The daily basal diets during the experiment consisted of baled hay (ad libitum), freshly harvested Napier grass (4 kg/cow), and 1 kg of homemade dairy concentrate/cow (74 % wheat bran, 25 % nug (Guizotia abyssinica) seed cake, 1 % common salt) for the crossbreddairycows. For the Fogera cows, similar amounts of the basal diets were fed to both breeds, but concentrate was ceased from the Fogera cows. One bale of hay, weighing between 18 and 25 kg was offered to an individual cow and was consumed over a period of 3 to 4 days. The daily hay offer depended on the consumption level of individual cows. As soon as about 20 % of the previously offered hay was left, additional hay was given from the same bale. Hay was offered throughout day time (6 am to 7 pm). The remains were collected every morning as refusals before additional feed was offered. Samples from the refusals were taken every morning and were pooled for analysis. The hay consisted of grasses such as Andropogon abyssinicus, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria abyssinicus and of legumes such as Trifolium quartinianum, Trifolium polystachyu and Indigofera atriceps. Four kg of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were offered to individual cows at around 10 am. Homemade concentrate was offered after morning milking (8 am) for the crossbredcows. The supplemented groups were offered UMMB in addition to the basal diets. Cows were allowed to lick the block between 10 am and 5 pm, after which the blocks were collected. During this time, a cow was assumed to consume about 500-700 g UMMB. UMMB were formulated from 37 % molasses, 10 % urea, 10 % cement, 25 % wheat bran, 15 % nug seed cake and 3 % common salt Bediye et al. (2009). Using this formula, a 5 kg block was produced by thoroughly mixing the exact quantities of the components. Cement and salt were dissolved in 200 ml of water prior to being added to the other components. The mixture finally had a dough texture and was put into a plastic sheet lined, rectangular wooden frame of 30*20*20 cm depth, length and width, respectively, for molding. Compaction was applied using a wooden bar; afterwards the block was left for 15 minutes until it maintained a proper shape. Finally, it was removed from the frame and left to dry in a well ventilated room for about 72 hours, after which it was ready for feeding. Cows had access to fresh water from the nearby river two times per day.
ABSTRACT: Effect of supplementation with different proportions of breweries dried grain and Maize bran mixtures on feed intake , digestibility, milk yield and milk composition of crossbreddairycows were assessed at Holetta Agricultural Research Center by using five crossbredcows of similar milk yield (8-10 kg/d), body weight (355+47), age of lactation (early lactation), but differ in parities arranged in 5*5 single Latin square design; being started at December/2010 and finished at March/2011. Experimental animals were fed ad libitum natural pasture hay basal diet and supplemented with different treatments; T1 = Concentrate mix that consisted 65% wheat bran, 33% noug (Guizotia abysinica) seed cake and 2 % salt, T2 = 20% breweries dried grain (BDG) + 78% maize bran (MB) + 2% Salt ; T3 = 38% BDG + 60% MB + 2% Salt ; T4 = 58% BDG + 40% MB + 2% Salt and T5 = 78% BDG + 20% MB + 2% Salt. Laboratory analysis of experimental feeds showed that all ingredient feeds except maize bran had adequate CP content required for moderate level of ruminant production, which is greater than 15%, a level that is usually required to support lactation and g rowth. Dry matter and metabolisable energy intakes were the same in all groups while basal diet and crude protein intakes were significantly different where by cows maintained on T1 ration consumed high basal intake with the average daily intake of 8.04 kg/d. Similarly, significantly highe r (P<0.001) CP intakes were recorded for T1 and T5 groups with the average value of 1.56 and 1.54 kg/d, respectively. Treatment effects were also non-significant (P>0.05) for apparent dry matter digestibility and apparent acid detergent fiber digestibility, but significance difference (P<0.05) existed for apparent crude protein digestibility, apparent metabolisable energy digestibility and apparent neutral
A total of 9 Holstein Friesian crossbreddairycows were selected for this research. Dairycows were selected based on the age (4 to 5 years), the stage of lactation (1 to 2 months) and number of lactation (1 to 3). The average live weight of the dairycows was 301.77±22.12 kg. Since the experimental dairycows were rearing with the other dairycows in the dairy farm, the selected dairycows were marked by using number for easy identification and taking care separately.
significant (P<0. 01) among the treatments. This result was comparable with the 3.1% BW intake reported by  and higher than the values (2.2 – 2.3%) reported by . Daily DM intake of 3.32 kg/d for urea treated rice straw supplemented with Veranostylo  and 2.46 kg/100 kg BW for treated rice straw were reported by . The total DM intake (g/kg W 0.75 ) was highly significant (P<0.001) among the treatments and this result was comparable with that reported by  who noted 147 g/kg W 0.75 for lactating crossbredcows fed rations containing calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids (bypass fat). As well 113.2 and 122.1 of DM intake (g/kg W 0.75 ) was reported by . The observed variations among the studies emanated from the differences in the quality of the feed used, animal factors (age, physiological status of the animals and breed), rumen fill, rate of passage of particulate matter and rates of degradation of experimental feeds used. Increased organic matter intake (P<0.001) when cows were fed with basal diet consisting Pennisetum Purpureum Silage might be due to the increased total DM and CP intake.
