Crime: victims and offenders

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Crime Victims and Offenders in Mediation: An Emerging Area of Criminology and Correctional Administration

Crime Victims and Offenders in Mediation: An Emerging Area of Criminology and Correctional Administration

Those interested in being mediators need to decide early whether to work with juvenile or adult offenders. Because the juveniles and adult offenders are different, working with both requires more initial development time. Working collaboratively with existing victims' service programs and offender treatment programs is important. Although the victim-offender mediation process offers a number of benefits to both parties, the process also has limitations. Many victims and offenders need more extensive services than can be offered through the mediation process. At best, the mediation process is part of a larger response to the needs facing crime victims and their offenders. Securing resources to operate a new victim-offender mediation program are critical. In most communities, a small staff that supervises a larger pool of trained volunteer mediators is sufficient. This keeps the program's costs down and, more importantly, empowers citizens to become directly involved in resolving criminal conflict in their communities. The provision of twenty five to thirty hours of effective mediation training and continued in service training is important.
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The Criminology of Cyber Stalking: Investigating the Crime, Offenders and Victims of Cyber Stalking

The Criminology of Cyber Stalking: Investigating the Crime, Offenders and Victims of Cyber Stalking

1.1. Definition of Cyber Stalking Cyber stalking is partly derived from the concept of traditional nuisance, where the offender makes use of modern technology to commit crimes. Stalkers, both traditional and online, resort to behaviors and tactics with the main intention of harassment and, in some cases, threatening or intimidation of the victim. The other significant similarity between traditional and online stalker is the high probability for both to have an intimate relationship in the past, whether real or unreal, with the victims; though, it is likely that cyber stalker may also randomly choose victims (Bocij and McFarlane, 2003). One of the most obvious differences between traditional and cyber stalking harassment is the geographical distance between the offender and the victim. Regarding the traditional harassment, offenders and victims often live and work close together, while cyber stalkers could harass their victims from a corner of the street, from a cybercafé in another city or even another country. In fact, cyber stalking is defined as attacking other users with offensive and immodest words in the cyberspace, including, chat rooms, emails, blogs, etc. Such words may particularly be articulated or written to sneer body shape, gender, mental or physical disability, race, color, creed, educational status, language, etc. Noting the differences and similarities between online and traditional harassment and the concept of cyber stalking, the following definition is suggested: "Cyber stalking, as a crime against moral personality, is a general term for any intentional and known action against the dignity, reputation and tranquility of an individual or incorporation using the Internet or electronic software".
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Offenders as Victims of Crime? An Investigation into the Relationship Between Criminal Behaviour and Victimisation

Offenders as Victims of Crime? An Investigation into the Relationship Between Criminal Behaviour and Victimisation

them than non offenders who otherwise share the same socio-demographic profiles. They will tend to meet with other offenders or engage in activities with other offenders, so making themselves more vulnerable to violent crime. Using the example above, in this case the conditional probability of being a victim given a district and being an offender will be higher than the conditional probability of being a victim just given district. A positive correlation between victimisation and offending should still exist even when ‘district’ characteristics are controlled for. Additionally, it may also be reasonable to think that offenders who are also victims may be less prepared than non offenders to report to the police any violent criminal acts carried out against them. Such a finding would be indirect evidence in favour of this theory compared to the theory based on routine activity or lifestyle as outlined above.
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Mediated contact between victims and offenders after crime :
the role of agency and moral image

Mediated contact between victims and offenders after crime : the role of agency and moral image

