costs of scholarly communication

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Scholarly communication in an electronic environment: problems and challenges

Scholarly communication in an electronic environment: problems and challenges

Even where the URL remains constant issues of version control and quality assurance remain unresolved. Issues to do with network costs will lead to an increase in mirror sites. Such mirrors will inevitably be “out of synch” for periods of time. Worse, sites contain unofficial copies of unknown provenance and accuracy. At least some of the projects seeking to put large volumes of text into electronic “libraries” deliberately and ostentatiously ignore issues of version and quality putting up any out of copyright text which is available rather than only texts which are of scholarly worth. The seriousness of this problem cannot be overemphasised for the continuity of citation is central to scholarship and without it scholarship cannot flourish. The ability to refer back and forward to agreed texts and articles so that others can replicate the work is as critical to the Arts as the Sciences. Some attempts are being made to deal with this problem, the current favourite being Digital Object Identifiers 5 . The International DOI Foundation is a non-profit organisation although it stems

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Accelerating scholarly communication : the transformative role of preprints

Accelerating scholarly communication : the transformative role of preprints

In some cases, preprints are posted as the author’s accepted manuscript on both a preprint server and an online repository (e.g. an institutional repository). We call this phenomenon ‘information overlap’ and raise the challenge of covering the costs of technical infrastructure in cases where this duplicates efforts that are already otherwise funded. Currently, there is a lack of consistency in terms of approaches to the long-term preservation of preprints, and this is not seen as a priority due to limited budgets and the quick pace of change within the preprints landscape. However, long-term preservation is recognised as a growing concern that should be addressed in the future, including in terms of what preprints should or should not be within the scope of digital preservation activities.

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USE OF WEB 2 0 FOR CREATING SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION BY LIBRARY PROFESSIONALS IN INDIA

USE OF WEB 2 0 FOR CREATING SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION BY LIBRARY PROFESSIONALS IN INDIA

Figure 9 shows that the major barrier to take-up of web 2.0 tools and services for research is a lack of awareness and clarity – even among some frequent users – as to how to use these tools for research. The costs of adoption are not always trivial, and unless researchers receive active support and see clear and quick benefits, they tend to keep to the tools and services that they know and trust. Researchers may well be right to defer a decision to take up a particular service until they are sure that large numbers of their colleagues have done so.

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Scholarly communication in a digital world: the role of the digital repository at the Raman Research Institute

Scholarly communication in a digital world: the role of the digital repository at the Raman Research Institute

Abstract. Information and communication technologies have changed the landscape of information handling activities. The proliferation of electronic resources and a paradigm shift from print to electronic format of journals, has led to another crisis due to the escalating costs of electronic resources, dwindling library budgets and cuts in journal subscriptions. Libraries have tried to overcome this situation by a dual approach, viz. consortia deals on one hand to access more information with optimal payment and open access scholarly publishing and communication on a worldwide basis on the other hand. In the last few years, the Open Access Movement has been gaining momentum and many journal publishers are also supporting this cause. With the availability of open source software for creating repositories, many institutes have established institutional repositories in support of open access. Realizing the importance and the benefits of such a repository at the institute level, RRI Library has set up the RRI Digital Repository. In this paper, we describe the growth and evolution of the repository, the problems encountered, the solutions explored, the strategies formulated to add relevant content and finally lessons learnt while executing the project.

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Academic Institutional Repositories in India: Global Visibility for an Institution's Scholarly Communication

Academic Institutional Repositories in India: Global Visibility for an Institution's Scholarly Communication

Academic institutional repositories consist of formal organized collection of digital contents to provide services to faculty, researchers and administrators who want to archive research, historic and creative materials. The open access and open archives movement, the need for changes in scholarly communication to remove barriers to access and the increasing awareness that universities and research institutions are losing valuable digital and print materials have begun driving the establishment of institutional repositories. While the main purposes of academic institutional repositories are to bring together and preserve the intellectual output of laboratory, department, university or other entity, the incentives and commitments to change the process of scholarly communication have also begun serving as strong motivators. Computers have been ubiquitous on campuses since the late 1980s. Students and faculty are comfortable with the power of online communication. Faculty teachers and researchers want to archive their own materials and have them available on personal or institutional web sites, these articles along with the development of the internet and more powerful search engines, have enabled people to think in practical terms about the establishment of central facilities for storing, archiving, preserving and making scholarly and artistic materials available. Repositories may be limited to one field, one department, one institution or a consortium of several institutions. Collaboration through a consortium reduces costs for each member through resource sharing while expanding access to digital materials [3] . For universities repositories are marketing tools communicating capabilities and quality by showcasing faculty and student research, public service projects and other activities and collections.

