Cross Cultural Survey Research

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Cross-cultural equivalence of the organisational culture survey in Australia

Cross-cultural equivalence of the organisational culture survey in Australia

The aim of this study is to assess whether the cross-cultural equivalence of the Organisational Culture Survey (OCS) persist in an Australian context. The nature of the instrument is presented which includes a clear statement of its South African origin and its’ place within a logical positivist paradigm. The sample consisted of 326 respondents from a population of managers of the Australian Institute of Management. This study con¢rms the instrument’s validity and internal consistency within an Australian context, but that further research is required into the functio- nal and conceptual equivalence of the survey items and dimensions underpinning the items to conclusively establish its utility. Finally, aspects of the ‘organisational culture’construct underlying the survey need revision given recent trends in related systems, complexity and chaos theories.
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The cross-cultural application of the social axioms survey in The South African police service

The cross-cultural application of the social axioms survey in The South African police service

The definition of social axioms implies that the structure of A is related to B, where A and B can be any entities (Bond et al., 2004; Leung & Bond, 2004; Leung et al., 2002). A social axiom proposes a basic premise in the form of an assertion, in which a relationship between two entities or concepts is formed (Singelis et al., 2003). the relationship between them may be through a correlation, or it may be causal (Bond et al., 2004; Leung & Bond, 2004; Leung et al., 2002). the belief statement, “hard work leads to reward”, for example, asserts that a causal relationship exists between “hard work” (labour) and “reward” (positive outcomes of the labour). it is therefore a general statement, as there are many forms of “hard work”, just as there are many forms of “reward”. Furthermore, it is not an attitude or value, as the respondent is neither assessing the desirability of “hard work”, nor that of “reward”. hence, beliefs are different from values in the sense that the evaluative component of a value is general, while it is specific for a belief (Leung & Bond, 2004). If the desirability pole of an evaluative belief becomes specific, it turns into a social axiom (Leung & Bond, 2004; Leung et al., 2002). Axioms are therefore truth statements for the actor, as they do not assess desired goals (Leung & Bond, 2004). Social axioms are a newly added construct in the scientific assemblage and, even though research on social axioms is just beginning, it should justify its existence by improving our scientific reach. Social axioms, or people’s beliefs about how the world functions, provide a different type of general orientation that may add to the predictive power of values (Bond et al., 2004). they also involve more than values, as they contribute to our understanding of social functioning by capturing important features of a culture that are different from those reflected by values. Social axioms have four functions: they promote important social goals, help people defend their self- esteem, express values, and help people understand the world (Kurman & Ronen-Eilon, 2004; Leung et al., 2002).
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Cross cultural survey development: The Colon Cancer Screening Behaviors Survey for South Asian populations

Cross cultural survey development: The Colon Cancer Screening Behaviors Survey for South Asian populations

Critical appraisal examined the match between key con- cepts, selected candidate measures, and SAs because conceptual relevance and socio-cultural alignment were more important than statistical outcomes [55, 56]. Nine items from the Evaluating the Measurement of Patient- Reported Outcomes (EMPRO) [57] were used to assess selected measures for conceptual and measurement model (n = 7), content validity (n = 1), and response bur- den (n = 1). Two appraisers independently critiqued the first articles, met to discuss results, and reach consensus. Appraisers were selected based on expertise with survey measurement research, and cancer screening research with SAs. The remaining critique of articles was com- pleted by one assessor.
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Factors associated with gestational weight gain: a cross sectional survey

Factors associated with gestational weight gain: a cross sectional survey

Studies of the impact of socio-economic factors on GWG show that in the US, women with lower incomes gained more than the recommended weight compared to women with higher incomes [31, 39]. Women with less than a high school education had higher odds of in- adequate GWG [40]. Huynh et al. showed that having a college or higher education was associated with a de- creased GWG for non-Hispanic white women, but an increased GWG for Hispanic women [41]. Abbasalizad Farhangi states that in Iran women with high educa- tional attainment have a significantly higher GWG compared with low-educated women [32]. As we can see, the presented research results are ambiguous and indicate that the risk of incorrect GWG in different pop- ulations may be determined by various cultural and socio-economic factors. Thus, they should always be taken into account when examining weight gain in preg- nant women.
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Reliability and cross-cultural validity of a Japanese version of the Dental Fear Survey

