publish ‘key information sets’ about courses to meet the ‘needs’ of prospective students and interested parents, information made up of little more than prices, and performance, and employment and salaries. 7 Of course, what is included in and excluded