Regarding the micromorphology of flowers, in our study the surface of calyx as well as adaxial and abaxial sides of all the three petals has been analysed. The petals showed noticeable variation in cellular architecture from each other and such variation or transition from one cell type to another between petals of the same flower or within the same petal is not only due to difference in their plane of orientation towards incident light which is an exclusive characteristics of the subfamily Papilionoideae under family Leguminosae.  but also due to the type of insects which visit the flowers. [27-30] This observation slightly deviates from the observations made by Ojeda et al. (2009).  for petal micromorphology of Crotalariapallida and such variability definitely have an ecological or adaptive significance so far the pollination biology of this plant associated with different insect visitors is concerned.
EFN-bearing weed that is widespread in south-eastern Brazil (Lorenzi 2000), varies in size from a small herb <0.5 m in height to a large bush 2–3 m tall (Polhill 1982). Each of the main branches has several leaves and terminates in a raceme. Crotalariapallida pro- duces from one to dozens of racemes, each with 30– 50 flower buds, flowers or pods, and the same individ- ual may simultaneously have racemes with flower buds, flowers or ripe pods. The EFN of C. pallida are located in the racemes, at the base of each flower or pod. Crotalariapallida bears racemes throughout the year, although the peak of fruit production is in the wet season (Ferro 2001). Aerial plant parts contain
study except B. cereus. The ranges of zone were from 12 to 20 mm. In this study, E. coli showed highest sensi- tivity against PEE with the zone of inhibition of 20 mm whereas P. aeruginosa showed lowest sensitivity against CE with the zone of inhibition of 12 mm. B. cereus showed no sensitivity against any of the tested extracts. The rea- sons behind the difference in efficacy of different solvents extracts are yet to study, however; it might be due to vary- ing degrees of solubility of the active constituents with the solvents. The antagonized effects of the solvents with the constituents of C. pallida stem extract might be responsi- ble for no effect against bacteria . A lot of mechanism is available in which tannins and flavonoids usually form complex with bacterial cell, bind with protein and may inhibit the enzyme resulting in kill of bacteria. Research indicates that most pathogenic bacteria such as S. aureus and E. coli isolated from the hands of health workers are resistant to many antimicrobial agents . But this plant extract shown to be active moderate to highly against such antimicrobial agents.
CONCLUSION: The present study showed that some significant phytochemical components present in the leaves extract of C. pallida that helps to exhibit a potent antioxidant activity and moderate antibacterial and anthelmintic activity which support the traditional uses. Further advanced inquisitions are suggested to elucidate the underlying mechanism as well as to asunder the bioactive compounds responsible for each pharmacological activity. This study has contributed to the validation of the medicinal potential of extracts of leaves of C. pallida.
In conclusion, this study evidenced that the crude extract of C. pallida leaves has an estrogenic effect. Nevertheless, the present results indicate that this extract should be used with caution because it might be mutagenic. Considering that medicinal herbs contain complex mixtures of thou- sands of components that can act alone or synergistically, the estrogenic activity of dichloromethane fraction and stigmasterol isolated from C. pallida leaves with absence of a mutagenic effect in the Ames assay is highly relevant, since these samples may be successfully incorporated into pharmaceutical products with an important role in hormone replacement therapy.
Ethnobotanical study was conducted to document the ethnobotanical information of some of the members of the genus Crotalaria in Katsina. Field work was conducted to collect the data using semi structured questionnaire and oral interview. Seven species of the genus were found to have medicinal value and are used in treatment of various ailments. Among the species are Crotalariapallida, Crotalaria senegalensis and Crotalaria retusa. Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) was employed to get the most used species. Crotalariapallida was found to be the most used plant RFC 0.41 followed by Crotalaria retusa RFC 0.29. The results of the ethnobotanical data obtained showed that the species have good medicinal value in the treatment of various common ailments such as skin infection, fever and ulcer. The result of the study showed that members of the genus Crotalaria in the study area are widely used in treatment of various ailments.
analysis of NLR gene diversity and organisation within the potato genome (Jupe et al., 2012). The development of NLR-specific enrichment sequencing (RenSeq), has facilitated a more comprehensive NLR gene annotation (Jupe et al., 2013). Furthermore, RenSeq which targets all 755 described NLRs in potato, has been successfully used to map and/or identify functional NLRs against late blight (Jupe et al., 2013, Witek et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2018). While GenSeq targeted enrichment sequencing of 1980 single or low-copy number genes that can be placed on the individual potato chromosomes with high confidence, has proven a versatile and effective tool for the mapping of new resistances when utilised in combination with RenSeq (Chen et al., 2018). The presented research focused on H2 which has been identified as an ideal candidate for mapping through enrichment sequencing due to its simplex dominant nature. Although G. pallida Pa1 has a limited distribution, any major resistance gene which can be identified is a positive step forward in generating durable broad spectrum PCN resistance and has potential for use in pyramiding of resistances.
