Net returns with the module harvest system assume that a producer would be able to obtain custom harvesting services at $51.43 per acre, the break-even price for a module harvester operating 250 hours annually per year. Based on that assumption, a cotton producer with dryland cotton could have potentially increased his/her net returns per acre by 34% if he/she could have someone custom harvest at the $51.43 rate. Under the irrigated model, the net returns would have increased 28%. As previously mentioned, Louisiana produces a majority of its total cotton acres in farm sizes under 1,000 acres. In seasons where cotton is profitable to grow (as 2014 was projected), demand for a custom module harvesting system may potentially exist especially as an increasing number of these small cotton producers sell or fully depreciate their existing cottonharvesting equipment. As shown in Objective One, harvest cost per acre makes it cost prohibitive for these small producers to purchase the new module harvesters, opening the door for
publications and summation of coded attributes was done publication-wise as well as category-wise so that the importance of each attribute and each publication could be identified for the development of a mechanical cotton harvester. Attribute coding helps Researcher/Scientist in the selection of parameters for field evaluation of cottonharvesting machines. Cotton breeders/Agronomist can obtain data regarding the varieties, row spacing, height, canopy and plant population suitable for cotton harvester. Attribute coding provides opportunity to designer/engineer to identify the important parameters for designing a new machine or modify an existing design. Different machine parameters like trash content and losses are needed to focus on by designer/engineer to modify the existing machines. Cleanliness of picked cotton is a main issue for the mechanical cotton harvesters due to foreign materials like leaves, shell, burs, sticks and dust particles. Hence, designer/engineer needs to work on the design of on-board pre-cleaner and improvement of existing technologies. So that trash content can be reduced to improve the quality of seed-cotton. As the study suggested that the cotton harvester with best mechanical performance was cotton stripper with finger type of mechanism. Cotton stripper was having picking efficiency more than 90% and was easy to design due to its less components and moving parts (Tupper, 1966a). Hence, small holder cotton cultivation and manufacturers can be focused on to select, design and development of mechanical cotton stripper with finger type of mechanism. Attribute coding also helps the manufacturers to understand the kind of harvesters used for cotton picking in different countries as per the field conditions.
But adoption of mechanical harvesting through cotton pickers by Indian farmers is not dependent upon just the availability of suitable cotton pickers, but it also depends upon availability of appropriate cotton varieties, changing some of the agronomic practices as described above, pre-cleaning of cotton before sending it to cotton gins, and finally the adequate availability of repair and maintenance services for cotton pickers in India. It is expected that the practice of cottonharvesting by mechanical means will take a long time to get established in India, expected to be up to a decade by some experts . In order for the change in agronomic practices adopted by Indian farmers, both the public and private extension agencies should play an active role in educating and training the farmers . The equipment manufacturers should come out with equipment suitable for Indian conditions like small land holdings and pre-cleaners suitable for cleaning cotton before sending them to cotton gins. Some international farm equipment manufacturers have already developed cotton pickers suitable for Indian conditions and trials are taking place . Efforts also should be made by credit agencies to offer suitable credit facilities for farmers wanting to adopt
Cotton is one of the most important crops throughout the history of India and it also plays an important role in social and economic aspects of the Indian society in the present age. Recent technological advances and trade liberalization have made India a major player in international cotton markets. The overall objective of this paper is to assess the competitiveness of Indian cotton producers and potential implications for India as a competitor in the world cotton market if it mechanizes harvesting of cotton. The study reveals that the net income of the Indian cotton farmers will increase considerably with the mechanization of cottonharvesting. In that scenario, the cotton production in India can increase considerably which can impact the international markets.
