Critical Political Discourse Analysis

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Critical Discourse Analysis of the Political Novel, “Unsecured Existence”

Critical Discourse Analysis of the Political Novel, “Unsecured Existence”

Considering this issue and the interpretation and analysis of the story (Unsecured Existence) with reference to the two elements of character and theme, on one side, and with observation of the elements of discourse analysis in situational, his- torical, social levels, and the reflection of social and political problems at the three levels of expla- nation, interpretation, and exploration, on the oth- er, it can be stated that this story which is written in 1384 (according to the Persian Calendar) is the byproduct of the pains and sufferings of the intel- lectuals (university students) in historical, geo- graphical, and environmental, and sociological conditions to reflect the political and social prob- lems, who have been waiting for the freedom for a long time. This is stated and pictured, explicitly by the characters of the story and especially by Key- van as the first character(10). This belief and thought have been the dominant discourse of the decades of the 50‟s and 60‟s during the final years of reformation government, concerning the neces- sity of emphasis on the historical, social, and cul- tural effects it had in the production of a text, which is pictured by language of one of the story characters, in the proposition and texture of a criti- cal text. By reference to the analysis procedure of the novel through discourse analysis, whose objec- tive is exploration of the role of Power and ideolo- gy in production of an explainable, interpretable, and deplorable text, there are several problems ex- pressed in the novel. The first problem is, by what was mentioned before, whether the discourse dur- ing the Islamic Revolution in the 80‟s was effec- tive in creating stories like the present novel in the new atmosphere with emphasis on the principles of textual (language analysis), discourse behavior (production and use of the text), and social beha- vior. In other words, should this principle be justi- fied in the story, in which the events happened be- cause of especial social conditions and special dis- course behaviors and could this text provide the needs of that period, considering the production and use of the text? The principle of the interaction Social Practice (its reflection was in the
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Empowering the powerful: a critical discourse analysis of public discourse on graduate employability

Empowering the powerful: a critical discourse analysis of public discourse on graduate employability

16 Online news has become an important arena for public discourse in recent years. For instance, the online media influenced the perceptions of people during the 12 th general election in Malaysia, in a context where the mainstream print media is controlled by the government (Brown, 2005). The impact of online media during the general election was considered massive, and an important factor inthe National Front or Barisan National was not able to maintain their majority in the parliament. This election result also showed how online news has a significant impact on socio-political and cultural phenomena (Massey & Levy, 1999; Tapsell, 2013). One of the earliest newspapers to go online in Malaysia was the New Straits Times in 1993, specifically for subscribers only. In 1998, it was extended into interactive online services. Other online news media in Malaysia are mostly alternative online newspapers such as MalaysiaKini and The Malaysian Insider. The Rakyat Post also flourished, particularly after the restriction of the printed media act (Anuar, 2007). As a result, more people were turning to the internet for news that offered alternative viewpoints to those of the government (Fischer, 2009). Studies of Malaysia’s online media progressed, especially during the ‘Reformasi’ movement and prior to General Elections in 2003, 2008 and 2013 (Kim, 2001b; Lumsden; Tapsell, 2013). The restrictions on the media ("Communication & Multimedia Act," 1998) raised questions about the freedom of media in Malaysia (Sani, 2005; Weiss, 2013), further highlighting the social role of online news in Malaysian public discourse. Because of the impact online news has had on Malaysian political scenarios, it is reasonable to expect that online news in Malaysia will also be an important site where ideas about the graduate employability issue are construed and contested publicly.
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The reproduction of islamophobia in German and Dutch newspaper article discourse : An analysis from a Critical Discourse Analytical Perspective : an analysis from a critical discourse analytical perspective

The reproduction of islamophobia in German and Dutch newspaper article discourse : An analysis from a Critical Discourse Analytical Perspective : an analysis from a critical discourse analytical perspective

