The Chinese Zodiac, a 12–year cycle that ancient Chinese people use to count years, is considered as a very important and seminal part of traditional culture in China and. Now, more and more foreigners are being introduced to this traditional culture of China. Consequently, there are many books about Chinese Zodiac have been published because of its increasing exposure. Currently, though people have access to a large variety of information about Chinese Zodiac, most of the information is ineffective. Through research and conceptual experimentation, effective visual design solutions that convey the essence of the Chinese Zodiac were developed in this thesis. The purpose is to help Western people better understand and develop interest in traditional Chinese culture through design, to enhance the communications and exchanges between Eastern and Western culture and to show how design can improve them. The project integrates illustration, book and series poster design.
Conversely, since the UK is an individualistic culture , British players could prefer advergames that focus on the game mechanics and personal accomplishments. Moreover, since Brazil has a higher contextual level than the UK in terms of culture , Brazilian players could prefer contemplative and intuitive messages. In contrast, since British people are more disposed to honesty and social justice , they could prefer messages that involve social causes. Additionally, because Brazil has a higher Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) than the UK , Brazilians could prefer simple advergames with clear outcomes and less risky decisions, whereas British players could prefer more complex advergames. The expectations that follow this study have two sides: one from the perspective of the players and the other from the perspective of the advergame. Thus, considering that Brazilians would prefer advergames with social elements, as they are a collectivist culture, the Brazilian advergames should have social features (e.g. social media integration), in order to make the advergame more effective for Brazilians. Similarly, if considering British cultural preferences towards autonomy, British advergames would have elements that provide control over the game. These aspects are discussed and expanded in the next sections.
We argue a lack of cross-cultural validity, local relevancy, and designerly liability make personas prone to false or oversimplified representations in depicting local populaces. Taylor  reminds us that “we bring certain ways of or- dering to the world when we cast ourselves “in here” look- ing “out there””. Designing technologies from such a per- spective carries the risk of stereotypical enactments or de- signing “for deficits” on the basis of overstated perceived differences. Thus Taylor [ibid] suggests situating design and HCI in those collectively enacted logics and dialogues emerging “right here, right now”. Thus it becomes obvious that personas as objects of design for interaction with tech- nology should come from the context of design and use. Thus we postulate that co-created and user-created personas deliver situated mimetic artefacts loyal to, and understood by locals, and at the same time useful in conveying user needs, wants and goals to the designers of technology. This paper explores the origin, meaning, and connotations of personas and problematizes the later application in HCI, in a cross-cultural context specifically. This leads us to re- think the conceptualisation and associated methods to cre- ate personas as cross-culturaldesign tools, which we exem- plify with empirical data from Namibia. We conclude that user created personas as a self-representation, rather than a representation of “the other”, conveys values and practices necessary to guide design in cross-cultural HCI.
As Table 1 five instruments only had a translator. The ideal that re translation is performed two native people from countries that have a native speaker of the original language of the instrument, but who is fluent in the language to be adapted. The two translators should not be aware of or be informed of the concepts explored, and should be, preferably, without training in health (Beaton et al., 2000, Herdman et al., 1998). The main reasons are to avoid information bias and extracting unexpected meanings of the questionnaire items translated increasing the likelihood of finding imperfections or idiomatic differences. Although all studies were conducted with the inclusion of step 3, only seven instruments make clear in your writing the profile of translators. As shown already it is important that they are "blind" in referring to the process and purpose of the instrument, increasing the reliability of this process (Beaton et al., 2000, Herdman et al., 1998). The expert committee has a unique role in this process, it is at this point that the equivalences are effectively carried out and is made further discussion regarding the true meaning of the instrument and its applicability. Only three articles showed the numbers of participants of this committee. There is no exact number but it is desirable to have a number of participants sufficient to increase such discussion (Beaton et al., 2000, Herdman et al., 1998). The role of the expert committee is to consolidate all the versions of the questionnaire and develop what would be considered the pre-final version of the questionnaire for field testing. The committee therefore review all translations and reach consensus on any discrepancy. Comprised of bilingual professionals in various areas such as methodology, languages and health professionals. In seven studies discussed in the text the formation of the committee but does not make clear what was the real composition in the study. The validation of the EHP-30 (Mengarda, 2008) the EORT (Sánches et al., 2009) was not determined if the committee was held. It needs to be made such a discussion in the study, that this step has an important value. The appropriate composition of the committee is essential for cross-cultural adaptation. After version be approved by the committee we have is the pre-final version. To complete this process first moves toward completion of the pre-test.