Reliability and cross-cultural validity of a Japanese version of the Dental Fear Survey

reported scores 4 or 5 on the general fear item. These very high levels of fear reported increase the need to under- stand the properties of the instrument being used across cultures and raise questions about the reliability and cross-cultural validity of the translated instrument. Other Japanese researchers studied dental fear in 174 new patients (mean age 41 years, 36% male) at a dental hospi- tal in Tokyo [5]. Dental fear was self-reported as part of a larger battery of assessments on a 100 mm visual analog scale anchored by "no fear" and "severe fear". Higher scores indicated greater fear. The overall mean score was 51.2 mm. Scores for fear were higher in males than females. Scores were correlated with the SF-36, which rep- resents an individual's general health. Dental fear, satis- faction with tooth color, etc., which are considered psychological elements, were significantly correlated with several of the SF-36 subscales. The author suggested that psychological oral health elements affect the general sta- tus. Unfortunately the failure to use validated instrumen- tation in this study precludes knowing how these findings relate to fear in the larger population. Another research group studying a large sample of teenagers, and using yet another set of questions, found between 22 and 44% of the teens reported being fearful of dental checkups or treatment [6].
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A case study on the effects of campus climate to the cross-cultural norms of Taiwanese students

A case study on the effects of campus climate to the cross-cultural norms of Taiwanese students

The dawn of the age of globalization has brought forth the trend in cross-border mobility of population, more specifically for educational purposes, commerce, employment opportunities, and relocation. These phenomena fostered the development of a more diverse culture and multi-language global society. In Taiwan, an increase in international students is observed. In addition, the recent heightened volume of new migrant spouses has triggered the rise in emphasis on cross-cultural related researches. However, most studies are geared towards the cross-cultural adaptability of the visiting individual. In light of these issues, this case study details an empirical analysis of the cross-cultural norms of a host country’s individuals. Participants are 100 randomly selected English as Foreign Language (EFL) students of a Science and Technology University in Taiwan. The mixed-method research paradigm was adapted, with focus-group interviews accomplished to gather insights from Taiwanese students regarding the factors that influenced their cross-cultural flexibility. A survey questionnaire was then generated from the focus-group results and later administered to the participants. Descriptive data analyses were accomplished using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, while the multivariate analysis method Structured Equation Modeling (SEM) was achieved using the Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) software to analyze the causal relationships between the students’ campus environment and cross-cultural norms. Results show that the students’ exposure to a cross-cultural accepting environment has greatly enhanced their cross-cultural sensitivity and flexibility. In addition, results of SEM show a significant path from the students’ campus environment, individual perspective, and cross-cultural flexibility. Implications suggest that EFL students in Taiwan should be exposed to more cross-cultural opportunities, in order to enhance their cross-cultural competencies.
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The application of cross cultural research in emergency service work trauma

The application of cross cultural research in emergency service work trauma

For example, the sample was composed of IBM-only employees, potentially representing a bias of outlook in respondents. A similar problem comes from this author's professional experience of combining data from respondents in China who are employed in joint ventures and in SOE (state owned enterprises) . This is a methodological flaw as each have quite divergent views on cultural norms and management methods etc.. Employees in joint ventures tend to have more 'western' and expressive attitudes. Employees in SOEs tend to be less expressive, and more cautious in statements with political implications for the organization. Hofstede makes tacit admittance of this limitation in both his later work, where he tries to link the survey result with broader cultural data, and his 1991 remark: "The fact that IBM has a strong corporate culture. . .does limit the usefulness of a questionnaire written for use inside IBM for replications on other populations" (1991: 257) .
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Perception of Surveillance: An Empirical Study in Turkey, USA, and China Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet Devrim Aydin, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jane K. Miller, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yao Xiaojun, Prof. Dr. Dogan Nadi Leblebici, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mete Yildiz

Perception of Surveillance: An Empirical Study in Turkey, USA, and China Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet Devrim Aydin, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jane K. Miller, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yao Xiaojun, Prof. Dr. Dogan Nadi Leblebici, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mete Yildiz