Further work by Braunack and Johnston (2014) showed that average soil strength (cone index) in- creased to a similar extent following traffic with conventional BP and RB pickers (depth range: 0-600 mm). However, traffic with the RB caused increased strength (3000 kPa) at a slightly shallower depth (300 mm) compared with the conventional picker (400 mm). Soil strength greater than 2000 kPa causes significant root growth retardation in cotton (Coates 2000). A study by Kulkarni et al. (2010) showed that soil compaction increased progressively in the direc- tion of travel due to the change in cyclic loading that is characteristic in harvesting equipment. The RB places the round module (weight: 2.3 Mg) on the ground as it travels, which commonly occurs in-field given the length of Australian cotton fields. A tractor then needs to remove the module from the field, which increases traffic intensity, albeit on the same tracks. This problem is sometimes overcome by attaching a trailer behind the picker, which is capable of carrying up to four bales, therefore enabling reduction in traffic intensity. The trailer also reduces the period of time in which the load of the rear axle is elevated to 8.25 Mg by distributing the load over tandem axles on the trailer. However, effects of the pass of the trailer over the same pass of the picker require investigation to determine whether additional compaction is created. Although preliminary studies conducted by the authors (Antille et al., 2014) suggested that RB pickers have the potential to increase soil compaction but further work on the extent and management of this damage is needed. It appears that confining traffic to permanent lanes would potentially address this issue. However, several limitations have
The majority of cotton in Northeast Louisiana is harvested with spindle harvesters. This type of equipment is used to harvest cotton planted in 91- to 102-cm row spacings, and is efﬁcient in maintaining yield and quality. Spindle-harvested cotton gener- ally has a higher lint turnout than cotton harvested with a stripper (Vories and Bonner, 1995). Spindle- harvested cotton has less total foreign matter (burs, sticks, and ﬁne trash) than brush stripper-harvested cotton, but there are few signiﬁcant differences in high volume instrumentation (HVI) measurements of staple, micronaire, strength, length, and unifor- mity (Brashears and Baker, 2000; Brashears and Hake, 1995).
In most modern cropping systems in the world, machines are becoming heavier to cope with larger land areas and accelerate processes to reduce risk associated with climate uncertainty and create time efficiencies. The cotton production system is no exception but cotton pickers may feature more design constraints than other systems. A major factor is the pickers turning time, and since cotton pickers can only pick parallel to the planting direction turning space is limited— especially for irrigated fields. Therefore the turning circle has to be small and this is made possible by maintaining a short wheelbase and narrower rear track width (Deutsch, Haverdink & Pearson 2001; Longoria 2013). The latest cotton picker from John Deere (JD) utilises an OBMB (the JD7760), as opposed to the more conventional boll basket, weighing about 36 Mg fully loaded with a rear axle load reaching approximately 16.5 Mg. This has had numerous implications for JD, including increasing rear wheel size, repositioning the engine and raising the chassis. Whilst these machines are designed to increase the harvest rate and create efficiencies in the system, they are approximately 50% heavier than the conventional basket based cotton pickers (Deere & Co 2006; Deere & Co 2012). As the weight of a machine increases, so too does the potential to cause soil compaction, which is one of the most insidious and widespread forms of soil degradation (McGarry 2003) affecting 68 million hectares worldwide, as reported by Flowers and Lal (1998). In Australia, the cost of soil compaction in lost agricultural production is approximately AUD$850 million per year (Walsh 2002) which raises concerns for heavy machines with large physical footprints. However, these machines have been rapidly adopted in the Australian cotton industry with approximately 35% of the 2010/2011 cotton ginned picked by a JD7760 OBMB increasing to 70% of cotton ginned in the 2011/2012 season (Houlahan 2012; Vanderstok 2012). The machines have been labelled a revolution in cotton picking, but their impacts for the cotton system are not completely understood and provide an interesting case study to discuss the impacts of large, heavy machines on agricultural systems.
In the event of an undersized cistern or excessive rainfall throughout the season, rainwater may fill the cistern storage tank and overflow. All rainwater harvesting systems must incorporate a suitable and permitted overflow discharge system to adequately distribute rainwater that can do longer fit within the cistern. Overflow systems must be sized similarly to the conveyance supply of water and consider site restraints, permitted tie-in to City infrastructure and potential landscaping and stormwater management practices. Please refer to the Comprehensive Guide for Rainwater Harvesting as a Stormwater Best Management Practice document for more information.
Peter Gleick, an international water expert and president of the Pacific Institute, describes sustain- able water use as “the use of water that supports the ability of human society to endure and flourish into the indefinite future without undermining the integrity of the hydrological cycle or the ecological systems that depend on it” (Gleick et al. 1995). The City of Bellingham’s sustainable water management approach incorporates rainwater harvesting as one strategy to help ensure a safe, cost-effective, and reliable drinking water supply now and in the future. Preparation of Rainwater Harvesting: Guidance toward a sustainable water future (Guide) is intended to help city residents and businesses use this strategy. Incorporating rain- water harvesting fosters a shift in how we think about and use our existing finite water resources by pairing an appropriate renewable water source with a range of appropriate end uses.
