The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the association of Supervisors’ Toxicity and Subordinates’ Counter-productiveWork -behaviour in the Nigerian Public Hospitals. Counter-productiveWork -behaviour (criterion variable) is further operationalized using five measures – abuse, production deviation, sabotage, theft, and withdrawal. The cross-sectional survey design is adopted and data is generated using the structured questionnaire. 197 respondents comprising doctors, nursing staff, lab technicians and other administrative staff selected from an accessible population of 402 staff provided responses to the questions. A total of five hypotheses are proposed and tested using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Results indicate significant relationships in all hypothetical instances, thereby implying an association between Supervisors’ Toxicity and Subordinates’ Counter -productiveWork - behavior. The study therefore concludes that Subordinates are quick to reciprocate Supervisors’ Toxicity through Counter-productiveWork - behavior of transferring aggression to either peers or other identifiable assets of the organization. The study further recommends a more emotionally oriented approach to the management of superior-subordinate relationships with emphasis on the training and retraining of supervisors regarding emotional intelligence as well as conflict and human relations issues.
Social exchange theory (SET) is among the most influential conceptual paradigms for understanding workplace behavior. The social exchange involves a series of interactions that create an obligation. Procedural justice significantly impacts negatively the counter-productiveworkbehavior either addressed to the organization or to an interpersonal relationship (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001; Novrianti & Santoso, 2014; Martini et al., 2018). When employees experience a perceived low level of procedural justice in the organization, they will reciprocate by showing counterproductive workbehavior.
Abstract The present study examined the relationship between counter productivity workbehavior, and health & safety management systems of readymade garments employee of Bangladesh. The sample consisted of 384 participants over the age of 22 years old, 192 of whom were males and 192 were females. They were selected from different readymade garments industries of Dhaka City by using two stage cluster sampling technique. The instruments used in this study were demographic and personal questionnaire, Adapted Occupational Health and Safety Management System  and Bangla version of Counterproductive WorkBehavior Checklist (CWB-C) . Mean, Standard deviation, correlation and stepwise multiple regressions were performed. Results indicated that emergency response (β =.-312, p<.005), procurement and contracting (β = .071, p<.0005) and OHS policy (β = -.995, p<.0005) worker participation (β=-.448, p<.0005), benchmarking (β = .166 p<.002) and monitoring and review (β=-.132, p<.014) were significant predictors of counterproductive workbehavior. The results show that emergency response had the strongest contribution to the variance of counterproductive workbehavior. It contributes 67% of the variance in counterproductive workbehavior. The predicting six variables combined contribute 84.6% of the total variance of counterproductive workbehavior. The results suggest that less emergency response, procurement and contracting, OHS policy, worker participation, benchmarking and monitoring and review as the key contributors to produce counterproductive workbehavior among readymade garments employees in the context of Bangladesh.
individual productivity were assessed by the Counterproductive WorkBehavior Checklist (CWB-C; Fox & Spector, 2002). The scale consisted of 32 items with responses placed on a 5- point Likert-type scale (1=Never to 5=Everyday). Prior studies have found that the items may load onto 5 factors: Abuse, Production deviance, Sabotage, Theft, Withdrawal (Spector et al., 2006). For the purpose of the present study, items were differentiated by intent to harm at the organizational level versus at the interpersonal level. Bennett and Robinson (2000) have determined through a factor analysis that items load onto the constructs of either interpersonal deviance or organizational deviance. Thus, items may be distinguished into two broader composites, CWB-Organization (CWB-O) or CWB-Individual (CWB-I). Examples of deviant behaviors that illustrate CWB-O’s include chronic tardiness and damaging company property. Moreover, examples of deviant behaviors that exemplifies CWB-I’s include spreading vicious rumors about colleagues and verbally threatening the supervisor.
If officials really do believe that non-state actors pose a serious WMD threat to the United States and that these individuals cannot be deterred, preempted or arrested before they strike, then significant material and personnel resources must be devoted to deal with the consequences of a WMD attack against civilians. ‘First-responders’ need to learn how to deal with chemical or biological weapons; without training and equipment, police, firefighters and paramedics actually can spread pathogens or toxins, thereby producing more casualties. Vaccines or antidotes need to be made available to contain disease outbreaks or to save the lives of people exposed to deadly agents. Military organizations, here the National Guard comes to mind, must equip, train and prepare to act rapidly to contain and reduce weapons effects in large urban areas. A whole new set of strategies, protocols, doctrines and tactics needs to be developed to counter the effects of terrorist attacks.