In this cross-cultural study, we tried to cover different cultures so as to demonstrate the cultural similarities and differences in perception of surveillance. In the study, Turkey represents a transition point or a bridge between the Eastern and Western cultures. China stands for eastern culture and USA represents Western culture. The survey was conducted with the participation of undergraduate business administration students from Turkey (Hacettepe University/Department of Business Administration/Ankara), USA (University of Massachusetts/Isenberg School of Management/Department of Management/Amherst), and China (Huazhong Agricultural University/Department of Business Administration/Wuhan). Selected universities are state universities with a focus of teaching and scientific research. They are at a similar size in terms of student numbers (Hacettepe University/Ankara: 36,112 undergraduate and graduate students, Massachusetts University/Amherst: 28,084 undergraduate and graduate students and Huazhong Agricultural University/Wuhan: 23,000 undergraduate and graduate students). Of total 249 students in the survey, 102 are Turkish, 87 are American, and 58 are Chinese. A total of 130 instruments were completed by males (52 %) and 119 were completed by females (48%).
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Cross-cultural Research, Evolutionary Psychology, and Racialism: Problems and Prospects

Cross-cultural Research, Evolutionary Psychology, and Racialism: Problems and Prospects

Yet, constructionists’ possibly misplaced fear of imperial cognitivists does not tell the whole story of the failure to integrate CEP with SC accounts of racialism. Machery and Cohen recently defended the evolutionary behavioral sciences against its critics by noting that the critics often limit their criticisms to a handful of well-cited articles. They argue that it is a mistake “to extrapolate from these few alleged paradigmatic articles to a whole field” since research programs seldom follow the strictures laid out in such articles. Moreover, these paradigmatic articles were often dated, having been published at the “end of the 1980s and in the early 1990s” (Machery and Cohen 2012, 186). Unfortunately, CEP researchers fare equally poorly, or perhaps even worse, for engagement with the research program of constructionist researchers. In an article where they bemoan the lack of communication across disciplinary boundaries, Machery and Faucher (2005a) show little knowledge of constructionist theories of race. Of thirty-five sources cited in their article, two articles are made to stand for the entire program of social constructionists. These articles total less than fifty pages of reading and were woefully out of date when they were cited in 2005 (Banton 1970, Omi and Winant 2002 [actually a reprint that was first published in 1986]). Such a pattern of citation is not uncommon in the CEP literature. Not only are the cited SC pieces often dated, but they tend to be the same pieces again and again. An example is their reliance on an essay by Collete Guillaumin (1980) which was first cited by Hirschfeld in 1994 (140). This essay is repeatedly cited in CEP literature as an example of the social constructionist position on racialism (Gelman 2003,14, 299; 2009, 9; Gelman and Hirschfeld 1999, 403; Hirschfeld 1995, 1419; 1996, 22; 2002, 622; Kelly, Machery and Mallon 2010, 442; Mallon 2013, 80; Mallon and Kelly 2012, 513). Guillaumin’s essay is a fine piece of work, but it is thirty-five years old and hardly represents recent thinking on the social construction of race. Another example is that the only work of the long career of George Fredrickson used by CEP’s philosophical defenders is Racism: A Short History (2002; see Machery and Faucher 2005b, 1012; Mallon 2010, 277; Mallon and Kelly 2012, 513; Mallon 2013,77), which is a short survey of the topic, hardly representative of Fredrickson’s complex ideas (1971, 1981, 1995, 1997), and even less representative of the entire research program on the construction of racialism.
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Analysis of the Current Situation of Cross Border Higher Education in the Background of Internationalization

Analysis of the Current Situation of Cross Border Higher Education in the Background of Internationalization

It is believed that in the future society where the depth of international cultural exchanges is intensifying, relying on the technological advantages of network information can make it more convenient for contemporary students to accept. As a network participation group with rich network knowledge accumulation, college students are more willing to accept the network education method than the traditional classroom teaching mode. In online education, the status of teachers and students is closer to that of friends, education resources are fully open, and educational means are more abundant. All of this makes online edu- cation more attractive. Learning on such a platform, students will have a strong- er interest in learning and better learning. From the actual trend of teaching ex- penditures in the education departments of various countries, it can be seen that the implementation of cross-border education research activities has great po- tential for development [5].
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CROSS CULTURAL INTERVIEWING IN COMPARATIVE EDUCATION  RESEARCH A MEANS TO GLOBAL UNDERSTANDING