2 Abstract In a criminalogical perspective, restorative approaches are seen as a more effective alternative to classical justice programs because more positive outcomes towards avoidance of recidivism of the offender and healing the wounds of the victim are expected. Shnabel and Nadler (2015) propose in their Needs based Model of Reconciliation that victims and offenders experience strong feelings of impaired agency and moral image after a crime and that they are motivated to restore these feelings. Based on this model, the current study examines how these changes in victims’ and offenders’ emotional states after a crime may influence their willingness to engage in victim offender mediation programs (VOM). Victims were expected to be primarily impaired in their feeling of agency and to show a high need to restore these weakened emotions; offenders were expected to have a high need to restore their moral – social image because of strong feelings of social exclusion and moral inferiority. Also, it was assumed that these identity dimensions were related to the willingness to participate in VOM. In a quasi-experiment, participants were randomly asked to incorporate the role of a victim or an offender in a fictitious crime scenario. In contrast to the results which were found in previous research of Shnabel and Nadler (2008, 2015), through this research it cannot be confirmed that agency and moral image vary significantly towards the willingness to participate in VOM. There is no direct relationship of the impairment of these needs and the willingness to participate in VOM. But, consistent with Shnabel and Nadler, this study confirmed that offenders show higher suffering from threat to their moral identity than victims and have a higher need to regain acceptance from society from which they feel excluded. Victims have a significant higher need to restore their feeling of agency after they were victimized. Also, the moral image can be related to the estimated helpfulness of VOM. For a more valid interpretation of the outcome, a more realistic measure is recommended to consider; in an online study, participants may underestimate the impact of emotions which are experienced after a crime.
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Crime through a corpus: The linguistic construction of offenders, victims and crimes in the German and UK

press

Crime through a corpus: The linguistic construction of offenders, victims and crimes in the German and UK press

same number of sentences and again it is log-likelihood ratio calculation which allows comparing different amounts of data as we will see later on in the qualitative part of the analysis. To extract the most significant words for crimes, which include nouns as well as verbs, I chose a slightly different procedure but the same for English and German crimes. I extracted all those nouns and verbs from the wordlists of both corpora which refer to crime, using the tools of concordance and source text. The cut-off point I chose was word number 500 in the wordlist. I did not choose any more cut-off points but instead included all thus gained crime-related words into the analysis. I chose this slightly different method because crime related words in articles on crime seldom relate to other things than crime in contrast to words naming offenders or victims. Therefore it is unnecessary to further reduce them
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Crime through a corpus: The linguistic construction of offenders, victims and crimes in the German and UK
press

Crime through a corpus: The linguistic construction of offenders, victims and crimes in the German and UK press

same number of sentences and again it is log-likelihood ratio calculation which allows comparing different amounts of data as we will see later on in the qualitative part of the analysis. To extract the most significant words for crimes, which include nouns as well as verbs, I chose a slightly different procedure but the same for English and German crimes. I extracted all those nouns and verbs from the wordlists of both corpora which refer to crime, using the tools of concordance and source text. The cut-off point I chose was word number 500 in the wordlist. I did not choose any more cut-off points but instead included all thus gained crime-related words into the analysis. I chose this slightly different method because crime related words in articles on crime seldom relate to other things than crime in contrast to words naming offenders or victims. Therefore it is unnecessary to further reduce them
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Imaging victims, offenders and communities. An investigation into the representations of the crime stakeholders within restorative justice and their cultural context

Imaging victims, offenders and communities. An investigation into the representations of the crime stakeholders within restorative justice and their cultural context

11 The ‘ideal victim’ of RJ exemplifies an embodied, disempowered but resilient individual aware of his/her needs, in search of safety and recognition. The offender is routinely portrayed as a decision-maker who is required to take active responsibility for the wrong/harm caused; he or she is lacking in emotional understanding of the crime's human costs (which can be realised only by meeting the victim and the community). Finally, the ‘ideal community’ is characterised by a few and recurrent attributes: innocent, local, alternative to the state and the society, weak but resilient and fusional. A range of general considerations can be made of these idealised versions of the crime stakeholders. Firstly, in regards to the overlapping similarities between them. The main actors of RJ are commonly provided with a “material” existence. Victims and offenders are embodied, flesh-and-boned individuals, while the community is the local gemeinschaft which surrounds, metaphorically and actually, victims and offenders. A further critical point can be made. The ideal representations of the victim and offender reproduce some well-known and deep-rooted commonsensical understandings of these actors in
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Foreign Nationals as Offenders and Victims in Malaysian Crime News

Foreign Nationals as Offenders and Victims in Malaysian Crime News

1.1 Media, crime, and foreign nationals Due to the global diaspora, the studies on the representation of immigrants in the newspapers increase. As a country with high total number of foreign nationals, local researchers started to study on press coverage on illegal immigrants, the voices of people in power in the media about the immigrants and asylum seekers in Malaysia and the media reports on the influx of foreign workers in Malaysia [7,8,9]. Most of the researchers agreed that the media tend to report foreign nationals as criminals in the crime news. This could be described as minority signification [10]. Other than that, the public easily ponder a dramatic crime news such as murder, rape, and robbery cases [11]. For example, public understands easily a news on a Bangladeshi murdered his colleague than the financial significance of a corruption of public funds. Therefore, the media usually play the issue in this area and add foreign status to increase the news value.
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CRIME VICTIMS HANDBOOK