Secondly, it was explained that if a condition has resulted in the introduction of legislative bills for dealing with or criminalizing the behaviour of a group which is allegedly responsible for a condition, it can also be referred to this situation as a social problem (Goode & Ben-Yehuda, 1994). A recent example for this is the discussion dealing with a ban of burqas in public spaces. In the Federal State Hessen this discussion has now resulted in a legislative response. A female employee of the city of Frankfurt wanted to wear a burqa at work which the city forbade her. In order to justify this decision, Hessen‟s Minister of the Interior has announced that he will introduce an edict forbidding the veil that is considered to be a political statement underlining the denial of all „Western‟ values. As it has already been indicated above, the presentation of the burqa is one of the stereotypes that have resulted and characterize Islamophobia. Thus, since this discussion is embedded in the wider debate on Muslim immigrants and integration, this legislative reaction can be seen as one way to point to a social problem regarding Muslims in Germany.
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A Critical Discourse Analysis of Pakistan T.V. Advertisements

A Critical Discourse Analysis of Pakistan T.V. Advertisements

Advertisements are a notice, such as a poster or a paid announcement in the print, broadcast or electronic media designed to attract public attention or patronage Kernerman (1991). Language is an important medium of communication. Nowadays, advertisements communicate a message through language and signs. Crystal (1992) defined language as the systematic, conventional use of sounds, signs or written symbols in a human society for communication and self- expression. The ads reflect social aspects such as political and economic issues, but also have the power to maintain and further spread social issues among the audiences. According to EL-Daly (2011), advertising is any type of form of public announcement intended to direct people’s attention to the availability, qualities, and/or cost of specific commodities or services”(p. 25). It is essential that a critical look at advertising be done so that we, as consumers, are not fooled by its persuasive power and end up buying that product not because we need it, but we want it, a process known as commodification (Govindasamy and Hassan Khan). The present study is an extension of the study of adverts in Malaysia conducted by IhsanIbadurrahman (2012) by applying the same approach to critical discourse analysis in a different context, which is in Pakistan.
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A Review of Critical Discourse Analysis Studies in China

A Review of Critical Discourse Analysis Studies in China

Although Chinese scholars have made great achievements in the field of CDA studies, limitations still exist. First of all, the extent and layers of CDA studies abroad have been extended to political discourse, ideology, racial studies, migrant studies, media language, institutional discourse, social discourse, bureaucratic discourse and so forth. Instead, domestic studies still stress the review of foreign research findings. Some current studies at home involve institutional discourse, legal discourse and advertising discourse, but these studies are not in-depth enough to analyze the inner mechanism of the discourse critically. In the second place, the research content of CDA studies at home is confined to a limited scope because Chinese scholars started to investigate CDA relatively late. Over half of the selected articles are about introduction of CDA theories aboard. Even when there is discussion on sensitive topics of political and medium issues, the materials for discussion are of foreign origin instead of Chinese materials. Lan and Wang’s review studies have indicated that the focus on CDA studies in China has been shifting from theoretical investigation to application of CDA theories to the analysis of specific discourse in diverse social contexts.
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Critical Discourse Analysis:  Iranian Banks Advertisements

Critical Discourse Analysis: Iranian Banks Advertisements

advertisements. No doubts, manipulative language is here to stay, to determine our life chances and circumstances, and control our real roles in the economic, political, cultural and social domains of Iranian society; therefore, ascivilized citizens, it is clear that we need more educational projects which can raise our students’ consciousness of various forms of manipulation and power struggle in Iranian history and contemporary society and break through the hierarchy of ranking people in predestined agendas. Following Brown (2004), we teachers, are responsible for providing our students opportunities to effectively learn about social and moral sbjects and to scrutinize different aspects of an entity. Language classes could be replete with informative issues of different topics. What should be modified in curricula is limited focus on linguistic factors alone, which could be expanded by issues which enhance the art of critical thinking (KoupaeeDar et al., 2011). All in all, this analysis has revealed that the discourses apparent in advertisements can be seen as speculative, attractive and laden with discursive tensions. In using CDA as a tool, it has been the intention of this article to possibly raise consciousness about the ideologically invested discourses to which we are viewers, and consumers; we are not merely service consumers, but we may unconsciously intake their suggested teaspoon ideas. Finally, I would like to use Fairclough’s inspiring statements to end this paper: “Resistance and change are not only possible but continuously happening. But the effectiveness of resistance and the realization of change depend on people developing a critical consciousness of domination and its modalities, rather than just experiencing them” (1989, p. 137).
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Critical discourse analysis and media studies

