Another biblical theme that is crucial to the understanding of the relation of husbands and wives is the pneumatology, and especially the idea of the gifts of the Spirit. For the fulfilment of their calling as stewards in the Kingdom, Christian men and women are bestowed with the gifts of the Holy Spirit, irrespective of gender. Male and female believers are blessed with the gifts of the message of wisdom, the message of knowledge, the gift of faith, healing, miraculous powers, prophecy (Ac. 21:9), distinguishing between spirits, speaking in different kinds of tongues and the interpretation of tongues (1 Cor. 12:8–11). Other gifts include the gifts of serving, teaching (admonishing), encouraging, contributing to the needs of others, leadership and showing mercy (Rm. 12:6–8; see also 1 Cor. 13:2; 14:6; Col. 1:28). The believers who receive these gifts are encouraged to utilise them in the edification of the congregation and promote the spiritual growth of one another. Of particular interest is the fact that female believers are also bestowed with the gifts of teaching, prophecy and leadership—gifts of particular value for the ministry of the Word (Merkel 1999:402). These gifts are given to wives, without any form of discrimination or exclusion. The gifts of the Spirit are a clear indication of the equality of husbands and wives and their ability to mutually strengthen their marital relation, their family and their other social relations. The concepts of the creational order, the covenant, the Kingdom, redemption, reconciliation and the gifts of the Spirit indicate that the relation of husband and wife in biblical terms is a relation of equals before God and should also be regarded as such in social life. Although patriarchalism and androcentrism are described in biblical narratives, they cannot be regarded as biblical instructions for marital life because such a view would contradict the core principles of marriage, as these are expressed in the above-mentioned biblical theological concepts.
The South Yorkshire regional Action Plan has been drafted around the six themes from the six themes from the Government's 'Veteran's Strategy 13 '. Each of the four local authorities in South Yorkshire have produced Covenant Action plans which are appropriately structured around locally agreed priorities. While Sheffield and Barnsley have largely adopted the six key Veteran strategy themes to structure their Covenant plans, Doncaster's Action Plan is structured via existing Council strategic planning reporting mechanism headings and Rotherham's plan is structured around the four key themes identified from their Action Planning workshop session, as demonstrated in the Action plan priority table below:
An alternative analysis would be to say that the tenant is only liable for the damage resulting from the inherent defect, and not the inherent defect itself (rather than to say, as we just have, that the tenant should be liable neither for the damage resulting from the defect nor the defect causing the damage). This position is, of course, maintainable in a situation where the damage can adequately be remedied without removing the inherent defect. But what about situations where the damage can be remedied only for a short time, before it recurs again owing to the inherent defect? For the following reasons, this analysis ends up being identical to the one that I have just been defending: if the tenant were to be made liable only for the damage resulting from the defect, rather than the defect itself, this would lead to the absurdity of the tenant repairing the damage only to see it recur, repair it again, see it recur again, and so on and so forth. A court would not regard a patch up job of this sort as constituting adequate ‘repair’ for the purposes of the repair covenant. As a matter of common sense, if the damage caused by the defect is going to recur within a short space of time, the work undertaken to remedy the defect would not be properly be considered to have reached the standard of repair that would be required under the covenant. This would therefore be a situation in which the damage caused by the inherent defect cannot be removed without removing the inherent defect. The above analysis of the difficulties besetting the UK position no doubt partly explains why a different position – perhaps with one or two exceptions 51 – is taken in Australia, where damage that is caused by an inherent defect does not fall within the repair covenant. It is submitted that this analysis is more persuasive than that espoused in the UK courts, and should remain the position in Australia should the issue be litigated and reach the highest level here.
Intriguingly, Josephus describes the Temple as “the receptacle” for the sins of the Jews, which implies that Josephus believes that the Temple somehow absorbs the sins of the covenant people. This is not surprising, since there are unambiguous biblical passages that explicitly state that serious sins defiled the sanctuary (e.g., Lev 20:2–3). With this understanding, Josephus insists that the uncleanness of the Temple was so repulsive to God that he might have abandoned the sanctuary defiled by the sins of his compatriots: ‘The same wonderful sign you had also experience of formerly, when the forementioned king of Babylon made war against us, and when he took the city and burnt the temple; while yet I believe that the Jews of that age were not so impious as you are. Wherefore I cannot but suppose that God is fled out of his sanctuary, and stands on the side of those against whom you fight’ (J.W. 5.411 412; cf. Ant. 20.165–166). Hence, there are good grounds for assuming that not a few first century Jews understood the primary purpose of the blood sacrifices in the Yom Kippur rite as the cleansing of the sanctuary. 274 This point is corroborated by the observation of the actions of the high priest. By
The project began in consultation with the Armed Forces community across the region, which informed the development of a community-specific regional survey tool. The regional community survey results informed the local authority and regional Covenant Action planning events.