CRIME VICTIMS HANDBOOK

offenders such as gang members, mentally ill, convicted sex offenders, chronic drunk drivers, and those who commit domestic violence. Offenders who are judged to be a low risk to commit another crime are supervised by our Reduced Supervision Team. This team monitors any new police contact. For about 90% of the cases we judge to be low risk, the offender does not commit a new crime. In the other 10% we, quickly sanction them and assign a PO to more closely supervise them.

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Victims of violent crime

Victims of violent crime

The Victim-Offender Mediation Unit at the Department of Corrective Services can look into protective conditions for you in certain circumstances. This applies to adult and juvenile offenders. If you continue to experience threatening behaviour after the matter is finalised, you can apply to have a restraining order taken out against the offender. If a restraining order is made and the offender disobeys the order, then they can be charged.

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Victims, Crime and Society

Victims, Crime and Society

Many have had a positive impact, especially in terms of changing the status of the victim in the criminal justice system. Some measures have significantly improved the victim’s experiences in connection with helping achieve social justice while other developments in the past 40 years or so have been helpful in meeting victims, needs in the short, medium and longer term. Certain time periods can be identified with specific social groups achieving victimological recognition. The emergence of the feminist move- ment in the 1970s was enormously influential in the development of services for victims of rape, sexual assault and domestic violence well into the fol- lowing decade in both the US and the UK. In England and Wales, develop- ments in the 1990s were especially significant. This decade produced the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry, acknowledged police institutional racism and inadequacies surrounding public policies associated with crime, victimiza- tion and criminal justice with respect to black people. The same decade also witnessed the rediscovery of popular punitiveness towards young offenders which youth victimology has since heavily criticized.
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Victims of Crime Compensation

Victims of Crime Compensation

Compensation can be awarded for physical and/or emotional injury and for the financial loss that results from an injury. Any money awarded is drawn from the Victims of Crime Fund which is operated by the State Government. Money in the fund comes from confiscated proceeds of crime, a levy on convictions and on-the-spot fines, fines paid by the offenders and funds provided by the Parliament.

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A Civil Justice For Victims of Crime

A Civil Justice For Victims of Crime

The criminal justice process judges the guilt or innocence of accused offenders, and when offenders are found guilty, attempts to punish or rehabilitate them. held as evidence, replacement of security items, child care, and travel. No payments are made for property loss, property repair, legal fees, phone bills, meals, or pain and suffering. Help is available to: victims who are physically or emotionally injured in a violent crime in Iowa; victims injured in crimes of drunk, reckless, or hit and run driving or boating; victims’ spouses, children, parents, siblings, or other persons residing in the household at the time of the crime; survivors of homicide victims;
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News Media, Victims and Crime

News Media, Victims and Crime

suitability of public notification regarding sex offenders in the community (Silverman and Wilson, 2002). And the scandalous revelation in 2011 that television icon and national treasure Sir Jimmy Savile had for decades exploited his BBC celebrity status to sexually abuse children and young people in Britain’s public institutions led to a flood of fresh accusations of abuse against television celebrities, public figures and institutions across the UK (Greer and McLaughlin, 2013, 2016). In the wake of these cases, further incidents of child violence, racist violence, predatory sexual violence and institutional violence are rendered more newsworthy still because they can be reported in relation to the paradigmatic incident at that time, which in turn can be revisited, reactivated and recreated across corporate and social media for a mass audience. Thus, while violence endures as a core news value, its newsworthiness can be intensified considerably when focused through the lenses of celebrity, childhood, sex and race, institutional corruption and cover-up, among others – categories that are not in themselves new, but which have gained increased and lasting media currency due to wider social change and/or specific, high profile crimes.
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A guide for victims of crime in Queensland