The medicinal plants form an important component of human health care system since ancient days. Owing to this, extensive phytochemical and pharmaceutical screening has been carried out identifying a range of biologically active molecules and their therapeutic uses. Though much work has been done, but is not sufficient to meet the demand due to emergence of new diseases and their causative agents. Hence a large scale screening has to be carried out on a range of unexplored potential medicinal plants. In the present paper, we report the nutritional profiling and antioxidant enzyme analysis of Crotalaria hebecarpa (DC) Rudd.
Outro fator de fundamental importância para o sucesso do consórcio do milho com esta leguminosa, quando a finalidade é de fornecer nutrientes para o milho no mesmo ciclo, é o manejo, ou seja, o corte da leguminosa. Este manejo deve ser planejado em função da cultura a ser beneficiada, para que ocorra sincronismo entre a mineralização dos nutrientes presentes na leguminosa e o aproveitamento pela cultura do milho. A Crotalaria juncea por apresentar maior relação talos/folhas, seus resíduos possuem maior teor de lignina, tendendo a se decompor lentamente (SILVA et al., 2003). Assim a cultivar de milho utilizada deve acompanhar a liberação gradual dos nutrientes advindos da mineralização dos resíduos.
The present study indicates that T. pallida leaves pos- sess significant polyphenolic contents, which exhibited strong ROS scavenging activities. The leaves also showed strong cytotoxic effect and moderate anticancer activity. Tabebuia genus is enriched with a diverse class of chem- ical compounds (Additional file 1: Table S1) based on lit- erature survey and in our study, the resulting bioactivities are basically responsible for mixture of phytochemicals possess in the extracts or may be due to the synergistic ac- tivity of various constituents retain in this plant species. Further investigation is being carried out to identify and characterize the inherent phenolic compounds as well as bioactive compounds of the plant which are responsible for the antioxidant, cytotoxic effect and anticancer activ- ities from the ethyl acetate fraction of T. pallida leaves.
proteins, although their discovery was initially associated with hypersensitive response in tobacco leaves to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) (van Loon & van Kammen, 1970; Gianinaz et al., 1970), were later shown to occur in many other plants that were attacked by other pathogens, such as fungi, bacteria, nematodes and insects (van Loon, 1999). In order to test the hypothesis that defence-related genes are up-regulated in the roots at an early stage of infection with G. pallida in S. sisymbriifolium but not in S. tuberosum Desiree, the changes in gene expression in infected roots of both plants were examined during infection with G. pallida J2s by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This was the first real-time PCR analysis conducted for defence-related gene expression in the roots of S. sisymbriifolium infected with PCN.
Bees in chambers often exhibit frequent, brief periods of non-flight behavior. In many endothermic bees, including C. pallida (Chappell, 1984), metabolic rate during non-flight activities can be extremely variable and temperature- dependent. Thus, a knowledge of the percentage of time spent in flight and in non-flight activities during closed-system respirometry trials is necessary for interpreting thermal variation in metabolic rate and flight performance. Therefore, we quantified flight duration within each minute of the respirometry trial to the nearest 0.1 s by summing the durations of flight bouts, which were identified from the digitized audio recordings as periods when wingbeats were produced.
From above clinical study it can be concluded that decoction of leaves of Shanapushpi (Crotalaria verrucosa L.) possess significant antipyretic activity. This may be due to the Tikta, Kashaya Rasa, Sheetaveerya and Katu Vipaka of the drug and pres- ence of reported active phytoconstituents like Ster- oids, Tannins, Flavonoids and Phenoilcs and their in- fluence on the prostaglandins. A further study regard- ing other pharmacological activities was may be un- dertaken in for further studies.
Aerial parts of crotalaria verrucosa were collected and shade dried. The dried aerial parts were coarse powdered and the powder was packed in to soxhlet column and extracted successively with petroleum ether (60-80°c), 95% ethanol (64.5-65.5°c), 70% ethanol (75°c) and distilled water. The extracts were concentrated by using rotary flash evaporator under reduced pressure. The dried extracts were stored in airtight container in refrigerator below 10°c.The solution of 95% ethanolic, 70% ethanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared using distilled water.