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Datasets, a shift in the currency of scholarly communication: implications for library collections and acquisitions

Datasets, a shift in the currency of scholarly communication: implications for library collections and acquisitions

fitness of private corporations while pushing the enve- lope of scientific progress at the governmental level. The Human Genome Project is one of the most visible examples. The most discussed goal of the Human Genome Project was to identify all of the genes in human DNA and to sequence the entire human ge- nome. Another major goal was to transfer related tech- nologies to the private sector, such as drug design based on gene sequences and diagnostic testing for genetic diseases. Celera Genomics Group was one of the major private sector companies that capitalized on having a relationship with both the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to advance their business interests as well as the goals of the Human Genome Project. 15,16 Other partnerships that are being developed on the basis of data sets are between Reed Elsevier and Pfizer Inc. to leverage the data contained in PubChem (a database of chemical data developed by the National Library of Medicine) and the partnership between Elsevier, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), and the European Patent Office (EPO) to repackage freely avail- able patent information in a fee-based database prod- uct. 17 Public–private partnerships such as these may result in higher quality search interfaces and value-added services of data set packages. While these features are attractive to libraries, they may also imply higher costs as opposed to data sets acquired from government entities.

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'Total cost of ownership' of scholarly communication: managing subscription and APC payments together

'Total cost of ownership' of scholarly communication: managing subscription and APC payments together

cover some of this increased expenditure but they cannot be relied upon to fully fund the transition to open access. In the UK, while RCUK and the Wellcome Trust have been providing funds, these do not cover all pub- lications, particularly in the humanities, and also do not always cover the costs of adminis- tering open access payments which can be sig- nificant. Most importantly they are not guar- anteed for the long term. RCUK block grants will continue to be paid out until 2017/18 2 ,

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Evaluating Research Impact through Open Access to Scholarly Communication

Evaluating Research Impact through Open Access to Scholarly Communication

Distributing data on the web is very cheap once one person has paid for and decides to give their copy away e.g. by putting the copy on a web site. This has caused problems for the music and movie industries, but the difference between research papers and other intellectual media is that the authors of research papers don’t expect royalties. As long as research authors’ work is attributed and not modified it is in their interest to be as widely copied as possible. Anyone can post any work they like onto the web, to be accessible by anyone with web access, what makes the difference with journals is that the work is peer-reviewed. Peer-review is a check and filter for research, both to catch bad research and a stamp of quality (depending on the prestige of the journal). Regardless of how the costs of editing, administration and technical production of a journal are covered, peer-review is the difference between scholarly communication and general information available from the web.

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Scholarly Communication and the Internet

Scholarly Communication and the Internet

The most important and established means of making the scholarly work known to the world is through publishing an article in a journal. The advent of World Wide Web made it possible to overcome some of the inherent disadvantages of a printed journal. Traditional publication costs have risen sharply within the last few years, whereas computing and communication costs have fallen. The vast majority of research workers produce material for publication with the help of word-processors. The text (and in some cases the graphics) is available in digital form. There are a number of alternatives for electronic publication. They include publishing on some form of transportable memory such as an optical disk, for example CD-ROM or CD-I, or making full-text, (with or without graphics and pictures) available online via communication networks. The Internet offers an obvious potential for electronic publishing and distribution of scientific and technical information. Scholars now have access to global networks from their workstations and personal computers. These networks are increasing in speed and capacity. We have moved from the kilobit networks to megabit networks and are now approaching the era of the Gigabit networks. The research networks offer a possibility for the electronic publishing of

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Economics of Scholarly Communication

Economics of Scholarly Communication

It is sometimes argued that the cost of production of academic journals is relatively high because many have a very limited market, with fixed (first copy) costs spread over a relatively small number of potential users. Of course, at one level this is true, but there are opportunities to grow the market that publishers have perhaps not yet fully explored. For example, Odlyzko forecasts increasing use of journals by pressure groups, and researchers at Project Muse have found that institutions that had not previously subscribed to Johns Hopkins University Press titles in print have subscribed to journals in electronic form. 136 This suggests that the market may be larger than traditional print publishers had once believed. Perhaps more importantly there are examples from other, related industries of significant sales made to users who do not understand (all) the content. Reference sales, such as encyclopedia, have been made into family homes with limited consumption of the content. And Microsoft is among many software publishers