Critical discourse analysis and media studies

How might we situate the founding rationale of CDA, especially in Fairclough’s work, when evaluated from the perspective of similar debates in media and communication studies? We might recast it as an attempt to bridge the division between Marxist political economy theories that emphasised the determining power of economic structures, and cultural studies approaches that stressed the importance of discourse and human subjectivity. Early CDA work on media recognized its debt to previous research, both inside and outside linguistics (Fairclough 1995; van Dijk 1991; see Kelsey, this volume). The Frankfurt School, Birmingham School of cultural studies, and the Glasgow University media group were all cited as important antecedents. These reference points transcended any notional division between political economy and cultural studies, though the work of Stuart Hall – cultural studies’ figurehead – was especially important in anticipating Fairclough’s theoretical position. Both interrogated a Marxist theoretical reflex that regarded the analysis of ideology and discourse as relatively superficial matters. At the same time, both looked to different structuralist and poststructuralist sources to formulate approaches that remained embedded in a broadly Marxist analysis of capitalism.
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Political discourse on biogas and its
reflection in regulatory institutionalization
 A discourse analysis of biogas’ special role in the German political arena

Political discourse on biogas and its reflection in regulatory institutionalization A discourse analysis of biogas’ special role in the German political arena

in particular fits into that explanation. Nonetheless, even though it can be said that the structurization of the policy discourse in terms of an ecological modernizationist concept provided kind of a protective framework keeping biogas in a positive role, the parallels between public-media and political discourse (in terms of appearing critical points) do not contradict the speculation, as was mentioned in the research motivation, that there are influencing relations between different discourse spheres and between discourse and action. These relations are said to shape the discourse and are very probably themselves being shaped and influenced by many factors. Presumably, more explanatory power would be added if these relations could be better explicated. For example additionally study could be carried out over the broader topic of climate protection and energy security and the concept of ecological modernization, and also over other discourse spheres, such as professional or scientific discourse.
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A Critical Discourse Analysis on Media Excerpts

A Critical Discourse Analysis on Media Excerpts

It can facilitate the entry of Palestinian Authority (PA) chief, Mah- mud Abbas into the strip (the PA chief will /can/may enter into the strip). If Israel’s goal were simply to end rocket attacks on its civilians ...(Hamas can, will, did, may attack on Israeli citizen with rockets). Short of a complete reoccupation of Gaza, no amount of violence will erase Hamas from the scene. (Israel is/was going to, can/can not, may/may notoccupy Gaza again). The looming political standoff on the Palestinian side threatens to boost Hamas(the political stand off is/will be/ may belooming). The Palestinian resistance is en- gaged in an asymmetrical political.(Palestinian resist, resisted, may/can/will resist)
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Event frames affect blame assignment and perception of aggression in discourse on political protests:an experimental case study in critical discourse analysis

Event frames affect blame assignment and perception of aggression in discourse on political protests:an experimental case study in critical discourse analysis

Two papers which do examine the cognitive effects of specific lexico-grammatical phenomena are Fausey and Matlock (2011) and Thibodeau and Boroditsky (2011). Fausey and Matlock investigated the effects of aspect in describing some indiscretion of a fictional politician. They found that subjects presented with the perfective aspect rated the politician’s chances of re-election as higher than subjects presented with the imperfective aspect. Thibodeau and Boroditsky tested the effects of metaphor in communication about crime. They found that subjects presented with a CRIME AS WILD BEAST metaphor were more likely to suggest redressive measures relating to enforcement (capture, punish etc.) while subjects presented with a CRIME AS VIRUS metaphor were more likely to suggest redressive measures relating to reform (diagnose, treat, etc.). In other words, the metaphors had an effect on respondents’ reasoning and decision-making processes with suggestions on how to address crime being found to fit with the particular metaphorical framing given. Studies such as these are clearly relevant for CDA and may provide useful templates for experimental design. They suffer one serious problem from a CDA perspective, however, which is that they are not based on attested discourse practices discerned from a specific discourse-analytical case study. Any experiment in CDA must, by contrast, start from hypotheses made on the back of qualitative analyses of observed (differences in) discourse data. In the following section, I therefore present a Cognitive Linguistic analysis of online newspaper data with a focus on the alternative event-frames used to conceptualise violent interactions at political protests. The analysis provides the basis of and motivation for the experiment reported in the following section.
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Political discourse and the study of parliamentary communication: a comparative analysis

