environment of Protestant evangelicalism, humanistic writings and verbal discourse. The authors necessarily pursue different genres and disciplines for their accounts. Mantel constructs lives, images and conversations from what is known about her characters; Elton seeks to establish Cromwell as a thoughtful, purposeful and results-oriented minister based on interpretation of surviving documentation. It is therefore perhaps best to discuss three topics where the paths of the authors intersect. The first centers on the personality of ThomasCromwell. The second involves the religious and humanistic nature of Cromwell’s beliefs and their effect on his actions and life. The third entails his accomplishments and acumen at survival as the chief minister of Henry VIII. However, the style, format and themes followed by the respective authors will be addressed first to understand better where they are coming from and, if it might be suggested, where they intended to go. Elton decidedly positions himself as the master of the manuscripts, in this case contemporary documents and parliamentary records from the statutes and the journals of the House of Commons. He comes close to chastising those historians pursuing the history of ideas – he is not a fan – believing that all is for naught unless such ideas can be traced to actions beyond the mental exercise. Indeed, he has little time for More’s Utopia because no proposals were put forth to better the commonwealth, only ‘remedies in the fictional realm of the unattainable’. Elton’s goal is to demonstrate the translation of ‘aspiration into achievement’ and how ‘thought yielded results in deed’. This of course provides a theme and path for his discussion of
however, been interpreted conspiratorially. They deserve more careful reading than they have usually been given. Viscount Lisle would claim that his earlier reports of troubles had been ignored and would emphasise his current difficulties; Cromwell would respond by accusing Lisle of failing to send him timely information. Historians have seized on Lisle’s accusations and dismissed Cromwell’s responses as hypocritical: Lisle, allegedly, was entirely right and Cromwell was subverting his authority by ignoring Lisle’s requests for help. But close reading of the sequence of letters will suggest rather that we should be wary of taking these letters as proof that Cromwell was in any way protecting religious
The principles of Quakerism have a direct tendency to make a man the quiet and inoffensive subject of any, and every government which is set over him. And if the setting up and putting down of kings and governments is God's peculiar prerogative, he most certainly will not be robbed thereof by us; wherefore, the principle itself leads you to approve of every thing, which ever happened, or may happen to kings as being his work, OLIVER CROMWELL thanks you.--CHARLES, then, died not by the hands of man; and should the present Proud Imitator of him, come to the same untimely end, the writers and publishers of the testimony, are bound by the doctrine it contains, to applaud the fact. Kings are not taken away by miracles, neither are changes in governments brought about by any other means than such as are common and human; and such as we are now using. Even the dispersing of the jews, though foretold by our Savior, was effected by arms. Wherefore, as ye refuse to be the means on one side, ye ought not to be meddlers on the other; but to wait the issue in silence; and unless you can produce divine authority, to prove, that the Almighty who hath created and placed this new world, at the greatest distance it could possibly stand, east and west, from every part of the old, doth, nevertheless, disapprove of its being independent of the corrupt and abandoned court of Britain, unless I say, ye can show this, how can ye, on the ground of your principles, justify the exciting and stirring up of the people 'firmly to unite in the abhorrence of all such writings, and measures, as evidence a desire and design to break off the happy connection we have hitherto enjoyed, with the kingdom of Great Britain, and our just and necessary subordination to the king, and those who are lawfully placed in authority under him.' What a slap in the face is here! the men, who, in the very paragraph before, have quietly and passively resigned up the ordering, altering, and disposal of kings and governments, into the hands of God, are now recalling their principles, and putting in for a share of the business. Is it possible, that the conclusion, which is here justly quoted, can any ways follow from the doctrine laid down? The inconsistency is too glaring not to be seen; the absurdity too great not to be laughed at; and such as could only have been made by those, whose understandings were darkened by the narrow and crabby spirit of a despairing political party; for ye are not to be considered as the whole body of the Quakers but only as a factional and fractional part thereof.