CROSS CULTURAL INTERVIEWING IN COMPARATIVE EDUCATION RESEARCH A MEANS TO GLOBAL UNDERSTANDING

Most of the conflicts, be it at local or international level, thrive on ignorance. The root cause of these disputes could be traced down to the belief of superiority of one over the other. It is through education that one can develop global understanding by getting to know of cultures other than ours. And for this, „if education is to contribute to the full realization of the individual, teachers and other educators remain key actors‟ (UNESCO,2015, p.54). Cross cultural comparative studies can be one route towards developing our own capacities as educators entrusted with the task of illuminating young minds in our classrooms. The present paper aims to illustrate the role of cross cultural interviewing in comparative education research toward enhancing global understanding. It will demonstrate how a meaningful partnership between interviewer and interviewee in cross national and cross-cultural research in the field of teacher education enabled not only a comparative study of pre- service teacher education in an Indian and a Chinese university but led towards achievement of the one of the goals of education; ‟developing an understanding of others and their history, traditions and spiritual values (UNESCO, 1996, p. 18).
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WEIRD sampling in crosscultural psychology, should it not be less WEIRD and more representative?: The overrepresentation of individuals from Western educated industrialized and democratic countries as sample populations in cross-cultural psychology resear

WEIRD sampling in crosscultural psychology, should it not be less WEIRD and more representative?: The overrepresentation of individuals from Western educated industrialized and democratic countries as sample populations in cross-cultural psychology research

To attain manhood and have the right to take a wife, the men of the Kaluli tribe in New Guinea have to ingest their elders’ semen via their anus. The neighbouring tribe of the Etoro condemn the details of the Kaluli’s ritual. Their belief is that for a young man to attain manhood, the boy must ingest the said semen through fellatio. As seemingly unusual as these practices are to some, Boy-inseminating practices of this kind are not unusual around the world, for example the Tokugawa Japanese, Ancient Greeks, Aboriginal Australians and Melanesian all took part in such rituals (Herdt, 1984). The practices of these populations are deemed unusual, by our standards and the Etoro’s standards even though both stances on Boy-inseminating rituals are very different. We, as humans, tend to base our judgement of others’ societal practices on our own society without looking at the bigger cultural picture (Henrich et al., 2010). To counteract such a bias in judgment, and evaluate cultural practices more effectively and scientifically, one should measure how usual the practice(s) in question are compared to the entirety of our species, instead of only compared to ones own (narrow) cultural standpoint (Henrich et al., 2010). These differences in Boy-inseminating practices are a good example of the human population’s Psychology varying by geographic location via culture.
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A cross sectional survey of policies guiding second stage labor in urban Japanese hospitals, clinics and midwifery birth centers

A cross sectional survey of policies guiding second stage labor in urban Japanese hospitals, clinics and midwifery birth centers

In Japan, three clinical Guidelines about intrapartum care were published: (1) ‘Evidence-based Guidelines for Comfortable Pregnancy and Childbirth [5]’ , (2) ‘Guide- lines for Maternity Home Services [6]’ and (3) ‘Clinical Guidelines for Obstetrical Practice in Japan 2011 edition [2]’; however, none adequately addressed the care of low-risk births. For example, ‘Clinical Guidelines for Ob- stetrical Practice’ published by the Japan Society of Ob- stetrical Practice [2] is mainly for high-risk women who may require medical intervention during pregnancy and delivery. Furthermore, ‘Evidence-based Guidelines for Comfortable Pregnancy and Childbirth’ [5] was mainly for low-risk women, and did not include necessary evidence-based recommendations for midwives concern- ing preventive care or the use of drugless interventions for low risk pregnancy and delivery. At the same time, there were not many reports documenting care policies of Japanese institutions and those reports were outdated, so that either care for low-risk births was not standard- ized, or there were many gaps between policies and international guidelines in Japan [7–12]. Accordingly, we needed to develop evidence-based guidelines for low- risk births for midwifery care, and to survey Japanese care policies.
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Cross sectional survey of knowledge of obstetric danger signs among women in rural Madagascar

Cross sectional survey of knowledge of obstetric danger signs among women in rural Madagascar