A guide for victims of crime in Queensland

The court is closed to the public. As a witness you may be required to give evidence in this court. Murri Court – the Murri Court sentences Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offenders who plead guilty to an offence which falls within the jurisdiction of the Magistrates Court. Murri Court provides a forum where Elders, Respected Persons, Community Justice Groups and the offender’s family can be involved in the sentencing process. The magistrate makes the final decision and imposes the sentence. As a victim of crime you may be required to give evidence in the Murri Court as a witness.
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Code of Practice for Victims of Crime

Code of Practice for Victims of Crime

The Parole Board and Victim Personal Statements 6.10 The Parole Board is an organisation that decides whether certain offenders, including those who have got a life sentence for a particularly serious crime, can safely be released from prison or moved to an open prison. An open prison is for lower risk offenders who can reasonably be trusted to serve their sentences in open conditions and so do not need to be locked in a prison cell. This may happen near to or after the end of the minimum prison sentence the judge said the offender must serve in prison. The Parole Board make decisions by working with agencies including the prison and the National Probation Service to understand how much risk the offender is to the public and to see whether the offender can be safely released under supervision. Because the Parole Board only consider some kinds of cases, you should ask your parent or guardian, or VLO, whether this applies to you.
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Crime Victims Compensation Board

Crime Victims Compensation Board

Court-ordered restitution from offenders, subrogation, and refunds. Judges are encouraged to order offenders to pay restitution to reimburse the fund for awards granted. Refunds and funds from subrogation are received when a claimant's financial obligation has been met through a collateral source. Kansas Department of Corrections. Five percent of the gross wages of inmates employed in a private industry program other than work release, a portion of supervision fees from parolees and probationers, and administrative fees assessed to inmates for maintenance of their trust accounts are paid to the Crime Victims Compensation Fund.
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Crime Victims\u27 Rights

Crime Victims\u27 Rights

Taking the longer view, it is well worth considering whether crime victims’ rights should be placed in the United States Constitution. While this brief essay is not the place to explore all of the issues surrounding such a step, 150 it is worth noting that the idea has attracted bipartisan support, including (for example) both Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. 151 Of course, the Constitution should never be amended merely to achieve short-term, partisan, or purely policy objectives. But a federal Victims’ Rights Amendment would protect the basic rights of crime victims not to be victimized again through the process by which government officials prosecute, punish, and release accused or convicted offenders. These are the very kind of rights with which our Constitution is typically and properly concerned—the right of individuals to participate in all those government processes that strongly affect their lives. 152 Perhaps in years to come, the experience of the states in amending their constitutions to protect crime victims will serve as the basis for crafting a federal amendment that will ensure, once and for all, that these important rights are enshrined in and protected by our nation’s fundamental charter.
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victims of crime Victims of Crime Victim Service Worker Handbook

victims of crime Victims of Crime Victim Service Worker Handbook

Victim blaming in the context of violence against women is discussed in the Sexual Assault and Violence Against Women in Relationships Victim Service Worker Handbooks. Other crimes, too, are sometimes subject to victim blaming. Break-and-enter victims may be criticized for not taking appropriate security precautions in their home. Elderly or other vulnerable victims may be judged for being “too trusting” of those who set out to embezzle their funds. Those who live on the street may be held responsible for their own victimization because their lifestyle is considered “irresponsible” or “high-risk.” Young people may be blamed for their victimization because they were out late at night, because they “hang out” in groups, or because they were drinking alcohol. Gay men may be blamed for others’ violent behaviour because of beliefs that they “asked for it” by being gay or by being in an area known to be frequented by gay people.
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Information and Support to Victims of Youth Crime and Young Victims of Crime

Information and Support to Victims of Youth Crime and Young Victims of Crime

committed to ensuring the needs of victims continue to be met, which will include considering the scope for sharing information as to what action has been taken to address that behaviour. Currently, where a child aged over eight years is referred to the CHS on offence grounds, a “Victims of Youth Crime” leaflet (generic information on CHS) and initial letter is sent to individual victims and there is a victim section on the SCRA website. Where the victim is a child, depending on their age, SCRA would communicate with the child and their parent. The victim is given the choice of opting in to receive information and where they do so, they may be advised of all stages of the process i.e. the reporter’s decision, the hearing decision, whether it goes to court for proof and what that decision is via the Victim Information Service. Follow-up queries are dealt with and the Victim Information Coordinator would link with the victim by phone, email, letter or a combination. There are
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