findings. First, we can use data from a culture to build deception classifiers for another culture, with performance figures better than the random baseline, but weaker than the results obtained with within-culture data. An important finding is that LIWC can be effectively used as a bridge for cross- cultural classification, with results that are com- parable to the use of unigrams, which suggests that such specialized lexicons can be used for cross-cultural or cross-lingual classification. More- over, using only the linguistic category from LIWC brings additional improvements, with absolute im- provements of 2-4% over the use of unigrams. This is an encouraging result, as it implies that a seman- tic bridge such as LIWC can be effectively used to classify deception data in other languages, in- stead of using the more costly and time consuming unigram method based on translations.
Critical theorists have often accused positive psychology (PP) of developing a culturally- specific understanding of wellbeing (Becker & Marecek, 2008). That is, since much of the empirical work in PP has taken place in Western countries, it is suggested that the concepts developed within the field tend to reflect a bias towards ‘Western’ ways of thinking. For instance, Izquierdo (2005) argues that PP has been strongly influenced by a North American tradition of ‘expressive individualism’ (defined by Pope (1991, p.384) as the ‘unmitigated reference to the value of the individual self’). However, PP has not been unmindful of these critiques, and indeed has developed a greater level of cross-cultural sensitivity than its critics give it credit for. This emergent sensitivity is reflected in studies exploring variation in the way different cultures relate to wellbeing, including in how it is defined (Joshanloo, 2014), experienced (Uchida & Ogihara, 2012) and reported (Oishi, 2010).
Finally, the authors would be remiss not to note the differences in socioeconomic and ethnic demographics, family leave policies, and healthcare access between these two nations. The authors acknowledge that the general U.S. population is more socioeconomically and ethnically diverse than the general Finnish population, even if our sample populations are comparable, and that these attributes may influence care within cultural con- texts differently. The authors also acknowledge the im- portance of generous paid family leave and universal healthcare in supporting FCC. These differences likely have an unavoidable impact on parental presence and care practices in both settings, and therefore must be ac- knowledged when interpreting the results of this study and making recommendations for FCC. However, des- pite these limitations, the findings of this study offer valuable information about ways NICUs can support the overall wellbeing of families, while raising important questions for future study regarding the role of societal structures in family NICU experiences.
This approach contrasts with more traditional methodology which has been employed to learn about other cultures. Ember and Ember (2001), for instance, produce a seven-point set of guide-lines which are meant to assist researchers in cross-cultural research. The first of these reads; “Ask a clear one-sentence research question” (p. 136; italics in the original). Steps two and three consist of “Formulate at least one hypothesis to test” and “Operationalize each variable in the hypothesis” (p. 136). In contrast to Geertz, the focus of these authors is on that which can be generalized across cultures. For me personally, such an approach does not help to transport me to where I want to go: someplace that I have not been before, and where I may well not know what questions might be relevant until I am well on my journey.
Sleeping is a basic human need without which man cannot be sound mentally and physically (Mayes, 1983). Actually sleeping is a universal phenomenon that is socio-culturally arranged in every society. Every baby sleeps with his or her mother from the very beginning due to sucking and care and gradually attaches with father as she or he ages. When she or he becomes matured enough, sleeps separately from the parents (Owens, 2004; Latz et al., 1999; Morelli et al., 1992; Kawasaki et al., 1994). Actually, separate sleeping arrangement between parents and siblings or between brother and sister is an important point to assign age status for both male and female children that has significant similarity between the Muslim and Santal communities. The findings on age assignment for sleeping are supported by Uddin’s (2006) findings. He explored that in his cross-cultural study. According to Uddin’s (2006) research findings: about 70 percent of the Muslim and 54 percent of the Santal considered that parents should separately sleep when children were 8 - 9 years, 33 percent of the Muslim com- pared to 26 percent of the Santal thought that parents should sleep separately with the children when they were 10 - 11 years. And the rest of them indicated 12 years or above. In brother and sister sleeping arrangement about 10 percent of the Muslim and 6 percent of the Santal thought that brother and sister should separately sleep when they were 6 - 8 years, 86 percent of both the communities' age of separate sleeping between son and daughter should be 9 - 11 years. Like sleeping arrangement between pubescent boys and girls, human interaction between them may also occur. Cross-cultural literature reveals that communication occurred between male and female across the life cycle widely varies across the world cultures, depending on the cultural systems followed (Uddin, 2010). Children of both the Muslim and Santal communities like other ethnic communities in Bangla- desh and around the world communicate according to their respective cultural patterns in which the Muslim male and female children can freely communicate with one other at early or middle childhood, after puberty their interaction is strictly restricted, because of cultural conservativeness in sexual sense. On the other hand, the Santal children across the age and sex levels may communicate with each other, because of more cultural free- dom (Uddin, 2010).