I) Cf. the famous, often quoted tines (I, pp. 15f.): ..Jeder Triumphzug. welcher durch die Strassen Roms ging, war eine W eissagung auf den C aesar Augustus denn w as dieser immerzu war, das steilte der Trium phator an seinem Ehrentage v o r: den G ctt im Menschen, Jupiter im römischen Biirger. Darin dass Rom seinen Siegem diese Ehrenbezeugung zuerkannte, gab sich seine Zukunft zu erkennen, dass es die W e lt durch den göttlich verehrten Imperator beherrschen würde " — This is compared to the Passover Lamb as type of the Christ. Cf. the criticism by BuLTMANN in Sfudta T/ieo/opt'ca II, I f1949', pp. 27ff., where B. attempts to find the truth in the ideas of HOFMANN. BuLTMANN examines the notions of the Covenant, the Kingdom of God, and of the People of God, and describes, on this examination, Old Testam ent H istory as Prophecy, fulfilled in the New Testam ent. T h e Fulfilment is expressed in the failure, the inner contradiction in the realization of the three notions in the history of Israel and Judaism. C f. also the appreciation of HOFMANN given by F . B u H L in his for his time, and in its introductory chapters stilt important D e messiansAre f*or/ae(fe/ser ; def Gam/e !Tesfamenf (1894), pp. 15f. — O f important literature besides the just mentioned works I only refer to ElCHRODT s Chapters in his TAeo/og:e des .A/fen Tesfam enfi.
The Covenanter leadership's concerns over the condition of Ireland urged further action but leading churchmen were uncertain over how far they could intervene. Following the outbreak of rebellion, the ministry of northern parts of Ireland was itinerant at best and, at its worst, depleted of the necessary manpower to function. In August 1642, communities in the north of Ireland presented the first of what would become a litany of petitions to the General Assembly asking for help as 'the sword of the Rebels, hath bereft us of our friends, and spoiled us of our goods, and left us but a few, and that a poor handfull of many, and hath chased from us the rest that were called our Ministers'. The petitioners were quick to point out that a great many of their ministers had fled to Scotland prior to the Rebellion 'who being chased into Scotland, were not altogether un-usefull in the day of your need', identifying the important role migrating ministers played in the formation of the National Covenant. The petition asked that 'these so unjustly reft from us' should be send back en masse or declared 'transportable' from their congregations in Scotland to transfer back to Ireland. The petitioners claimed that this was not only through 'necessity, but equity'. These ministers still held positions in Ireland: they had a moral and legal obligation to return. 70 In response, the General Assembly were 'loathe to usurpe without their own bounds, or stretch themselves beyond their own measure' and appointed a delegation of ministers to go to the northern counties of Ireland for four months at a time. 71 Ministers undergoing their clerical trials, known as 'expectants', were also encouraged to look to Ireland for preaching opportunities. 72 In all of the petitions that followed, the General Assembly's response always stopped short at offering permanent ministerial candidates citing their own dwindling stock of orthodox clerics.
Regardless of which interpretation one chooses to follow, one fact is inescapable: there are at least some times and places where the Church must appoint wise judges who can handle internal legal disputes between Christians. The question of what standard these ecclesiastical judges are to employ in making their judgments demands serious consideration. This author submits that it is reasonable to presume that the general principles of the Law that Jesus, as the Second Person of the Trinity, delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai—the principles of the same Law that Jesus reaffirmed when He came in the flesh to inaugurate the fullness of the new covenant— are the principles constituting the standard that the body of Jesus should apply in rendering judgments among its members. Jesus’ judgments are to be based on Jesus’ Law, the Law that He came to establish and confirm, not to abolish and destroy. 164
But the conversion of Cornelius’ household changed all that, and Luke underlines that it was the coming of the Spirit that made the Jews realise that their theology needed to change. In Acts 10, Peter received a vision and heard testimony of an angelic visitation, which led him to believe — apparently for the first time — that the gospel ought to be preached to Gentiles (10:34-35). But it is only after the Spirit fell on them that Peter realised that God intended to give them the same gift he had earlier given the disciples (11:15-17). Likewise, although the vision and angelic visitation were also important in the retelling of the story to the other believers, it seems that the Spirit’s coming was the clinching argument (11:18). So when James sums up his judgement, the work of the Spirit is to the fore (11:14), with the important addition that ‘with this the words of the prophets agree’ (11:15). The order is important — the coming of the Spirit forced a re- evaluation of the old covenant scriptures. The strong implication (which matches the earlier evidence) is that until the Spirit actually fell on Cornelius’ household, James, Peter and the others had not realised the old covenant scriptures spoke of the conversion of uncircumcised Gentiles. The significance of this cannot be understated, given the vital importance of circumcision to the Mosaic law. The giving of the Spirit is so important, by the time the council meet in Acts 15, the summary emphasises only the giving of the Spirit (15:8-9), the vision and the angelic visitation are firmly in the background.