In the early 1990’s, the problem of sticky cot- ton became more serious than in the past. A related concern arose among researchers involving the po- tential accumulation of more dust on sticky cotton that would be released during subsequent process- ing. This might mean more frequent downtime for cleaning machinery and increased surveillance to remain in compliance with the Cotton Dust Stan- dard. This study analyzed a large number of samples with varying degrees of stickiness. The percentage of reducing sugars, and the Sticky Cotton Thermodetector and minicard ratings for stickiness were used to determine stickiness of lint samples. These samples were also assayed for cotton dust potential, which were compared with the stickiness levels. Even though a small increased dust poten- tial was observed when stickiness was measured by the percentage of reducing sugars and Sticky Cotton Thermodetector methods, the data indicate that stickiness and dust potential are not correlated. From a practical standpoint, increased dust levels from sticky cottons would not be expected during processing, so additional equipment or adjustments would not be needed to control dust levels.
Ayog J. L., Bolong, N. and Makinda J. (2015)  In this paper, This study highlights the findings from a preliminary feasibility investigation in the proposed rainwater harvesting systems in University Malaysia Sabah, in support of the Eco Campus initiative. Since its inception was on 7th February 2013, the initiative strives to promote the blend of campus development and ecological sustainability. Hence, in line with this aspiration, rooftop rainwater harvesting (a form of green infrastructure) was introduced to selected residential colleges in the campus and assessed for its potential in supplying untreated water for the non-consumptive activity as well as in reducing the water bill.
Web archive collections tend to be sizable. The reason is that web collections usually are set to harvest not only text but all the resources in a web page. Non-text contents such as images, archives and multimedia elements tend to enlarge the size of the final collection. Dynamic pages often also provide a multiplicity of views over the web page and, as a result, a small sized resource may become huge if one does not set limits or if the harvesting is not made under control. Large web archive collections may get difficult to manage and manipulate.
Another strategy for reducing the volume of air used is to eliminate leaks in the conveying system, so that the air moved by the fan is used for its intended purposes: drying and conveying material. Duct work should be inspected for leaks because joints can work loose as the sheet metal expands and contracts with temperature, and jointscan get knocked loose in various ways. Access doors should be checked on air-fed and air-line cylinder cleaners, separators, droppers, and dryers to make sure they are sealing properly. Gaskets should be replaced when they no longer hold air. Flashings on separators and flights on vacuum droppers should be inspected frequently and replaced when worn. Properly maintaining separa- tors and droppers will greatly reduce the downtime from choking, as well as reducing fan energy use. In a pull-through seed cotton drying system, a significant amount of air can leak in to the conveying system at the cylinder cleaner dropper, due to the large nega- tive static pressure at this point in the system. The air that leaks in at this point serves no useful purpose
Cotton quality is best the day the boll opens on the plant, and the ginner must try to preserve that quality throughout the ginning process. With the increased importance of global markets and competition from synthetic fibers, it is more critical than ever that the ginner takes every step possible to preserve fiber qual- ity. This process begins by encouraging producers to select high-quality cultivars, harvest during the right environmental conditions, and store seed cotton ap- propriately. Ginners need to pay careful attention to the compromise between cleaning and fiber damage when drying seed cotton and deciding what cleaning machinery to use. Only use the amount of drying and lint cleaning needed to get the leaf grade that maximiz- es producer revenue, because additional processing reduces both turnout and fiber quality. Control systems can select appropriate levels of drying and cleaning to help modern gins optimize the delicate balance between foreign matter removal and fiber damage. Finally, gins must ensure that no contaminants are introduced during the ginning process.