Frank Saxby Austin, William Cameron and George Logan were unemployed miners in their sixties, working on the Unemployment Board work scheme. 120 All had links with Bendigo: Cameron was born there, had worked the Alta claim in the early 1900s and his family was the last to live at Logantown; Logan was a son of Thomas Logan, the prospector who found the rich Cromwell Company claim on Bendigo, while Austin was the son of a miner who had worked at Cardrona in 1863 and Bendigo Gully in 1864. 121 According to the Otago Daily Times, Cameron acted on the enthusiasm of his late father who had declared that there was a rich reef in the Rise and Shine area for a prospector to find. 122 The group had a hard life; as well as living under canvas in the bleak Rise and Shine Valley, they had to carry their tools eight miles back to Tarras for re-sharpening, fixing and re-pointing, while the nearest functioning battery for test crushing quartz samples was at the Callery brothers’ Golden Point mill, 120 miles away at Macraes Flat. 123
Physical classrooms are often overlooked in educational research. While teachers, students, materials, and methodologies have all been the foci of studies for many years, research into the spaces in which instructed second language acquisition takes place is, for the most part, absent in the literature. In Thomas (2018a, 2018b), I argued that exploring these spaces and the affordances they provide is a necessary endeavor if we are to offer a holistic view of learning. It should be noted that my discussion of learning spaces refers to formal education settings—classrooms—and not self-access centers. However, I believe that relevant work in the field of self-access learning can indeed inform classroom design in instructed settings. Therefore, I use this work to support my discussion. As a work-in- progress report, this short paper will first describe my work up until this point, and second, explain how my ideas about learning spaces have transformed over time. I will discuss a new direction in which this and other studies may take. This new direction involves viewing classroom spaces as complex language learning systems and harnessing successful strategies students use within these systems to allow learning to take place. This focus on learning spaces as complete systems, as opposed to just their physical characteristics, has implications for how students can be better prepared to learn beyond the classroom.
narrative, his attempts to achieve this authorial removal range from the use of temporally-distant foreign settings to framed narratives that force the audience to directly engage with matters of space. It is nonetheless possible, by closely examining Kyd’s rhetoric in its historical context, to illustrate the primary tensions which govern vengeance narratives on the Renaissance stage. By firmly establishing the most common conceptions of revenge during the period, we can begin to track the progress of these ideas across historical epochs. Because the play deftly synthesizes the rhetoric of historians, physicians, and theologians alike, it is also worth examining separate examples of different rhetorical modes. While the play has “no major narrative source” (Mulryne xv), its cultural influences are demonstrable. Though Kyd is partially indebted to Seneca, The Spanish Tragedy is better understood by analyzing prose documents which immediately precede and follow the work's popularization. This exploration reveals a strong undercurrent of violence and vengeance relating to the use of space; these traits are evident both in terms of the locally- specific examples and geographically-removed allegories explored in the works of Thomas Beard, Phillip Stubbes, and Thomas Adams.
Through an examination of the ceremonies represented in both civic records and contemporary print, the proclamation of Richard Cromwell is thus situated within a wider history of interregnum urban experience and used to expose a level of involvement markedly absent from previous studies. The discussion which follows reveals how local authorities could celebrate for more nuanced reasons than a one dimensional adherence to national directive. Despite differences in the towns themselves and the symbolic performances that they chose to employ, ritual orchestrators demonstrated that it was resolutely worth staging an expensive and unstable public event as a means of confronting issues specific to their respective locales. Far from a simplistic rehashing of monarchical precedent or a straightforward indication of partisan support, the urban response to Richard’s accession reveals the continued vitality of ritual culture in the republican town and emphasizes the agency of those inhabitants who shared in its performance.
day to honour their decisive and explosive shattering of the hitherto prevailing situation, while at the same time exploring and taking full account of their human tragedy. Just as in the case of St Paul and the universalisation of Christianity, so lucidly explained by Alain Badiou 69 , great human figures stand out in each case, the subjects of this study: Cromwell, Robespierre and Lenin. There is no need to subscribe to Carlyle’s acclamation for Heroes in order to explain why in each case precisely these particular individuals rose to the occasion, through long individual experience of internal turmoil, as in the case of Cromwell, lack of charisma as in the case of Robespierre, and on occasion complete isolation, as in the case of Lenin in April 1917, when he stood alone against his Party. 70 In each case the individual has indeed become a “screen memory” for conservatives and reactionaries, dreadful examples used to prove that all revolutions are necessarily disasters.