Dropout is not common within traditional K-12 classroom context (i.e., manda- tory education) as attendance and graduation are often enforced and encouraged by the parents. Instead, student attrition and low persistence are observed in a form of students not completing certain learning tasks; we call this behavior ”stopout”. The main difference between stopout and dropout is that when a student stopouts, they are still in the course and may choose to complete the subsequent assignments, while learners are defined as dropout when the do not come back to finish the course. When Student attrition at the assignment level, in many cases, prevents stu- dents from sufficiently learning the material and subsequently may lead to further difficulty when learning post-requisite skills (e.g. see [BWH15]), but also introduces a range of other issues pertaining to the development and deployment of effective learning interventions. As students exhibiting stopout behavior cease interaction with the learning environment, aid cannot be given to the student through the platform, relying solely then on external sources, such as the teacher, to help the student. Missing or incomplete student data caused by attrition makes it difficult to study the learning process (as no data can be recorded for students who are not interacting with the system), measure the effectiveness of interventions through ran- domized controlled trials [HHSK00], and, as the cause of stopout is often difficult to identify, develop effective interventions to support more productive persistence. For these reasons, it is important to build models to help identify students likely to exhibit stopout preemptively so that we can better understand the early signs of the behavior and develop interventions to prevent it.
In the 1990s it was proposed (Wegge, Schmidt, Parkes, & Dick, 2007) to bridge the pre-existing concept of work satisfaction with the concept of work engagement. Specifically, the definition given for work engagement was “participation, dedication and satisfaction of an employee at work”. The above definition incorporates the classic notions of work satisfaction and commitment to the organization. According to MacLeod & Clarke (2009) it is the measurement of work engagement that explains how employees behave rather than the measurement of work satisfaction. The two concepts are mutually linked, but work satisfaction does not imply exceeding a standard level of performance, which is implied by work engagement. Therefore, an employee can be satisfied without being engaged. Work satisfaction, however, is the foundation upon which work engagement can be developed.
Abstract— The capability to innovate is essential to the survival of most organizations. Several factors that affect innovative work behaviors have been discussed and explored by scholars. It is generally believed that innovative work behaviors are influenced by leadership. However; few studies have evaluated the climate for innovation in the Malaysian Research and Development (R&D) setting. The previous findings on links between organizational climate and innovative work behaviors are reported to be inconsistent with one another. Meanwhile, there are also critiques of the measurement of organizational climate and innovative work behaviors are believed to be biased towards the Western culture. Hence, this study is timely to fill the existing research gap. 97 scientists were involved as respondents, comprising research officers, assistant research officers and research assistants who were working in seven public agencies in the agriculture sector. The findings reported that there is a significant relationship between organizational climate and innovative work behaviors. This research has theoretical and practical implications. From the theoretical perspective, present research contributes a momentous proven theory to the existing body of knowledge in the field of predicting innovative work behaviors.
review of the literature identified conscientiousness, positive affect, and negative affect as the individual difference variables consistently linked to OCB and to CWB; however, magnitudes of these relationships ranged from .10 to .41 (Dalal, 2005). In another review of the literature, conscientiousness, trait anger, and locus of control were found to be the most supported correlates of OCB and CWB (O’Brien & Allen, in press). The overall lack of consensus regarding which individual differences are related to OCB and CWB may be partially due to a relatively limited selection of personality variables that has been studied in terms of OCB (Borman, Penner, Allen, & Motowidlo, 2001). Furthermore, the study of individual difference variables related to CWB has focused on specific CWB behaviors (e.g., theft, sabotage, organizational retaliatory behavior, turnover, alcohol abuse), making it difficult to generalize study results to overall CWB.
The detective story was mainly concerned with a comprehensive restoration of social order. Unlike realist writers of serious fiction, Chandler believed that “the fellow who can write you a vivid and colorful prose simply will not be bothered with the coolie labor of breaking down unbreakable alibis” (Chandler “The Simple Art of Murder: An Essay” Location 68, Par. 1). Instead, the flatness of the detective novel brings with it an attention to gritty detail and atmosphere that Chandler was quick to gauge as the fulcrum of noir writing. The “detachment” that Chandler ascribes to genre fiction transfers over to an “attitude” of distance and alienation of the noir detective. The “coolie labor of breaking down unbreakable alibis” gives rise to the stigmatized private eye, who prefers to stay in the shadowy regions of what Paula Rabinowitz calls “pulp modernism”. Operating between the lines of vigilantism and disciplinarity, Raymond Chandler’s Philip Marlowe redescribes the work of professionalism through the stigmatized profession of the private eye. Unlike the traditional detective figure, the noir detective remains disinterested in the triumph of knowledge work and worries about the loss of a moral code. This loss is not merely rooted in the past but also anticipates an unpalatable future of disciplined feeling that manifests itself in the logic of hyper-organized professions.