Political discourse and the study of parliamentary communication: a comparative analysis

The third most significant and popular approach, defined as the discursive field of political-linguistic research, is implemented in two forms: in a critical analysis of political discourse and in its descriptive linguistic analysis. A special place in the critical discourse analysis is given to social, gender, ethnic inequality. The works in this field include studies of H. Davis, D. Harp, D. Tannen [22-24]. The adjective “critical” in the designation of one of the approaches to the analysis of discourse emphasizes the recognition of a mutual relationship existing between language, power and ideology. A critical analysis of political discourse is aimed at studying the ways in which power exercises its supremacy in the society, the way in which the communicative activities of politicians reproduce social inequality. Researchers are also interested in the ways of language resistance to social inequality. The research materials include political texts created in a situation of social risks and reflecting the social inequality of communicants.
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Critical Discourse Analysis of Sexual Enhancement Medication Ads

Critical Discourse Analysis of Sexual Enhancement Medication Ads

considering SEM has only been in existence for a few years. Nonetheless Viagra is a “blockbuster drug” that did clear a social path for Levitra and Cialis. The term erectile dysfunction is also relatively new. It all implies a phenomenon, a trend, an extraordinary event and it also implies something that is still happening. This sort of ambiguous, contradictory connotative value demonstrates the overall hybridity of this text. The pop- culture, trendy, nostalgic language is followed by a more businesslike, straightforward language that gives in a bulleted list the reasons for taking Viagra. The benefit of reliably rigid erections can be compared to the above Levitra text that offers the qualifiers hardness, duration, and quality. Reliably rigid erections is an adverb + adjective + noun construction; it is a single attribute of Viagra and its head is reliably, which again suggests the nostalgia for a real or imagined state. Hardness, duration, and quality are all qualities by themselves, and at the head of this set is hardness. This Viagra text also demonstrates intertextuality by using erections, a word that did not appear until recently in SEM advertisements. Early on it was risqué, ‘mischievous,’ too radical. But reliably does not connote something new and radical, but rather, something old and trustworthy. Rigid does not carry the same semantic effect as does hardness. Rigid, it seems, is as commonly applied to corpses, conventionality, or political
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Questioning Muslim Identity: A Critical Analysis of the Discourse on Muslim Integration

Questioning Muslim Identity: A Critical Analysis of the Discourse on Muslim Integration

conceptual clarifications about integration, collective identity and public sphere. It also offers the chapter offers a theoretical approach to explaining transnational convergence as an interactive process of communication among national governmental players, who are central actors of a process of production and recontextualisation of discourses on civic integration. In Chapter 3, the research design is explained. The analytical framework is based on a comparative analysis of three national case studies based on major institutional statements by governmental actors, which are then considered a point of entry for reconstructing the public debate on Muslim integration. Specifically, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is selected to analyse the nodal points, their articulations and interconnections within the public debate. In Chapter 4, the first case study focuses on the French debate and aims at investigating how discourse on Muslim integration is articulated, depending on the cultural and political particularities of the French model of integration. In Chapter 5, the second case investigates the German public debate; specifically, analysis focuses on how this debate is characterised by 1) a political and cultural rationale that focuses on the “crisis of multiculturalism;” 2) a necessity to redefine German identity in a more cohesive way through an epistemological shift in the definition of a German national identity. In Chapter 6, the third case looks at the British debate, which focuses on the failings of multicultural integration and promotes a new model of integration calling for a policy of "muscular liberalism" in order to guarantee that Muslims respect those values that characterize the national British identity such as democracy, equality before the law and human rights. In Chapter 7, the conclusion provides a comparative analysis of national debates to reflect on the extent to which a discursive process of convergence is emerging towards Muslim integration and how these relationships arguably contribute to the construction of a shared normative discourse about integration across Europe.
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Values, imaginaries and templates of journalistic practice: a Critical Discourse Analysis

Values, imaginaries and templates of journalistic practice: a Critical Discourse Analysis

