Crime and deviance

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When Moral Reasoning and Ethics Training Fail: Reducing White Collar Crime through the Control of Opportunities for Deviance

When Moral Reasoning and Ethics Training Fail: Reducing White Collar Crime through the Control of Opportunities for Deviance

this type of attitude and subsequent situational approach to prevent and control opportunities for deviance in the housing finance industry. Current mortgage reforms encompass products (e.g., subprime no/low documentation loans) and activities available and occurring at vital points in the mortgage finance process that have been previously identified as susceptible to fraud (suitable targets; no guardianship; “hotspots”). As designed, the developments tend to outline and clarify required methods to ascertain homebuyer qualifications, improve accountability and transparency, and facilitate a more symmetrical structure of risk. This mixture of regulation and restructuring is bound to disrupt the criminal opportunities within home financing that were so evident in the housing industry of the past two decades. Targets are less suitable (e.g., with more complete disclosure to consumers and investors; when risk must be retained) and guardianship is improved (e.g., more informed clientele; record documentation and retention requirements). Note that these changes do not directly target the “motivated offender,” which is postulated as a necessary component of a criminal event under Routine Activities Theory. However, this is con- sistent with other environmental crime-specific prevention strategies that attempt to harden targets and/or improve guardianship to alter the opportunity structure of crime. By making targets less attractive and/or less accessible, potential offenders are forced to reassess their percep- tions on the viability of pursuing a given course of action or “opportu- nity,” 129 thereby indirectly influencing their motivation.
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Part of the Criminology Commons, Geographic Information Sciences Commons, and the Social Control, Law, Crime, and Deviance Commons

Part of the Criminology Commons, Geographic Information Sciences Commons, and the Social Control, Law, Crime, and Deviance Commons

39 up many of the high crime, or “risky”, streets. For example, in Table 3, one fourth or less of all but four facility types (liquor stores, recreation centers, grocery stores, hotels/motels) made up streets with 2+ crimes. In table 4, aggravated assault, one fourth or less of all but three facility types (laundromats, liquor stores, and grocery stores) made up streets with 2+ crimes. For these risky streets, restaurants, parks, and bus stops were the most prevalent across both crime types. For low crime streets, childcare centers were present across both crime types. Grocery stores were all well present in the “riskiest” street profile with the highest likelihood for crime for both crime types; grocery stores do not show up in any other profiles. Similarly, the crime generators and attractors themselves were not evenly distributed; for example, only two facility types, parking areas and laundromats, had each individual facility fall on a different street. The other facilities were more disproportionately distributed across street segments, meaning most facility types had individual facilities that fell on the same street segment. High and low-crime street profiles yielded unique combinations of crime generators and attractors across both crime types in St. Louis where their relationship could be further explored. All three of the research questions were explored in this study, where support for the spatial distribution of crime and crime
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Labelling, Deviance and Media

Labelling, Deviance and Media

The labelling perspective has transformed criminological theory and practice since the 1960s. It has made many permanently valuable contributions, above all the recognition of criminal law and justice as problematic research areas, that shape at least as much as they control crime. Criminology conferences and textbooks today devote as much attention to research on and analysis of criminal justice, from a non-correctionalist standpoint, as they do to the study of offending, a legacy (albeit often unrecognised) of labelling theory. The two sub-fields that the authors of this chapter have spent most of their careers researching (policing, and media representations of crime/criminal justice) were almost entirely absent from criminologists’ agendas until the 1960s, and the questions raised then by labelling theorists. The problematic character of crime statistics, now universally recognised, is another contribution of labelling theorists. These impacts reflect the labelling perspective, but its influence is largely unacknowledged, and the developments have come to be taken for granted and domesticated within mainstream criminology.
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Editorial: Critical Perspectives on Deviance and Social Control in Rural Africa