Luigj Turmalaj et al., (2014) reported that high temperature over 35°C (heat stress) is one of the factors which influence in general reproduction processes and specially the ovulations process. The researchers have thought to experiment the use of hormonal substances (analogue synthetic of GnRH). Two cows of Simmental and their crossbred groups were made up. All the cows have the same breeding conditions. Their age is about 3-6 years old and they are 60 days after their parturition, they are also in normal healthy condition and with estrus normal cycle. The experimental group (IA + GnRH), the cows of this group were inseminated and they have been treated with Fertagyl (Intervet, 0.1 ng/ml) 2.5 ml/animal, (IM). The B group of control (IA), the cows of this group has been inseminated without hormonal above. The artificial insemination of the cows was performed about 12 hours after the beginning of the estrus. It resulted that (for two cows groups) the rate of fertilization for the experiment group is 80% against 60% of the control group (P>0.05). Thus, the treatment of the cows by using synthetics analogue of GnRH and at the same time the artificial insemination influences positively on their conception rate.
This study was conducted on 45 individual crossbreddairycows from 15 randomly selected households by a preselected survey questionnaire on 8-9 July, 2016 from Sirajgonj (Shahjadpur) and Pabna (Sathia) districts of Bangladesh (Figure 1). Another study was performed with the same aim on 36 cows from six randomly selected bathans of Shahjadpur Upazila at Sirajgonj district on 27-28 December, 2016. All surveyed data were firstly extracted into MS excel version 2010 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA). The gathered data were then analyzed via F test (one way ANOVA) including descriptive statistics using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) with Tukey’s HSD and DMRT post hoc mean separation tests.
750mg+Tinidazol 1800 mg + Ciprofloxacin 240mg injection + Cloprostenol 500mcg + Vita- A12,00,00I.U.+ 4-dimethyamino-2methylphenyl-phosphinic acid 1.2gm + Vit. E 500mg +Selenium15 mg + Pheneramine Maleat 113.75mg were found to best equally best for recovery of chronic endometris with highest conception rate with first AI. The mean serum Protein, Glucose, Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, progesterone and cortisol levels were estimated as highest on the day of oestrus before treatment where in contrary protein and glucose levels were lowest on the same day while all these retuned to almost normal concentration on the third oestrus when A.I. was done. So, It is up to the choice of the practitioner to select either of these drug combination for treatment of the high yielding crossbredcows suffering from chronic endometritis.
Investigations into herd demographics  and risk factors associated with introduction and transmission of JD and testing JD positive on Irish dairy farms have pre- viously been conducted [37,38]. The risk factors iden- tified in these studies included larger herd size , importation of cattle from abroad [36,38], and not using individual calving pens . These findings are in agree- ment with the international studies described previously. Although risk factors for testing positive for MAP have been identified in Ireland, a national survey document- ing the prevalence of application of JD risk-associated management practices at farm level has not previously been reported. Such a study may highlight underlying reasons for Ireland’s relatively low prevalence of JD test positive individuals and herds. The aim of the current study, therefore, was to document utilisation of manage- ment factors associated with JD transmission on Irish dairy farms, based on both national and international risk data, using a geographically representative group of Irish dairy farms. This will provide a baseline for JD risk in Ireland, which can subsequently be used to allow tar- geting of specific management practices that require im- provement as part of control programmes. Key influences on the application of JD-associated management factors were also investigated.
climatic, edaphic and management factors. A total of 106 participant farmers were also selected from eight districts and a total of 29.0 tones of oats seed produced during 2011/12. During the project period, a total of 2.7 tons of seeds of different forage species and 61,100 seedlings/root splits of tree lucerne, fodder beet and Napier grass were distributed to various stakeholders. Trainings on seed production of improved forage crops and post harvest handling of forage seeds were also given to farmers, development agents and dairy unions and the trainees visited forage field and laboratory of Holetta Agricultural Research Center to enhance their awareness on forage seed production and post harvest handling. Generally, the current situation indicated that forage seed demand is very high, but the supply is too weak and unsustainable. Therefore, expanding informal seed production under small scale farmers’ field conditions in selected potential areas could be one of the practical options to mitigate forage seed shortage. Moreover, continuous trainings should be given to farmers to improve their knowledge and skills on quality seed production and management. The present study generally indicated that the possibility of farmers involvement on forage seed production in order to alleviate seed scarcity problem of the country.