Research suggesting a similar but different relationship between Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) and Counterproductive Work Behaviour (CWB) is dominated by North American samples. Little evidence exists on whether these findings are replicated in other countries. To assess if a similar pattern emerged, we used the Social Axioms model (Bond et al, 2004) as a cultural framework and surveyed employees in the UK (105), The Netherlands (203), Turkey (185) and Greece (70) on the relationship between OCB and CWB, and the relationship between these behaviours and personality, justice and commitment. Analysis supported a multi- dimensional structure to OCB and CWB and indicated a non-bipolar relationship between these behaviours. Culturally, somewhat different to OCB research in general, we find support for a convergence perspective across countries. Conceptually, linguistically and structurally the scale assessing OCB/CWB was shown to be equivalent across countries and a non bi-polar pattern of relationships was consistent across countries. Overall, findings imply a universal nature to the relationship between OCB and CWB across societal cultural groups.
The motivation to action was a crisis, not of workers’ welfare, but of production. The ‘shell crisis’ of May 1915, in which the lack of artillery shells being provided to the front line was exposed, caused a national scandal, and played a large role in the fall of the Liberal government. 42 One of the first items of business for the new Coalition Government, formed by Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith in the same month, was the creation of a new Ministry of Munitions, specifically to manage the production and distribution of munitions for the war effort. David Lloyd George, who had made the shell crisis his personal cause, resigned his post as Chancellor of the Exchequer to head the new department. 43 The express purpose of the Ministry was to increase production. It organised the building of new government factories and the conversion of existing engi- neering workshops for the production of armaments. The Munitions of War Act of July 1915 empowered the Minister to declare any private munitions factory a ‘controlled es- tablishment’, bringing it under the direct control of the Ministry, with powers to control profits and wages, and requiring employers to provide detailed information about num- bers of workers employed, the conditions of work, and the hours of labour.
As job design only covers the specific context of one’s own work, it is necessary to introduce a social component. By including social characteristics of the job, the broader environment of the work is accounted for. Since KSB is exerted in a social environment, corresponding work design practices cannot neglect the social affiliation of work. Interpersonal aspects have gained attention and need more consideration in the work design research (Morgeson & Campion, 2003). Social support, interdependence (both received and initiated), interaction outside the organization and feedback from others constitute the social characteristics of a job. Social support can shield negative work related experiences (Morgeson & Campion, 2003) and further describes friendship possibilities arising in the job (Sims, Szilagyi & Keller, 1976). If the completion of one’s own task is dependent on earlier work by colleagues (received interdependence) or the work of colleagues depends on own efforts (initiated interdependence) a high level of job connectedness can be observed. The degree of communication with suppliers, customers and other persons outside the organization’s boundaries is reflected in the amount of interactions outside of the organization. Opposing feedback from the job (see task characteristics), information about the performance can also come from coworkers or managers, constituting the feedback from others.
After the individual, the group is the second unit of analysis in the study of human behavior. A group is composed of individuals working together towards common goals by interacting with one another and utilizing some resources. They need a certain period of time for common interests to be discussed, explained and internalized so that stability and efficiency would ensue. In this paper it discusses the elements and types of group, the limitations and importance of groups in work organization, the group structure, group goals, and group norms, the characteristics of high-performing teams and the group methods and techniques.
TL motivate, inspire, and encourage their follower to be connected based on their self believe to be align with their group interest and work collectively to achieve the mission (Shamir, House, and Artuher 1993). The concept of TL been coined by JV Downtown in the year 1973 which stated in the Rebel leadership book (Nguni et al, 2006). Furthermore, Burns in his book “Leadership” explain more about the TL, where he emphasis that the TL occurs when leaders engage with followers in such a way that ‘leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality’ (Burns, 1978). Moreover, TL has been defined in terms of the leader’s self-sacrifice long-term good of the larger group or collective (Waldman et al,. 2005 by Bass, 1985, 1997, 1998; Howell and Avolio, 1992). “The transformational leader’s focus is directed toward the organization, and the leader behavior builds follower commitment toward organizational objectives” (Gregory Stone et al,. 2004 by Yukl, 1998).