Editorial: Critical Perspectives on Deviance and Social Control in Rural Africa

"To my mother, Inoakamma (or the enemy does not say your praise), who was once charged to court by the colonial administration in connection with an alleged breach of the peace when she rallied the community with a poetic tonal cry for the arrest of a stranger who was fishing in Omala, our ancestral stream. The fish in Omala symbolized happiness for the villagers because they were never threatened and it was believed that if the fish was killed, the stream would dry up. Proof of this is found down stream towards the distant farms where Omala merged with streams in which we could fish and where the stream dried up during the dry season. Omala was sacred to us as the route through which new born babies return to us from the land of the ancestors. Mothers of newborn babies were expected to visit Omala and have their ritual bathe with a troop of young children singing a dedication of the new born to Omala. The mother usually returned with water from the stream that she would feed to the new born so that s/he would learn the tongue of our ancestors with ease. I once accompanied my mother alone in sorrow when she had a still birth and while watching her bathe with a stream of tears down her face, I pledged silently to live and dry those tears from her face. The man who was caught fishing in Omala was given a good beating by the villagers before the police rescued him. My mother conducted her own defence in court and won the nick-name, leyo-maji, or Lawyer Magistrate (stipendiary as opposed to lay Magistrate), from her fellow peasant women. However, my father allegedly rebuked her for using the 'male' art form of tonal poetry, iti mkpukpo, to rally the community and so since then, according to her, she lost the talent for this kind of performance poetry. Knowledge of this case that happened long before I was born, must have sensitized me to the fact that what is crime and what is justice are not given but are contentious and are contested" (Agozino, 1997: xii)
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Theoretical Nexus between Social Values, Deviance and Security in Nigeria

Theoretical Nexus between Social Values, Deviance and Security in Nigeria

Control theory advances the proposition that weak bonds between the individual and society free people to deviate. By contrast, strong bonds discourage deviance, crime and insecurity. This theory asks why people refrain from deviant or criminal behavior, instead of why people commit deviant or criminal behavior (Hirschi 2002). The control theory developes when norms emerge to deter deviant behavior. Without this "control", deviant behavior would happen more often. People will conform to a group when they believe they have more to gain from conformity than by deviance. If a strong bond is achieved there will be less chance of deviance than if a weak bond has occurred. Hirschi argues that people follow the norms because they have a bond with society. The bond consists of four positively correlated factors: opportunity, attachment, belief, and involvement (Macionis and Gerber, 2010). When any of these bonds are weakened or broken one is more likely to act in defiance. Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) founded their Self-Control Theory which states that acts of force and fraud are undertaken in the pursuit of self-interest and self-control. A deviant act is based on criminals own self-control of themselves.
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Individual Predictors of Workplace Deviance with Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction

Individual Predictors of Workplace Deviance with Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction

Importance of agreeableness is highlighted in social studies (Jensen- Campbell, Knack, & Gomez, 2010); several researches have established a connection between low-level agreeableness, and aggression, psychopathy, crime, and perilous sexual behavior (Decuyper, Pauw, Fruyt, Bolle,& Clerco, 2009; Hoyle, Fejfar, & Miller, 2000). In a study conducted by (Jensen-Campbell et al., 2010), agreeableness in children, was found to be associated with efficient school accomplishment, harmonious interpersonal relations, lower depression level, victimization, bullying, and more healthful eating habit (Jensen‐Campbell, Knack, & Gomez, 2010). In the review study on agreeableness and disparate life outcomes, conducted by Jensen-Campbell et al. (2010), it is summarized that agreeableness may be the path to enduring interpersonal relationships, happiness, success, and well-being.
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Unmasking deviance: the visual construction of asylum seekers and refugees

Unmasking deviance: the visual construction of asylum seekers and refugees

As Shapland and Vagg (1988) recognise, questions of fear of crime do not usually evoke images of the typical or known, but rather the unusual and unknown. Such an understanding is reaffirmed by others (Bauman 1993; Young 1999) who suggest that it is the 'shadowy stranger' that people are most fearful of, as he symbolizes the unknown and unpredictable criminal who chooses his victims at random. But whilst any suggestion that powerful news images are simply mainlined subconsciously into societal member's perceptions of crime and criminality is rejected, it is clear that 'news photographs can trigger a complex set of cognitive and affective processes, and that these intertwine closely throughout people's mental frameworks to shape information processing and decision making' (Domke et al., 2002: 149). So what a visual image connotes is dependent upon the mental framework through which it is interpreted. The uniqueness of the de-identified and faceless stranger is that the reader is invited to apply to this image the face they wish, and such faces can change through space and time (Lee 2007).
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The last night of freedom : consumerism, deviance and the ‘stag party’

The last night of freedom : consumerism, deviance and the ‘stag party’

The second project was a study of men and violence in the north of England that utilized ethnographic methods to research the lifecourses and experiences of men involved in serious violence and crime (Ellis 2016). When gathering data Anthony spent considerable periods of time in the spaces that these men occupied on a day to day basis, interacting with them and the wide network of male peers and acquaintances they associated with. For many of the men he worked with the night time economy had been, and remained, an important recreational space that was a source of both enjoyment, identity, and a place in which to socialize, and in some cases engage in ‘business’ (such as drug dealing). Through maintaining a regular presence in these social networks during the course of the research, Anthony was invited on, and attended, a stag weekend in a European city along with several of the study’s participants, where much of the group’s activity centered on consuming the city’s night time economy.
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The Deviance of the Zookeepers