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Overview of scholarly communication

Overview of scholarly communication

espoused the twin aims of containing the costs of published research and of using digital capabilities to widen access to its results (Keystone Principles, 1999; Tempe Principles, 2000). The latter issue gelled with already-existing initiatives from the research community itself where efforts to capitalise upon the opportunities offered by the web had given birth to the Open Access movement, dedicated to freeing up research output from the constraints imposed on its dissemination by publisher restrictions and the non-affordability of journals. The web had arrived, and with it the means, finally, for access to the scholarly literature to be truly available to all. Although there have been other initiatives that have significantly widened access to the scholarly literature, such as the collaboration between the University of Stanford Library and scholarly publishers that resulted in Highwire Press 1 , none of them have satisfactorily

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Use of blogs, Twitter and Facebook by UK PhD Students for Scholarly Communication

Use of blogs, Twitter and Facebook by UK PhD Students for Scholarly Communication

Twitter is the most popular public micro-blog, which is a weblog that consists of short messages (Java et al. 2007). Twitter was first launched by a San Francisco-based company in October 2006 and soon became an international phenomenon, which is popular in many parts of the world, including North America, Europe and Japan (Honeycutt and Herring 2009). It allows registered users to post and share short messages of up to 140 characters, which are posted in reverse chronological order, to any other registered members. Such messages are called ‘tweets’. Users ‘follow’ another member in order to subscribe to that user’s message feeds. Over the past few years, Twitter has been adopted for scholarly activities, such as sharing information and resources, asking for advice, promoting work, and networking with peers (Veletsianos and Kimmons 2012). Users are able to disseminate articles or other research information by including a hyperlink (URL) of the websites in their tweets. Twitter enables scholars across the globe to spread scientific materials to reach different communities, including their peers, students and general public (Ebner et al. 2010).

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Untying knots and joining dots: the role of librarians in the scholarly communication environment

Untying knots and joining dots: the role of librarians in the scholarly communication environment

These thoughts were prompted by considering the intended audience for scholarly communications and how, particularly in the STEM subjects, it is likely that increasingly, that audience will contain non-human elements. Although concerns about information overload have been present at least since the invention of the telegraph, it does feel that some disciplines are now reaching a tipping point where even the most thorough researcher cannot possibly hope to read all the papers in their subject. If we are to

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Untying knots and joining dots: the role of librarians in the scholarly communication environment

Untying knots and joining dots: the role of librarians in the scholarly communication environment

These thoughts were prompted by considering the intended audience for scholarly communications and how, particularly in the STEM subjects, it is likely that increasingly, that audience will contain non-human elements. Although concerns about information overload have been present at least since the invention of the telegraph, it does feel that some disciplines are now reaching a tipping point where even the most thorough researcher cannot possibly hope to read all the papers in their subject. If we are to

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‘Total cost of ownership’ of scholarly communication : managing subscription and APC payments together

‘Total cost of ownership’ of scholarly communication : managing subscription and APC payments together

While this article has focused on the situation in the UK, the same issues are to be found else- where. Academic publishing is a global mar- ket, and hence understanding the full finan- cial impact of the transition to open access will require expenditure data from around the world to be made available. When librar- ies negotiate with publishers it is currently done either at the institutional or national consortial level, and this more local view can make it difficult to negotiate satisfactory deals that also fit with publishers’ global outlook. If expenditure and pricing data are made more transparent, and publishers offer both global and local offsetting, then we can find a way to work towards a sustainable future for scholarly communications.

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Telehealth system in Queensland

Telehealth system in Queensland

It was found that having Telehealth system in place would benefit patients financially even without considering the intangible benefits. From the outsiders’ (researchers) perspective, the benefits are even greater. However, from the Government’s point of view there are no financial gains due to overlooking the patients’ benefits. Considering the scattered nature of population in Australia and the apparent shortage of healthcare professionals, the Government may redefine costs and benefits. The net benefit of the system is directly related to the number of service recipients. The existence of a positive trend with regard to the usage of Telehealth system suggests that this type of technology will have a secure position within the Health Services in the future. Finally, using a Statistical forecasting technique such as Winters appears to be a suitable approach for the current information level. However, having additional information on unforeseen events such as occurrence of incidents (epidemic diseases) and relevant policies in a particular month would make the use of Multiple Regression more attractive than the Winters’ method. These features can only be addressed by Multiple Regression and appropriate dummy variables.