Different to recognizing the efforts in non-financial ways, rewards refer to monetary rewards such as one-time payments or raise in salary. De Jong and Den Hartog (2007) found in their study that most leaders do not think that those rewards have a positive impact on the idea generation phase of their employees. Nevertheless, it seems important to reward employees after their idea had been implemented to motivate them after the complete innovation process. On the other hand, there are researchers who found that intrinsically motivated employees, meaning they find their motivation from an own wish for innovating their workplace, are more often innovative than employees, who receive extrinsic motivation by money (Amabile, 1997). Providing resources refers to either tangible resources such as money for implementing an idea or also material to try if an idea can be realized, or also to intangible resources like time of the leader to listen to an idea. To put it the other way around, if employee do not get time to think about ideas and to try out these ideas, there will not be the possibility to generate ideas that lead to positive organizational outcomes (De Jong & Den Hartog, 2007). Although, providing time, money and materials play a role in the implementation phase, Amabile, (1997) found that this effect does not go head to head with other factors that have been found to enhance innovative workbehavior. Shalley and Gilson (2004) even found that the availability of a high amount of resources could have a negative effect on the innovative behavior as employees might become used to it and subsequently become lazy. Therefore, the amount of resources should be kept with caution and should be appropriate to the situation.
principle of reciprocity. That is one good deed or exchange from one entity will be returned at some point by the receiver of the good deed or exchange. However, if that person did not get good feedback from the favor he or she has given, this may consequently lead to a change in the behavior that could either decrease or increase the likelihood of doing the same action again. This kind of relationship is very important in the workplace as mutually dependent or reciprocal interactions under the right circumstances are able to generate high quality relationships. More speci ically, this means that within organizations, if employees are satis ied with the outcomes of their workplace exchanges and relationships are more inclined to respond with greater performance by ful illing obligations given by their supervisor and/or employing organization.
Previous studies suggest that innovative work behaviour positive relates to their task performance (Dörner, Gassmann and Morhart, 2012). However, task performance is traditionally scoped within employees' job description and it doesn't consider the various employees' non-explicit contribution to the organization. Another study suggest that employees working in positions in which innovativeness is not required, may be less motivated to apply new ideas for the reason that they do not consider news ideas or processes as helpful to their work The article proposes to study innovative work behaviour (IWB) across the different levels in the organisation. To achieve this objective, the study propose to examine IWB and work role performance (WRP) in more detail, particularly in areas where innovation and work role performance differ. Mumford et al. (2012) suggest IWB and everyday work performance of all employees may not be the same with those in innovation-oriented jobs. This proposition supports the empirical evidence showing that many workers possess innovative behaviour within themselves (West, 1989). It is also in line with the proposition that individuals' continuous engagement with learning inside and outside the organisation could encourage a flow of knowledge to stimulate personal insights and synergetic discovery leading to new value (Sessa, Finley & Gullu, 2011). Although common sense suggests that IWB is beneficial, research on the benefits of IWB is limited (Janssen, van de Vliert and West, 2004). The study begins by defining IWB and WRP and then elaborates on its proposed dimensions. After the introduction, the hypotheses are developed and validation would be carried out to support the relationship. Finally, we would discuss our findings and make suggestions for future research.
One’s perceived self represents a set of notions that an individual has of their attributes, abilities and values, which determine their behavior. An individual forms this perceived self either by comparing himself to others or by setting his own criteria and goals, and assesses whether or not he has achieved them. e ideal self is determined by such attributes, abilities and the values an individual would like to have because he considers them to be ideal. Social identities are those aspects of self-concept that are inferred from social categories, a part of which this individual considers themselves to be (e.g. man, son, manager, etc.). Social identities help individuals determine who they are. One’s self-concept is formed through interaction with social surroundings, which provides an individual with feedback. e concept of the ideal self is formed through contact with the reference group of the given individual, i.e. a group whose values and norms this individual takes on. individuals consider the norms and values of their reference groups as ideal and adapt their attributes to them in order to receive positive feedback. is reference group can also be a work group, in which a particular individual belongs. reference groups also inﬂuence the formation of individuals’ social identities. ey create expectations, norms and relational scenarios, which determine individuals’ behavior in regards to their particular social identity.
China FMCG market has developed rapidly in recent years, and the competition has become increasingly fierce. In order to compete for the market, the fast consumer goods manufacturers are all dispatching a large number of salesmen to the market of dealers and terminal channels, to develop, maintain and expand the order. The per- sonal sales order (“take” orders) way of work behaviors of the salesmen at the forefront of the market doubtless plays an important role in achieving the manufacturers marketing goals.