Another important point of consideration is, given the high attendance at the ANC visits, whether family plan- ning counseling should be included in the ANC visits in Ambanja, Madagascar. As previously noted, nearly all women in our study had benefited from ANC during their pregnancy and more than two thirds (69.7%) had even attended the WHO-recommended four regular ANC visits. Furthermore, we believe that the women reached in our study were in general those who had a more positive attitude towards the health system. How- ever, the rate of unintended pregnancies in our sample was higher than reported in the Demographic Health Survey in 2009 and more similar to the rates reported by the Guttmacher Foundation for the African Continent [21, 22]. Timing pregnancies has been linked to a reduc- tion in maternal and child mortality; therefore, the inclu- sion of family planning into ANC has been recommended [20, 21]. Even if in a recent review the mixed results exploring the relationship of ANC visits on contraceptive uptake in the first year postpartum have been highlighted, it has been mentioned as well that some studies conducted in Kenya and South Africa have shown an increased uptake of contraceptive methods in the first year postpartum when counseling during ANC visits was provided [22, 23]. As the provision of family planning reduces maternal deaths due to unsafe abortions and spacing of pregnancies can improve the survival chances and health outcomes of women and newborn, we consider the inclusion of fam- ily planning into ANC as important to consider in our setting [24].
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Examining the Social and Cultural Barriers Present for Women Seeking Healthcare in Rural Communities of Karachi, Pakistan

Examining the Social and Cultural Barriers Present for Women Seeking Healthcare in Rural Communities of Karachi, Pakistan

There are some important factors to consider that may have had an influence on the responses that the women gave. One reality that is important to consider is that in Pakistani society, the role of the man in a family or community context plays an excessively powerful role in determining the future and fate of women seeking healthcare. This unfortunately propagates high levels of low self-esteem for the women causing them to abort their will of voicing their need and right to seek health attention. In such a situation, the woman may find herself burdened with this patriarchal reality, compounded with expectations that the community has for the woman (Shaikh, B. T., & Hatcher, J., 2005). This study provides a basis for what further research should be founded by. It presents the variables and how women of the affected communities have expressed the variables that do affect their access to healthcare. Despite these seemingly insurmountable issues, there are certain ways that if maintained, they can serve to help alleviate the issues that many women in these rural areas face. First, there needs to be an active and collaborative effort to spread awareness and knowledge about proper birthcare (Khan, A., 1999). This may involve developing sustainable initiatives designed to hold community events that spread this knowledge. An important aspect of an initiative like this would be to attempt to directly involve leaders of the community. In doing such, the community is being empowered to take charge of their health care and propagate proper knowledge that might serve to tackle health complications that the community faces. To alter the mindset and improve the knowledge in a way that it permeates throughout the community is certainly a feat; but that does not mean an initiative should not be started (Mustafa, G., et al., 2015).
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Cross cultural Research on the Creativity of Elementary School Students in Korea and Australia

Cross cultural Research on the Creativity of Elementary School Students in Korea and Australia

This study would help to understand culture differences of Australia and Korea. Two countries are located in Asia-Pacific region, but there are cultural differences between western and eastern. Culture is the general expression of humanity, the expression of its creativity. Culture is linked to meaning, knowledge, talents, industries, civilization and values. Culture-based creativity is a fundamental means for industry and policy decision makers to adopt and implement more user-centered strategies. By the importance of perspective that socio-cultural contexts affect the development of creativity and reflect the results of creativity tests [10], this cross-cultural research in Korea and Australia was progressed using the Korea integrative creativity test(K-ICT) developed by Lee [13]. The creativity test was developed and validated a Korean version of a creativity test and translated into English. It was tested children’s creativity in Korea and Australia using this tool for cross-cultural research. Until now, there have not enough been comparative studies of creativity. If we know the developmental traits of children, we are able to support each other in developing educational programs of AKC (Australia and Korea Connection) and measuring students’ abilities more reliably at the national level in Korea. The purpose of this study is to understand culture differences and similarities of children’s creative characteristics between Korea and Australia, and also to contribute to the future cross-cultural studies with other countries in this field.
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Research on Cross Border Integration and Collaborative Development of Cultural and Creative Industries

Research on Cross Border Integration and Collaborative Development of Cultural and Creative Industries