The search for the true self in the Gospel of Thomas, the Book of Thomas and the Hymn of the Pearl Patrick J Hartin Gonzaga University, Spokane Abstract At the heart of the Gospel of Thomas lies the c[.]
Abstract: Central Otago is one of the driest parts of New Zealand, and much of the natural vegetation of the region was lost to fires following human settlement in the 13th Century AD. Plant macrofossil and pollen records have provided detailed insights into the vegetation communities that existed in Central Otago’s lowlands at the time of human settlement, but relatively little is known about the regional vegetation patterns prior to ~3000 years ago. Here, we present analyses of pollen and plant macrofossil assemblages from a buried cave deposit in the Cromwell Gorge which dates to the early Holocene (~11 700–8300 years ago), a time when the climate was significantly warmer than during the late Holocene. The results show that at this time the local vegetation community consisted of low open scrubland or woodland, very similar to that found there during the late Holocene. Rare tall forest tree pollen was probably derived from distant sources in Southland or coastal Otago, where forest was spreading at this time. The absence of evidence for tree species that were regionally dominant during the late Holocene (Phyllocladus alpinus, Kunzea serotina and Podocarpus hallii), and the abundance of low-growing shrubs, indicates that during the early Holocene the interior valleys of Central Otago may have experienced a climate substantially drier than present.
5 Dhami (2009) claim that ‘studying participants under unrepresentative conditions may distort their typical behavior’, which could produce findings lacking in external validity (Dhami, Hertwig and Hoffrage, 2004). In all likelihood, the utility of different methodologies is somewhat contingent on the information sought. Offender characteristics, motivation and background may remain fairly static and are therefore largely consistent irrespective of where the interview takes place, but accessing information on modus operandi and target appraisal, for example, might be more problematic in an artificial setting than in situ. Asking an offender about an offence, whether one they have committed or hypothetical, in an artificial setting is unlikely to reveal the nuanced responses to shifting stimuli in the real world, but rather elicit rationalisations that ‘make sense’ after the event. As identified by Nee et al. (2015: 507) reconstructed and ‘relatively unrealistic contextual cues fall short of observing actual behaviour’. Supporting this assertion, in Cromwell et al’s (1991a) study with free and active offenders they found that after-the-fact reconstructions of the event prompted accounts that appeared to be rational and well thought out, but site visits and interviews revealed that they were often spontaneous and disorganized. This highlights the need for a multi-method approach to assist with triangulating and verifying responses.
Book Review Thomas & Thomas Legal Times of the Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons SMU Law Review Volume 25 | Issue 2 Article 15 1971 Book Review Thomas & Thomas Legal Times of the Use of Chemical[.]
et al., 1997), whereas for fs lasers fragmentation and vaporisation-condensation mechanisms dominate (D'Abzac et al., 2012). However, for some materials the fractionation effects between volatile and refractory elements may be reduced by increasing the laser fluence (using a 266 nm Nd:YAG laser; Cromwell and Arrowsmith, 1995).Particle formation processes with all laser types are dominated by the element interactions in the cooling ablation plume, and are common to all wavelengths and pulse widths, including fs pulse width lasers, if near complete vaporisation of a sample occurs (D'Abzac et al., 2012; Jackson and Gunther, 2003; Koch et al., 2002; Outridge et al., 1997). For short pulse width lasers, the ablation plume will be smaller and shorter lived and hence less fractionation would be expected to occur. The laser pulse will interact differently with each material ablated depending on the wavelength and pulse width of the laser and also on the physical properties of the mineral (e.g., bond strength, opacity and heat capacity; Guillong and Gunther, 2002; Kelley and Fallick, 1990; Wagner et al., 2002). These differences in the laser-solid interaction in turn influence the particle forming processes and the amount of element fractionation (matrix effects). With ns pulse width lasers, accurate analyses require matrix matching of reference standards and samples (Danyushevsky et al., 2003; Gaboardi and Humayun, 2009; Kroslakova and Gunther, 2007; Sylvester, 2008b). To date there are few studies (Gusarov and Smurov, 2005) of ablation mechanics conducted with shorter wavelength (213 nm and 193 nm) ns pulse width lasers, as used in this study.