The Deviance of the Zookeepers

90 from any fixed points in space and time. Thus, there is no shared political vision, no mutually reinforcing value system, no communally validated cultural script through which to grasp the present or face the future. There is only the ‘seduction of a culture which at once attracts yet undermines all sense of one’s own worth and identity’ (Young, 2007:153). The ‘slow riot of crime and violence’ that besets this Late Modern society is really an ‘eruption’ of the tensions that ‘haunt the everyday world’, fuelled by the ‘bulimia’ of ‘massive cultural inclusion … accompanied by systematic structural exclusion’ (Ibid: 32,180-81). For all that Young wishes to avoid a one-sided ‘dystopian’ pessimism (Ibid: 210), and for all that he attempts to find some hope in the ‘hyperpluralist’ cosmopolitanism of the contemporary city it is difficult to avoid the impression that Late Modernity is less ‘like a ship’ and more like an animal laboratory (although both, interestingly, are tightly enclosed spaces) in which small animals, forced to confront an alien environment, act ‘as if’ it were their home whilst simultaneously being precisely not ‘at’ home. Like a rodent running on a wheel, Late Modernity, to repeat Young’s striking depiction, ‘attracts yet undermines all sense of one’s own worth and identity’.
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INDEX CRIME & CRIME RATE DATA

INDEX CRIME & CRIME RATE DATA

The state of Illinois primary page provides a compilation of statistics reported by participating police departments, sheriff’s offices, and statewide law enforcement agencies. Statistics include Index Crime offenses, arrests, and associated crime rates per 100,000 inhabitants; Drug offense arrests; Domestics Offenses, Hate Crimes, and School Incidents.

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ROLE OF HR IN NAVIGATING THE WORKFORCE FROM NEGATIVE DEVIANCE TO POSITIVE DEVIANCE

ROLE OF HR IN NAVIGATING THE WORKFORCE FROM NEGATIVE DEVIANCE TO POSITIVE DEVIANCE

deviance is a pervasive and expensive problem for organizations. For example, 75% of employees have reportedly stolen from their employer at least once (McGurn, 1988)[20], and it has been estimated that 33% to 75% of all employees have engaged in behaviour’s such as stealing in the organization, fraud, vandalising, sabotaging the property of the organization, and voluntary absenteeism (Harper, 1990)[21]. In recent studies, almost 25% of an employee sample indicated knowledge of illicit drug use among co-workers during the past year (Lehman, Wolcom and Simpson, 1990) [22], 42% of a surveyed sample of women reported experiencing sexual harassment at work and 7% of a sample of employees reported being victims of physical threats (North-western Life Insurance Company, 1993) [23]. The workplace deviance annual cost have been estimated to be as high as $4.2billion for workplace violence alone (Bensimon, 1994) [24], $40 to $120 billion for theft (Buss, 1993) [25].
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Dimensions of Employee Deviance among Emergency Services Personnel in Malaysia

Dimensions of Employee Deviance among Emergency Services Personnel in Malaysia

[30] and [31] proposed to examine employee deviant behaviors thoroughly. [13] have emphasized on the need to study workplace deviance systematically to categorize various acts of employee deviance. This study deliberates on the prevalence deviant behaviors and confirmed the established dimensions postulated by [24]. Acts in employee deviance are interpreted differently in a diverse setting whether in different regions, countries, industries and communities. The findings of this study showed that employees of emergency services in Malaysia did engaged in deviant behaviors, still they appreciate their current job, and upholds their duties and responsibilities. It is necessary to take their feelings, concerns and agitations into considerations when studying employee deviance in different settings.
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Everyday-Life Business Deviance among Chinese SME Owners

Everyday-Life Business Deviance among Chinese SME Owners

responds to the appeal of phenomenon - based entrepreneurial deviance research (Yin and Quazi, 2016; Wiklund, Davidsson, Audretsch and Karlsson, 2011). Moreover, we substantially complement research on the opportunity reasoning of entrepreneurial deviance. This study supports and advances the strain perspective for understanding the deviant behavior engaged in by SME owners in emerging economies who experience heavy economic and institutional pressures ( Ahlstrom and Ding, 2014). Instead of focusing on the traditional discussion of the lack of means hindering the attainment of goals, we confirm how the personal strain associated with economic goals and institutional justice affects the behavior of SME owners (Agnew, 2001; Baumer, 2007; Zheng et al., 2014), an analysis that substantially broadens the category of major strain endured by SME owners (De Clercq and Dakhli, 2009). In addition, this research explores the transfer mechanism of ethical standards of SME owners by considering the relationship between strain and behavior and substantially extends the power of strain theory to explain deviance in SME business practices.
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Predicting Crime Incidents Systematic Approaches and Crime Analysis for Crime Reduction