Seed coat fragments that remain in lint after the ginning process decrease spinning efficiency at the textile mill, and ultimately reduce the quality of finished goods. An experiment was conducted to determine the impact harvest and seed cotton cleaning treatments had on the fiber quality attributes of an upland cultivar known to have fragile seed coats. Three harvester treatments examined spindle size (diameter) and speed (rpm) on the picker: 13-mm (1/2-in) spindles operated at 2000 rpm; and 14-mm (9/16-in) spindles operated at either 1500 or 2400 rpm. Three seed cotton cleaning treatments varied the number of seed cotton cleaners from none to twice as many as customarily used. Seed coat nep count in the fiber as determined by AFIS was used as an indicator of seed coat frag - ment levels. Results showed that using a larger spindle diameter lowered seed cotton trash content at the wagon and feeder, produced less short fiber, and a higher color grade: however, seed coat nep count was not different. Increas- ing the number of seed cotton cleaners reduced trash content in the seed cotton (at the feeder), cottonseed, and fiber and improved color grade but not seed coat nep count. All other fiber and cottonseed properties were not different among harvesting or seed cotton cleaning treatments. It appeared that neither spindle size, spindle speed, nor increased seed cotton cleaning helped manage seed coat fragments. Future research is planned to examine possible methods to reduce seed coat fragments through modifications at the lint cleaner.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of yield changes in Indian cotton production on the U.S. and world cotton markets. To accomplish this we used a partial equilibrium
structural econometric model of the world fiber market developed by the Cotton Economics Research Institute at Texas Tech University. This analysis compares a baseline of cotton production estimates to alternative production scenarios. The baseline in this case was that Indian cotton yields continued to exhibit growth increases consistent with those achieved in the last few years. This rate of increase, about 3 percent per year, would result in an increase in cotton yields from .94 bales per acre in 2007/08 to 1.19 bales per acre in 2016/17. An alternative scenario models a more optimistic rate of yield increase in which Indian cotton yields equal the world average by 2016/17. This optimistic scenario would require a rate of increase of about 5 percent per year and average yields would be 1.56 pounds per acre by the end of the period of analysis. Also modeled is a pessimistic scenario in which Indian cotton yields grow at a much slower rate, one consistent with much longer term average growth rates. In this pessimistic scenario, yields increase at about ½ of one percent per year. In the pessimistic case, yields would increase from .93 bales per acre in 2007/08 to .98 bales per acre in 2016/17. Figure 1 compares the baseline to the two alternative scenarios in the context of the last 25 years of cotton yield averages in India.
To cast the composite samples, ﬁve wooden moulds with open tops were prepared and greased to avoid the samples sticking dur- ing de-moulding. The fabrics were pre-dried for 60 min at 70 °C. An 8 M concentration of sodium hydroxide solution was prepared and combined with the sodium silicate solution one day before mixing. The ﬂy ash and alkaline solution were mixed in a Hobart mixer to form a homogeneous paste. A thin layer of geopolymer paste was ﬁrst spread in the wooden mould and the ﬁrst layer of woven fab- ric was carefully laid on that layer. The fabric was then fully impregnated (wet out) with geopolymer paste by a roller and the process repeated for the desired number of cotton ﬁbre layers. Each specimen contained different layers of cotton fabric (see Table 2) with ﬁnal layer being geopolymer paste. The alkaline solution to ﬂy ash ratio was ﬁxed at 0.35 whereas the ratio of sodium silicate solution to sodium hydroxide solution was main- tained at 2.5. The composite specimens were placed on a vibration table in order to ensure better penetration of the matrix between the fabric openings and to remove the entrapped air voids. Then, the composite specimens were pressed under 25 kg load for 3 h. Subsequently, the specimens were covered with plastic ﬁlm and cured at 80 °C in an oven for 24 h. The samples were de-moulded and kept in room condition for 28 days before testing. The mechan- ical properties of unreinforced geopolymer used in this study were measured and used for comparison purpose. Typically, the com- pressive strength of the geopolymer paste is 21 MPa with density of 1.9 g/cm 3 .
Elastane (Spandex ®) is readily compatible with other common fibers including cotton, nylon, polyester, acetate, polypropylene, acrylic, wool and rayon . In general, breaking strength of spandex fiber is 0.7 g / den and elongation before break ranges from 520% to 610%. Spandex fiber is white and dyeable with disperse and acid dyes. It has good resistance to chemicals and withstands the action of perspiration. It may degrade and turn yellow when it is treated with chlorine. It can be washed at 60 0 C and