The analysis of the journalistic discourse also reveals that, somewhat contrary to many classic studies which shown that values and ideologies of journalism are tied to the ‘local’ context of media organizations, late modern journalistic identities are in many cases displaced and very often practically context-independent (however, note the topos of media ideology which still strongly ‘localises’ the analysed discourses within specific media organisations). Journalistic discourses become predominantly displaced due to – as it seems – journalists’ ever more limited knowledge and experience of practice that would be at least in some sense ‘localised’ or tied to specific ‘sites’ of journalistic practice. Instead, journalistic discourse points to the omnipresence of discourse of/about various quasi-universalised ethics and values of journalism that are all constructed in an often abstract, displaced and thus frequently context-independent way. This points, yet again, to the fact that discourses of those working for media organizations differ significantly in comparison to other, related social fields or contexts (e.g. in case of political identities which are usually very strictly attached to the context of the institutions in which they are produced; cf. Krzyżanowski, 2010). It also makes research on practice in/of journalism much more challenging. Namely, while examining journalists’ discourses on practice and agency it is far more difficult than elsewhere to discover certain culture-specific linearities i.e. fixed practices that help sustain its distinct institutional or organizational character as well as assure its continuity (Krzyżanowski, 2011). By the same token, the vagueness of journalistic discourse makes it difficult to see whether journalists actually know or experience practice-in-context or whether they are in fact gradually becoming unable to recognise the difference between the actual (legitimised) and imagined (pre-legitimised) practices, especially as their discursive constructions seem almost identical.
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A Critical Discourse Analysis of Family and Friends Textbooks: Representation of Genderism

A Critical Discourse Analysis of Family and Friends Textbooks: Representation of Genderism

Actions and goals which are due to conscious or unconscious ideas refer to ideology. Most political and economic tendencies in society are propounded by ideology. In this regard, one of the most popular concepts in ideologies is power. Ideology having power can reach specific purposes and always in society some groups having more power dominate others, so, dominating groups can make a stance to establish text and talk to shape and form people’s unconscious thought which is a main goal for ideology. Gender consists of social thoughts and roles in which dominant culture of society carries them on men and women. One of the main purposes of critical discourse analysis is identify and discover gender issues such as difference between male and female in society which is stated through language, in this way, power structure and hidden ideology of power group could come out. With regard to study of CDA and its analyses and results, curriculum developers should consider these studies and provide unbiased content to improve equality between male and female in society. The results of this study can be useful for policy makers, material developers, teachers and students to interpret its findings to find a way to revise or reform the content of the books such as Family and Friends 4, 5 and 6 specifically in sexism area.
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CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: THEORY AND METHOD IN SOCIAL AND LITERARY FRAMEWORK

CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: THEORY AND METHOD IN SOCIAL AND LITERARY FRAMEWORK

whatever one’s theoretical orientation or use of quantitative or qualitative data. Wodak’s triangulatory approach can be characterized as theoretical and is based on the concept of context, which takes into account four levels: (1) The immediate language, or text-internal co-text; (2) the intertextual and interdiscursive relationship between utterances, texts, genres and discourses; (3) the extra-lingustic (social) level, which is called “the context of situation” and explained by middle-range theories; and (4) the broader socio-political and historical contexts. Permanent switching between these levels and evaluation of the findings from these different perspectives, as Wodak believed, should minimize the risk of being biased. In Wodak’s view, in Wodak, R. & Meyer, M. (2001), triangulation among different types of data, participants’ definitions of significance and issue-based analysis to establish the significance of the sites of engagement and mediated actions under study are suited to bringing the analyses back to participants in order to get their reactions and interpretations: to undercover divergences and contradictions between one’s own analysis of the mediated actions one is studying and those of participants. Wodak (p. 30), in Wodak, R. & Meyer, M. (2001), continued to say that in the tradition of critical theory, CDA aims to make transparent the discursive aspects of social disparities and inequalities. CDA in the majority of cases, as the author argued, takes the part of the underprivileged and tries to unpack the linguistic means used by the privileged to stabilize or even to intensify iniquities in society.
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A Critical Discourse Analysis of Iranian Sport Media: A Case Study