Such typologies have declined in popularity over the last thirty years, not least because, as we have seen, the complex lived reality of religious life makes it hard to find examples of the “pure” forms to which such phenomenologies give normative status. Nevertheless, they can still serve to focus significant questions. Not least, they can help sharpen the question as to what the most appropriate form of imagining and symbolizing the truth of a religion is, in which a historical covenant is a defining feature and therefore also the ideas of promise and futurity implied by the idea of covenant. Perhaps, the most concise statement of this future orientation of the promise is found in the revelation to Moses at the Burning Bush and God’s self-naming as “I will be who I will be” (Exodus 3.14). The promise that lies at the basis of the covenant with Israel is a promise reaching out into time that is not yet.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights constitute a trinity which is often called the magna carta of humanity". The United Nations shows concern for human rights and the list of these rights which every human being has a right to enjoy includes: The right to life; Abolition of slavery and suppression of the slave trade; Abolition of forced or compulsory labour; Freedom from torture; Freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention or exile; Equality in the administration of justice; The right of everyone to leave any country, including his own and to return to his country; The right to a nationality; Freedom for thought, conscience and religion; Freedom of opinion and expression; Freedom of association; The right of everyone to take part in the government of his country; The realisation of economic, social and cultural rights; The right to work; The right to education; The right to health; Freedom from hunger; The right to participate in cultural life; The right to a clean environment; The right to adequate shelter and services. As women are the largest minority in the world and suffer suppression of personality, therefore, the United Nations has had to deal with the problem of justice to womenhood seriously, to remedy their many maladies. Some of the recipes are: United Nations instruments embodying the principle of equality of men and women; measures taken by United Nations bodies to implement the principle of equality of men and women; United Nations instruments dealing with problems that affect women adversely; measures taken by United Nations bodies to deal with problems that affect women adversely; Integration of women in development; Effective mobilisation of women in development. 1
Because Esau was the elder, he was the heir to Isaac and the covenant; however Jacob in his craftiness bargained with Esau for the birthright in exchange for sustenance (Gen. 25:19-34). In another cunning act Jacob was able to fool his father into blessing him as his heir. Jacob disguised himself as Esau to dupe his father, who knew Esau was the first born. Isaac was elderly and Jacob was deceptive and covered himself in animal skins to simulate the hair that Esau had on his arms. Isaac was deceived and granted a blessing on Jacob, “Let peoples serve you, and nations pay you homage; be master of you brothers, and may your mother’s sons bow down to you. Cursed be those who curse you and blessed be those who bless you” (Gen. 27:29-30).
However, the legal situation of women with disabilities, with regards to equality and non-discrimination, could be safeguarded if the CRPD is taken into consideration. On the one hand, the definition of discrimination is incomplete in the framework of the international legal system in which Qatar participates (since it is the Human Rights Committee, as the competent body designated by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, that is in charge of analyzing this concept in depth 11 , and Qatar has neither signed nor ratified this Covenant); but on the other hand, in addition to the definition established in the CEDAW and the CERD, Qatar, as State Party to the CRPD can also refer to the definition provided in Article 2 of the CRPD on discrimination on the basis of disability. This definition is wider than just being based upon the condition of the person. The definition of discrimination established in the CRPD raises the issue of the social construction of disability. Disability is not defined as the being the result of any “impairments” (the word used by the CRPD to refer to the individual condition of a person regardless of his/her social context), but it could potentially affect persons without “impairments” who are discriminated against for their relationship with a person with disabilities 12 or because they themselves appear to have a disability. This broader sense of the grounds for discrimination is relevant, differing from the other Conventions mentioned above. Both the CERD and the CEDAW define discrimination
The perennial debate since the adoption of both covenants is whether the core rights contained in one covenant are superior to those contained in the other; and if so, then the covenant with the ‘inferior’ set of core rights should be implemented with care or risk the potential dilution of the entire human rights’ regime. 34 Specifically, proponents of what has commonly been referred to as ‘first generation’ rights – civil and political rights, have entertained the view that economic, social and cultural rights as contained in the ICESCR cannot be properly defined as rights, but are rather, ideals and aspirations that states should strive to attain. Furthermore, ‘treating them as rights undermines the enjoyment of individual freedom, distorts the functioning of free markets … and provides an excuse to downgrade the importance of civil and political rights.’ 35 But proponents of economic and social rights are equally adamant; to them, an illiterate starved to the point of privation has no use for freedom of speech or the right to exercise his political franchise as a citizen. 36 Hence, they argue for the pre-eminence of economic and social rights in the advocacy and implementation of human rights.
inequalities and exclusion from education opportunities has left millions of vulnerable people across the globe in a disadvantaged position. Education, however, throughout human history has been a means and an end for human growth. The ity has come to realize the importance of Human Rights Education in contributing to the recognition of Human Rights and consequently international stability of the world. For this reason Human Rights Education has been incorporated in a number of international human rights instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Right (HR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), The International Covenant on Civil, e Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Covenant on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This study service teachers at Bahrain Teachers College (BTC) in promoting y uses document analysis research methodology through analyzing service teachers) written reflections on promoting HR in classrooms. The result of the service teachers exhibited clear understanding of the importance of human rights, but also showed commitment to promote them in their classrooms. The study recommended a number of steps that need to be taken to promote Human Rights Education in