Cultural intelligence refers to potential of working in a crosscultural organization effectively and efficiently. It is the distinct capability of performing in intercultural context. It is an important measure as it will help the organizations to measure the capability of working and adapting the crosscultural environment. It being an important aspect in today’s highly globalised economy need a good and accurate way of measurement. Hence we believe that the future research should focus on increasing diversity in tools to measure cultural intelligence. The future work can explore the team composition of cultural intelligence i.e. how cultural intelli- gence can be distributed in a team.
1. „Cultural Segmentation: Act Global, Think Local‟ Strategy can be brought into use viewing from marketing agencies viewpoint. It states that companies can get benefits of globalization in production, labor, distribution etc, and moreover can build good relations with local customers and employees. Revolving around the Indian culture, advertising style may vary in accordance to languages, religions and value – systems, so advertisers shall make ad – campaigns accordingly.
The importance of cross-cultural issues in vehicle HMI design has been acknowledged in several studies including, for example, the following: comparison between US and China in perceived hazard response to warning components and configuration (Lesch, Rau, Zhao, & Liu, 2009), comparison between Swedish and Chinese drivers in design of advanced driver assistance systems (Lindgren, Chen, Jordan, & Zhang, 2008), comparison of Australian and Chinese drivers in the use of in-vehicle information systems (Young, Rudin-Brown, Michael, & Amy, 2011), comparison between German and Chinese drivers in the use of a navigation system (Heimgartner, 2007; Heimgartner & Holzinger, 2005), and a comparison between UK and Indian drivers in the usability of HMI systems (Khan & Williams, 2014). These studies highlighted a range of cultural differences amongst participating groups, in terms of their UI preferences, navigation, driving, and task management styles that are relevant to HMI design. For example, it was found that Chinese drivers prefer greater speed in screen formation and information density and can cope with a greater number of tasks simultaneously compared to German or English drivers (Heimgartner, 2007; Heimgartner & Holzinger, 2005). Similar results have also been found by Khan and Williams (2014), where vehicle Bluetooth and navigation systems specifically designed to suit the visual perception and information decoding abilities of a specific culture (UK) were found to negatively impact the ability of people from another culture (India) to successfully interact with the system, as measured by task completion times and error rate. Young et al. (2011) found that Chinese drivers place less emphasis on safety and driver distraction, and on the appearance or aesthetic appeal of the HMI when compared to Australian users. In addition, Chinese drivers were less able to comprehend abbreviated text in the HMI system. At present however there is limited understanding of the nature of the observed differences, particularly their causes and impact relative to other factors. As such, there is a lack of recommended guidelines and tools available to deal with cultural issues in HMI design. Understanding Cultural Dimensions
We found farmers were collectivists by nature since they were well organised into self- help groups that buy and sell agricultural products, make decisions for and within the groups and learn/disseminate information within a group. They showed high uncertainty avoidance: for instance, during some probing exercises with small digital cameras and MP3 players, users would not perform any other actions than those they had been shown. If a camera screen went off, they would come back to the researcher asking if he could fix it. Contrary to Hofstede‟s scores for East Africa, the communities studied showed low power distance traits since leaders are elected and often this role rotates. Each leader must explain and justify his actions and decisions at every group meeting. Nonetheless, these high level insights into their cultures were not complete and refined and situated enough to inform design and needed of methods and artefacts that would facilitate decisions at more detailed level.