A Critical Discourse Analysis of Iranian Sport Media: A Case Study

To begin with, Eshaghi and Bye (2014) examined the strategies used by the Iranian premier league coaches in the post-match press conferences to avoid the aftermath of defeats, and matched them with the van Dijk’s suggested pattern and his predictions. They concluded that though van Dijk’s ideological schema has the potential to explain how a social group is formed by the coach, technical personnel, club management, and fans, it has deficiencies when it comes to predict certain behaviors. To solve this, the authors sug- gest a concept called “encounter structure” which is of two types: (a) a ‘decremental encounter’ for political discours- es, and (b) an ‘incremental-decremental encounter’ for sport discourses. Moreover, they suggested a level called ‘meta- discourse’ to explain some discourse practices for which van Dijk’s ideological square cannot make a prediction.
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Language Power and Ideology in Commercial Discourse: A Prologue to Critical Discourse Analysis for Neophyte Analysts

Language Power and Ideology in Commercial Discourse: A Prologue to Critical Discourse Analysis for Neophyte Analysts

At lexical level, the analysis looks into certain lexical choices reflecting the attitude of writer, for example, the use of freedom fighter vs. terrorist. One way of analysing vocabulary is to focus on the alternative wordings and their political and ideological significance. The analysis can also draw upon the ideological and political importance of particular metaphors and conflicts between alternative metaphors (Fairclough, 1992 b: 77). While comparing two news reports by two different newspapers on the execution of Saddam Hussein, Asghar (2014) observes that a British newspaper The Sun referred to him as Saddam Hussein stood shaking in the dock, but was reported to have walked to his customary seat in the Pakistani newspaper, the Nation. In the same news reports, the lexical choices of non-human participants indicated the level of sympathy of both newspapers with Saddam Hussein, and hence reflect their ideological ties. In the following quote, the way the verbal process “shout” was used by both newspapers is noteworthy where the Sun referred to Saddam Hussein as ‘…the one-time leader of the country tried to shout him (the judge) down with cries…’and the Nation mentioned Saddam Hussein as continued to shout, denouncing the court’. Asghar highlights that the process shout was used in the Sun in a negative context whereas in the Nation the same process is more likely to communicate a positive implication while depicting Saddam indulged in a spirited activity even when he was arrested.
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TRANSLATOR IS A READER OR CRITIC; CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS ORIENTATION

TRANSLATOR IS A READER OR CRITIC; CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS ORIENTATION

Schaffner (2004:118) mentions that through translation as a bridge between various discourses information is made available to addressees beyond national borders; it is very frequently the case that reactions in one country to statements that were made in another country are actually reactions to the information as it was provided in translation. The linguistic behavior which is related to political behavior may well reflect evidence of behavior mediated by translation. The Post-colonialism is one of the most thriving points of contact between Cultural Studies and Translation Studies. Before Post-colonialism one of the main assumptions was that translation is always controlled by the target culture. Postcolonialists believe that primary control of the translation process was clearly in the hands of the source culture. According to this approach, there is a more tendency to translate from a hegemonic culture to a dominated culture and when the translator of a hegemonic culture translates a text produced by the dominated culture, his work will be perceived as difficult and inscrutable (Robinson, 1997: 32).
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Reflection of Ideology on Translation: A Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective

Reflection of Ideology on Translation: A Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective

Abstract Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a framework for translation criticism, this study attempted to examine the reflection of ideology on translation. To this end, 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' and its translation were critically analyzed within the framework of the CDA based on Fairclough's (1989) Model. Thus, lexical items and grammatical choices which had ideological load were extracted, compared and contrasted with a qualitative approach at the micro level, focusing on the context in which the text was produced at the meso level and then, interpretation and explanation were applied at the macro level. In this respect, Fairclough (1989) expresses that formal features have three types of value: experiential, relational, and expressive that were applied in the present study hierarchically from high to low as follows: the relational, the experiential, and the expressive values. The findings showed that although the translator tried to maintain the author's ideology and influence the readers of the TT when reading the translated book as the author did in the source society, there were some informed and uninformed manipulations because political and social background knowledge, religious beliefs, and cultural differences influenced the choices of linguistic elements and subsequently those of paralinguistic elements. The implications of the study were presented at the end.
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