(Dent et al. 2000), levamisole (Lewis et al. 1980) and monepantel (Kaminsky et al. 2008) along with many others were first characterised in C. elegans. It has also been used as a method of high-throughput screen for potential anthelmintic drugs (Taylor et al. 2013; Katiki et al. 2011). The roles of certain families of proteins have been characterised first in C. elegans and from this, their role in parasitic nematodes inferred. For example, a cathepsin L protease was demonstrated to be essential for embryonic development of C. elegans (Hashmi et al. 2002) and this role was shown to be functionally conserved in the parasite H. contortus (Britton and Murray 2002). C. elegans may also be used as an expression system in which to express genes from parasitic species in order to investigate their function. By expressing homologues of C. elegans genes identified in a parasitic nematode, the function of the parasitic gene can be determined if it is able to rescue the equivalent mutant strain of C. elegans (Glendinning et al. 2011). This allows the likely role of genes from parasites to be studied further, such as the characterisation of the tub-1 gene encoding β-tubulin from H. contortus and its role in benzimidazole resistance (Kwa et al. 1995). It has also been used in vaccine develop against parasites such as H. contortus in order to express H. contortus derived antigens (Roberts et al. 2013). Expression patterns of genes from parasitic nematodes can also be analysed by the generation of promoter:GFP or LacZ fusions from the parasitic nematode, which are then transformed into C. elegans. The promoter region of an acetylcholinesterase gene, gpa-ace-2 from G. pallida has been used to drive GFP expression in C. elegans in specific neurons. Gpa-ace-2 was also able to rescue the C. elegans acetylcholinesterase mutants (Costa et al. 2009). The promoter region of a GAPDH gene from G. rostochiensis has been used to drive GFP expression in the body wall muscle of C. elegans. (Qin et al. 1998) The expression pattern of GFP is likely to be similar to where the gene is expressed in the parasite. The new era of genome sequencing is beginning to provide more completed genome sequences for parasitic nematode species. The 959 Nematode Genomes project aims to collate all the ongoing genome sequencing work on nematodes (Kumar, Schiffer and Blaxter 2012). A similar resource also exists for nematode transcriptome data (Elsworth, Wasmuth and Blaxter 2011). Including C. elegans, 21 genomes have been recently sequenced and of these 16 are parasitic nematode genomes (Rödelsperger, Streit and Sommer 2013). This increase allows for a new field of comparative genomics highlighting aspects of parasitic nematodes.
molecules. Even though the research into the nematicidal eﬃcacy of ﬂuensulfone relative to the control of PCNs is at its early stages, there is evidence in this study to suggest that soil treatment with ﬂuensulfone for control of G. pallida may be feasible. Even if fosthiazate and oxamyl remain in use, the addition of ﬂuensulfone to the list of nematicides for PCNs would provide growers with more options, and could perhaps help in curbing the problem of accelerated degradation. However, at its current level of eﬃcacy, ﬂuensulfone may not be reliably integrated with short potato rotations (e.g. 1:4), as eﬃcacy needs to be at approximately 80% for sustainable crop protection. 7
ABSTRACT: Aim: Present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic activity of methanolic extract of Crotalaria Burhia roots (Henceforth, MECB) using various experimental animal model of pain. Materials & Methods: Analgesic activity was tested using acetic-acid induced writhing test, formalin test, hot-plate test and tail- flick test for pain in mice and rats. In this study we investigated analgesic activity of MECB at test doses of 100, 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. The effects following pretreatment with aspirin, morphine and naloxone were also studied. Standard methodologies were used for the screening of preliminary phytochemical constituents of extract. Results: Result showed significant analgesic activity of MECB in all paradigms. The MECB at the dose 150 mg/kg was shown stronger analgesic activity compared to MECB at the dose of 100 and 300 mg/kg. Moreover, analgesic activity of MECB was note in similar manner to aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.). Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) abolished the analgesic activity of both morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and MECB (150 mg/kg, p.o.) in a similar manner. Conclusion: Results revealed that the MECB had significant analgesic activity in experimental animals (rats & mice). The mechanism of action of MECB appears to both peripheral and centrally mediated action (may be through opioid receptor). Our studies support the traditional use of Crotalaria burhia and the roots of Crotalaria buria can be a good source as analgesic.
Site description and collection: Identification characteristics of B. pallida were distinct nodes are not prominent, conical culm sheath with conical blade longer then the sheath, small bristled auricles and narrow ligule. Diseased leaf of B. pallida was collected from Tripura University Bamboo Setum of BCRU, Suryamaninagar, West Tripura (Fig. 1) on August, 2017. Sample was transported in closed sterile polythene bags and processed within 24 hrs of collection in laboratory.
The prospects of controlling field infestations of G. pallida with fluensulfone have been highlighted by the experiments reported in Chapter 3. However, the activities of fluensulfone and the control achieved, in that regard, will depend on its persistence in the soil. Indeed, the challenge to effective control of G. pallida with the currently available nematicides is commonly ascribed to short persistence in the soil (Haydock et al., 2012; Halford et al., 1995; Whitehead et al., (1991) and Whitehead et al., (1984), in view of the prolonged hatching exhibited by this species of PCN (Ryan et al., 2003; Whitehead, 1992). A number of studies, for example, Whitehead 1992 and Whitehead et al. 1984 have shown that G. pallida required 6 weeks of incubation in potato root leachate to reach the maximum hatch as compared with 3 weeks for G. rostochiensis. This hatching behaviour is purported to allow for peak juvenile hatch to escape effective nematicide concentrations in the soil (Evans, 1993). In their description of the hatching behaviour of G. pallida in relation to efficacy of oxamyl, for instance, Haydock and Evans, (1998) proposed that effective G. pallida control will required a persistence extending over 3 weeks. The degradation of fluensulfone has not been researched, and therefore, its field dissipation rates, as well as persistence are not yet known. Being such an influential determining factor of nematicide efficacy, the knowledge of the persistence of fluensulfone in the soil will be needed to inform its efficient use in controlling PCN. Furthermore, human and environmental safety concerns will benefit from the knowledge of the persistence of fluensulfone in the soil.