c) EMPHASIS ON SPIRITUALITY: Whereas in the centre, recitation of Path and Simran are encouraged to increase mental strength of the addicts to abstain from immoral activities such as alcohol or drug consumption, violence etc. Spirituality is an essential component (apart from psychological and medical ones) of the overall management and treatment of addiction patients in the centre. For this purpose a structured time table is followed. Counseling and physiotherapy related services are provided to each and every patient and the respective family members. Many of the community based Alcohol treatment programmes in Indian communities across the country have a strong cultural or spiritual component at there is intended to revitalize traditional beliefs and serve as the primary sources of Individual strength in maintaining sobriety. The research community, however, has been reluctant to accept the idea that culture and Indian spirituality may be important to the prevention and treatment of alcohol problem. At least two reasons exist for this attitude. First, non- Indian views of the psychology of behaviour are primarily secular and, for the most part, relegate culture to a peripheral role. Second, methods to measure spirituality, cultural beliefs, and values have not been well developed, hindering scientific study in those areas. A number of recent studies have attempted to find a link between cultural identification and substance use among Indian adolescents, but so far no relationship has been found (Beavvais, 1998). Although culture may not be a protective factor, but the extremely strong belief, held by Indian elders and others that culture is a critical protective factor suggests that more research is needed in this area. ††††††
A wide variety of ethnic groups compose the human world. Each nation has cre- ated a rich, unique ethnic culture throughout the course of its own development, thereby contributing to a diverse global culture of all nations. If the world can be compared to a colorful brocade, then each ethnic culture is one element of colorful silk embroidery, a part of the overall pattern that still maintains its own unique characteristics. As time has passed, cultural differences have become increasingly respected, and people have gradually realized that every nation has the right and obligation to develop its own culture. This diversity of culture enriches human life and supports human development. American cultural anthropologist Ralph Linton believes that a person who knows nothing about other cultures cannot truly under- stand his or her own culture. Therefore, it is equally and vitally important for each nation to understand both its own culture and other cultures (Linton 2007). With the changes brought on by increasing globalization, the cultural contact between countries has been gradually increasing. This dialogue between cultures is positive, as it recognizes the value of each culture ’ s existence, and stems from a mutual ap- preciation, a mutual respect and a mutual promotion of each culture. In the context of globalization, the different varieties of cultural dialogue aid in the inheritance and innovation of new cross-cultural knowledge, the promotion of understanding between different ethnic cultures, and the development of friendly relations among nations. However, people now worry that the rich and diverse culture of each eth- nic group may be diluted in the torrent of global information. This worry is not without reason as this dilution has begun to manifest itself in real life. In a world where information flows freely, any culture can change rapidly, either leading to enrichment or to crisis. Realistically, cultures, which are dynamic but fragile en- tities, will obviously face challenges with regard to diversity as they become global citizens. In contrast, a relatively closed living environment with no obvious exter- nal influences will protect and develop the traditional culture of a given ethnic group. This fact has been abundantly shown to be true.
President Xi Jinping said that Confucian doctrines established by Confucius and the later Confucianism developed from the doctrines had profound influences on Chinese civilization in the international symposium to commemorate the 2565th anniversary of Confucius’ birth in 2014, which has been regarded the indispensible component of Chinese traditional cultures. Confucianism and other thoughts produced in the process of Chinese nations’ formation and development recorded Chinese nations’ spiritual activities, rational thinking, and cultural fruits in the struggle to build our homeland, reflecting our spiritual pursuit. It is the vital nourishment to promote the Chinese nations to grow stronger and stronger. The Chinese culture not only influenced the Chinese development, but also contributed greatly to the human advancement in civilization.  We need to get a clear understanding of western and eastern cultural peculiarities, and hence recognize the current values of the Chinese culture, establishing the vital position of Chinese traditional cultures in the new era and regarding them as our spiritual home.
To sum up, undergraduate script is actually bound to have the IS. Yet, the IS is considered to be the most important, but complicated, part for some writers. The Acehnese students lay the placement of the thesis statement inductively. Consequently, the pattern of idea that is shared in the introduction is indirect. As stated by Xing, et al. (2008), many western teachers find Asian students’ essays confusing, either because there is no topic sentence in the paragraph or because too many things are mentioned within one paragraph. Thus, they claim that the EFL written text is commonly known as irrelevant and unclear paragraphs. For metadiscourse markers, although not all of the Acehnese students were aware of the use the metadiscourse markers, they have applied them in their writing. The result has arrived at noteworthy insights that Acehnese students mostly employed the inductive type of logic and circular thought of pattern. They started the discussion in the general area to the specific one. Similarly, the pattern of their IS is different to English cultural writing convention which is dominantly deductive and followed by the linearity of the thought patterns.