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Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits

Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits

journal has also played non-publishing roles in the research community. For example, journals have formed the basis for networks of scholars, for which the editor forms a focal point around which members of the editorial board, regular reviewers, contributors and readers orbit. Such networks of scholarship can be extremely important (Houghton et al. 2003). Journals have also provided fora for ongoing discussion of particular topics of interest to the scholarly communities they serve (SQW 2003). For all of these roles, however, there are now alternatives emerging based upon emerging ICT applications – such as discussion groups, web logs, etc. Friedlander and Bessette (2003, p9) observed that the nature and role of scholarly journals are changing, and Smith (2000) suggested that with the development of the web, journals no longer form the primary communication medium. Indeed, for most of the roles traditionally played by the journal alternatives are emerging and are being used, albeit, to date, in rather experimental ways. To date, perhaps, the major exception is the role of the journal in research evaluation, which is still heavily dependent upon journal-based rankings, citations and impact factors.

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Scholarly Publishers and Scholarly Publishing in an Electronic World

Scholarly Publishers and Scholarly Publishing in an Electronic World

point, since it assumes that the relationship between scholarship and publication will continue in an electronic world. In fact, as such well trawled “experiments” as the Los Alamos physics pre-print service shows a new paradigm for scholarly discourse is emerging - at least in the physical sciences - which uncouples the permanent recording of a discipline from its academic development. Further evidence of this comes from the growth in the number of multi-author papers. The number of scientific articles with more than 50 named authors has grown to over 400 in 1994, while the number with between 15 and 50 authors was over 1200 in the same year while perhaps twenty papers list more than 500 authors 2 .

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The Effect of Communication Costs on Trade in Headquarter Services

The Effect of Communication Costs on Trade in Headquarter Services

The intuition behind this hypothesis can be explained as follows. An increase in commu- nication costs measured in units of time spent solving one worker problem has a direct negative impact on the number of workers a manager can handle, i.e., on the size n of the production team (see equation (1)). With fewer workers assigned per manager, the only way the labor market can clear in equilibrium is if there are more managers to form production teams with the unmatched workers. This raises the demand for managers in both countries and puts an upward pressure on the managerial rent that the marginal workers could earn, triggering a switch of the highest skilled workers into becoming managers. When the average skill level of the agents in the South is high, the equilibrium occupational cutoff separating workers from managers happens at a higher ability level. 11 So, the marginal workers who become managers are quite skilled (i.e., higher z), which implies that by the positive sorting rule (equation (3)), the new managers are able to attract more capable workers and establish larger production teams as compared to the case when the average skill level in the South is low. As a consequence, the initial supply of unmatched workers clears with fewer switches of workers into managers. The slower rate of occupational switching also implies smaller changes in the labor pool, e.g., a smaller reduction in the number and average skill level of the remaining workers. This means that the skill level and size of multinational production teams do not change as much due to the increase in communication cost, explaining the attenuation effect provided by the availability of foreign skilled workers on the negative impact of communication costs on multinational activity. Put differently, costly communication is not such a big deterrent to foreign investments when the foreign workers available for hire are skilled.

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Economic implications of alternative scholarly publishing models: exploring the costs and benefits

Economic implications of alternative scholarly publishing models: exploring the costs and benefits

Libraries’ products certainly resemble many publications produced by traditional publishers, but they are largely electronic-only and basic in their design. Limiting services to purely electronic publications offers some significant advantages over print- oriented publishing. Costs are kept low by simplifying production and design and relying on open-source software. Online full-text publishing meanwhile enables discovery by a wide range of search engines and full-text searching, reducing the need for marketing. Workflows tend to be streamlined and almost all services are highly automated once production commences. Design work is usually done on a very modest scale. As with most scholarly publishing, much of the work of content recruitment and selection, and even some editing, is done by unpaid volunteers drawn from the ranks of active scholars and researchers. The largest costs lie in the startup process of advising, prototyping, creating workflows, and generating whatever layout and graphic design is considered adequate. Ongoing support costs for these activities accrue on a modest scale. Typically editors, authors, or association partners receive little in the way of expensive services such as elaborate design and layouts or extensive copyediting.

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