By using the methods of theory research and case analysis, discusses the necessity of cultural and creative industries of cross-border integration, analysis of cross border industry types of cultural and creative industries in China, probes into the process of cultural and creative industry integration, and puts forward the paths and countermeasures for the coordinated development of cultural and creative industries. The article thinks, accelerating the cultural creative industry and manufacturing, tourism, service industry, information industry, clothing design industry types of cross-border integration and coordinated development, can promote the sustainable development of cultural and creative industries, but also conducive to the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure, to the national economic development has great value and significance.
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A cross cultural exploration of online community newcomer behaviour

A cross cultural exploration of online community newcomer behaviour

Jawecki, Fuller and Gebauer (Jawecki et al., 2011) used search engines to look for communities from a particular national culture, and also used user profile information to determine that they were from the national culture defined by the community (i.e. Chinese Streetball). Chiou and Lee (Chiou & Lee, 2008) were even less strict about the criteria defining national culture within their cross cultural community analysis, and noted that the community that they identified as American could in fact have members from different cultures; they comment “After inspection, it was concluded this would not present major problems, for the following reasons: first, people of nationalities other than the United States constituted only an insignificant minority that rarely affected the data as a whole. Second, since the discussions were conducted in English, the majority of the people were proficient in conversing in the language on that message board. This indicated the minorities had some degree of westernization, or may have come from a country culturally similar in background to the United States.” (p. 1181). Morio and Buchholz (2009) simply selected ‘Japanese’ and ‘US’ Slashdot communities without describing how they determined these as being Japanese or from the US. Siau, Erickson and Nah (2010) address this issue by commenting that it is “possible that a US or European native might be able to use Chinese to get involved in a Chinese online community or vice-versa. However, these are likely to be very rare instances. We believe that the vast majority of members in Chinese virtual communities have a Chinese cultural background. In addition, since our data involves a large volume of messages, even if there are messages posted by people with a non-Chinese cultural background, their impact should be minimal.”(p. 291). What is apparent in all of these studies is the absence of rigorous sampling procedures to maintain that the members were in fact from those national cultures in the comparison.
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Impact of imprisonment on oral health including dentition and periodontal status: A cross sectional survey

Impact of imprisonment on oral health including dentition and periodontal status: A cross sectional survey

The increase in dental caries in many developing countries, the prevalence of periodontal diseases whleading to pain, infection, nd impaired masticatory functions are causing an increasing burden of oral disease on the individual level, community level 1988). And this increasing burden of oral disease in developing countries is due to least access to health care delivery system. Different communities and populations have their own obstacles, which may be related to cultural, socioeconomic, political which enable them to buy a good oral health care or access. Each population group needs oach for health care delivery system and one of the strategies in public health is to identify unique population groups, study their health problems and explore methods for health care and provide them best possible approach in order to
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Libertarianism, Culture, and Personal Predispositions

Libertarianism, Culture, and Personal Predispositions

government and therefore prefer that more power is given to each individual (Iyer, Graham, Ditto, & Haidt, 2012). Additionally, the libertarian ideology places a premium on individual freedom and choices (Libertarian Party, 2017). Extensive psychological research has been performed on other prominent political ideologies, such as conservatism (e.g., Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski, & Sulloway, 2003), but far less attention has been devoted to the exploration of libertarian ideology. One exception is recent work by Iyer and colleagues (2012), which examined libertarian morality. The present research extends this initial work by exploring cultural and dispositional factors related to libertarian ideology. Cultures and individuals can differ greatly in the extent to which they are individualistic or collectivistic. As mentioned previously, libertarians tend to prefer more power to the individual and highly value self-reliance and independence, which are hallmarks of the individualistic mindset. It is not surprising, then, that Iyer and colleagues (2012) found that among self-proclaimed libertarians, conservatives, and liberals, libertarians tend to score the lowest on collectivism and higher or evenly with conservatives on individualism. This suggests that libertarians tend to be more individualistic and less collectivist than both liberals and conservatives. This could be because libertarians reject the notion of group effort or participating in groups that are not voluntarily chosen, which is in line with their self-reliant ideologies (Rand, 1964). Given the previously documented connection between libertarians and individualism, we hypothesized that people who endorse libertarian ideology will also score high on individualism, as evident by a positive correlation between libertarianism and individualism (Hypothesis 1).
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