Adding fats is another strategy that has been exten- sively tested to reduce the impaired reproductive cap- acity of dairycows. A study aiming to minimize the negative energy balance by decreasing the milk fat syn- thesis and hence limiting energy output via milk by sup- plementing the ration with exogenous fats, was not successful since cows simply produced more milk when reducing the NEB . Omega-6 fatty acids are believed to have pro-inflammatory and thus prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF)-stimulating properties rendering them of extra value early post-partum, while omega-3 fatty acids can weaken this inflammatory potency, leading to a higher chance of survival of the embryo when supplemented during the periconceptual period . Unfortunately, re- search results rarely provide a consensus in this topic. The consequences of these fat-feeding strategies on oocyte and embryo quality remain an intriguing issue for debate. Fat feeding may alter the microenvironment of the growing and maturing oocyte of the early and older embryo and thus may affect reproductive outcome . Research has shown that dietary-induced hyperlipidaemic conditions can be harmful for embryo development and metabolism . However, to date, research results remain somewhat conflicting most probably due to differences in fat sources used, in diet and duration of supplementation and in ex- perimental set-up in general . Furthermore, peripheral blood in lactating dairycows will contain a mixture of fatty acids of dietary origin and from body-tissue break- down, the latter being largely abundant in the immediate postpartum period and containing a high proportion of saturated fatty acids [34, 36]. Especially the latter have been shown to have a significantly detrimental effect on both the oocyte as well as embryo quality .
The estimate of repeatability (0.07) for incidence of clinical lameness can be considered as low. The low estimate of repeatability for incidence of RCL obtained in this study was similar to the value reported by Berry et al. (2010) (r = 0.07) in Irish dairy cattle under grazing conditions. The estimates of repeatability of RCL was higher than the estimate of heritability, indicating the existence of permanent or non-additive genetic effects common to all lactations. However, the estimate of repeatability from this study must be considered with caution because the number of lactations per cow was only 1.5 and some herds dropped out recording events of lameness during the four milking seasons considered in this study. Warnick et al. (2001) associated culling bias with the increased risk of lameness of the same animals in different lactations. The cows with higher milk production potential were significantly more likely to remain in the herd regardless of clinical lameness problems compared to cows with low production. This selection and culling bias was considered as a major problem contributing to repeated incidence of lameness in different lactations (Calavas et al., 1996). In New Zealand herds, the decision to culling is based on whether a cow is empty and lame cows are more likely to be empty (Tranter and Morris, 1991).
20 multiparous cows were utilized to investigate effect of supplemental light on milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=10): a) 10- 13 hours of light and 14-11 hours of darkness/d natural light -NL group; b) 17 hours of light (natural light + supplemental light) -SL group. Supplemental lighting of 350 lx at eye level was provided by fluorescent lamps, controlled by an automatic timer . Multiparous cows in SL group produced more fat corected milk (FMC) than multiparous cows in NL group. The efficiency of production in dairycows can be enhanced by the photoperiod manipulation and thus provide another management tool for dairy producers to enhance productivity.
Sixty lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated block experiment to determine the efficacy of eight feed additives to reduce the transfer of aflatoxin (AF) from feed to milk. Six cows were allocated to each treatment group and 12 to a control group. All cows were fed the same aflatoxin-contaminated total mixed ration (TMR) with either no additive (control) or one of eight additives at 0.5% of the TMR dry matter (DM). Milk samples were collected twice daily to evaluate changes in milk AF
The current trial has confirmed statistical differences between the crossbred experimental studied groups, for the body weight, the average daily again and the biometric traits, comparative with the control group. The obtained results demonstrates the usefulness of the crossbreeding system in dairy herds as an alternative to improve the sustainability of the dairycows’ farms.
The differences were not found in the milk compositions of dairycows offered the experimental diets, however, the highest value of milk fat was observed in the dairycows fed on Diet-MN. This might be due to variation of inclusion level of roughage and concentrate in the ration and fibre intake (NDFI and ADFI). The higher inclusion levels of forage in the ration and fibre intake were found in Diet-MN and the lowest was observed in Diet-AM. Milk fat concentration was affected by the amount of fibre, the forage-to- concentrate ratio, carbohydrate composition of concentrate mix, lipids, intake, and meal frequency (Sutton, 1989).
Similar results were reported by Barkett et al. . The conception rate was increased slightly with the increasing of number of parity. In this study, at parity-3, the conception rate was high and after that it was found to decrease. These findings were similar with Sarder  who observed the influences of parity in CR. It showed that parturition to first oestrus interval (PFOT), Parturition to Conception Interval (PCI), first service to conception interval (FSCI) and service per conception (S/C) were shorter in higher parities group than in first parity. The third parity cows required shorter PFO (105.8 ± 7.1days) than did the first (127.8 ± 10.6 days) and the second parity ones (117.4 ± 5.6 days). As found in this study, CR tended to increase with increased parity number up to parity no.3 which was similar to the report by Gwazdauskas et al.  where CR showed significantly higher values in cows of first parity than the fourth parity. However, it differed from other studies reported by Chung et al.  and Hla et al. , who found that CR tended to increase with the parity number. In this study, it was found that when the placenta removed within 3 hours, the conception rate was higher and differed significantly (p<0.05). Highest conception rate found at the time of removal of placenta of 0.5 to 1 hour. Lowest rate of conception was found at time of 4 hours or more.