Predicting Crime Incidents Systematic Approaches and Crime Analysis for Crime Reduction

Data mining Techniques to Analyze and Predict Crimes proposed by S.Yamuna and N.Sudha Bhuvaneswari[4] in 2012 suggested Data mining can be used to model crime detection problems. Crimes are a social nuisance and cost our society dearly in several ways. Any research that can help in solving crimes faster will pay for itself. About10% of the criminals commits about 50% of the crimes. Data mining technology to design proactive services to reduce crime incidences in the police stations jurisdiction. Crime investigation has very significant role of police system in any country. Almost all police stations use the system to store and retrieve the crimes and criminal data and subsequent reporting. It became useful for getting the criminal information but it does not help for the purpose of designing an action to prevent the crime. It has become a major challenge for police system to detect and prevent crimes and criminals. There haven’t any kind of information is available before happening of such criminal acts and it result into increasing crime rate. Detecting crime from data analysis can be difficult because daily activities of criminal generate large amounts of data and stem from various formats. In addition, the quality of data analysis depends greatly on background knowledge of analyst, this paper proposes a guideline to overcome the problem.
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Hate Crime and Mate Crime

Hate Crime and Mate Crime

Gemma was a vulnerable adult who was known to a number of agencies throughout her life. Warwickshire Safeguarding Adults Partnership Board (WSAPB) commissioned a Serious Case Review to examine in detail the way that services worked with Gemma. The review also looked to establish whether Gemma was targeted for abuse or exploitation as a direct result of her disability and if so, to determine the lessons that can be learnt to identify early warning signs of possible hate crime.

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The Social Costs of Crime and Crime Control

The Social Costs of Crime and Crime Control

There is currently no generally accepted method of estimating the costs of crime. After presenting the most commonly used methods of estimating crime, the authors attempt to explore the situation in Hungary. Taking 2009 as a base year, they recon the crime-related social expenditure accounts. The authors, with the help of other Hungarian research data and databases, have also taken into account the costs of the secondary social effects. The results of the calculations depend on the applied approach to crime and the interpretations of the social impacts of the delinquency. According to the authors calculations the social cost caused by crime was about 2.17 billion USA dollar: ($) (1.6 billion euro (EUR) in 2009. The authors deduct the sum that was drawn by the offenders as a benefit/profit from committing crime; there- fore the crime caused 1.17 billion $ as a net social damage in 2009 in Hungary. The amount of 1.63 billion $ was spent on the crime control (e.g. law enforcement, judiciary, prison and crime prevention) in 2009. The results show that de- linquency caused a total of 3.8 billion $ as a damage, or as an expenditure spent by the government in 2009. The cost of crime control was about 500 million $ higher (1.63 billion $) than the amount of damage caused by crime (1.17 billion $). The offenders benefit/profit from committing crime (= 1 billion $) was only 15% less than the damage they caused to the state and to the citizens (= 1.17 billion $). In other words, the half of the criminal damage shall never be repaid: it will remain at the criminals!
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Fighting Crime in Chicago the Crime Commission

Fighting Crime in Chicago the Crime Commission

A little later in the year, the Crime Commission called attention to the fact that, for a given period, 40 crimes of violence which the Commission's record showed to have been committeed[r]

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The Crime of Present Day Crime Reporting

The Crime of Present Day Crime Reporting

Bright as they are and perceptive as they are, American newspaper editors have paid so little attention to the problem of crime news-and crime costs the nation something like twenty-two [r]

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The colonial state and the construction of social deviance in Cuba, 1828-1865

The colonial state and the construction of social deviance in Cuba, 1828-1865

Although colonial authorities constructed an insane asylum for men identified as mentally ill, Vives transferred female enfermas mentales to the Casa de Beneficencia, a charity house[r]

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Evaluating Temporal Uncertainty of Multi temporal Images for Geographical Deviance

Evaluating Temporal Uncertainty of Multi temporal Images for Geographical Deviance

TEMPORAL UNCERTAINTY From the information-theory point of view, the potential gain from exploiting the temporal domain correlation can be estimated by quantifying the entropy relationshi[r]

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