Lineaments being a surface manifestation of structurally controlled features such as faults, fractures and rock contacts their high density may present incipient highly connected fractures that are favorable for the accumula- tion of groundwater. Therefore, lineament analysis of the study area extracted from both the remotely sensed data and geological images gave important information on subsurface features that controls the movement and or storage of groundwater (Figure 7). In addition to that, lineaments like joints, fractures etc., developing gener- ally due to tectonic stress and strain, provide important clue on surface features and are responsible for the infil- tration of surface runoff into the subsurface and also for the movement and storage of groundwater . Most topographic lineaments in the study area correlate with faults, fracture zones, and lithological contrasts along fold belts and in crystallinebasement rocks.
Groundwater is an important source of water supply. It plays a major role in the Gidan Kwano Campus of the Federal University of Technology, Minna. The surface water sources are not reliable for adequate and sufficient supplies, as the streams and rivers are seasonal and the development of surface water resources for the campus is rather expensive. Hence, the University has to rely solely on groundwater supplies as its major source. However, some of the boreholes drilled in the University are not able to meet the needs of the University because out of the eleven boreholes drilled at the campus, eight of the boreholes have been abandoned. The reasons for these are not far-fetched. The current paradigm of groundwater exploration in most part of the country is based on a geophysical approach, where most boreholes are sited based only on responses from electrical surveys, often with little or no understanding of the structural geology of the target area . In many areas of complex hydrogeology like the crystallinebasement, this technique has proved to be unsuccessful due to a number of reasons. These include but are not limited to:
The population of Apete township in Ido local Government area of Oyo state in Nigeria has rapidly increased as a result of its proximity to the only state owned tertiary institution, The Polytechnic, Ibadan in the state capital. This increament is mainly due to large number of students recently admitted to the institution . A suburb of Apete, Idi oro community, in the neighbourhood of this institution witnessed more of the influx of students and staffs from this citadel of learning and technological innovation, being nearer since the available hall of residences in the institution had full beyond capacity and this has led to increased demand for potable water in the area. Safe water is a basic necessity of life. It could have serious public health implications, ranging from diseases to outbreak of epidemics when it is not available and/or contaminated. One of the necessary conditions for the eradication/reduction of water borne diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera and guinea worm in Nigeria is the supply of potable water to rural communities. Groundwater obtained from wells, boreholes and springs may not undergo considerable treatment before becoming potable due to the natural filtration process it has undergone through the soil horizons Because groundwater is widely known to be more hygienic than surface water, the possibility of utilizing it as a source of water supply for public use is always attractive. The need for good quality water and readily available potable groundwater in this community to cope with the ever increasing demands for water necessitates the present work. In the basement complex terrain of Nigeria, the occurrence of groundwater is highly unpredictable and hence requires a combination of hydrologic, geophysical and geologic surveys to achieve success in groundwater development programs .Therefore, detailed pre-drilling geophysical investigations become inevitable. In this study, we relied solely on the geophysical survey technique using the electrical resistivity method to locate zones of high potential for groundwater yield. Vertical electrical sounding has been found suitable for groundwater exploration in the basement complex areas of Nigeria , ,,, and ). The method amongst other is capable of delineating the depth to potential aquifer, depth to bedrock and cost effective. This study was aimed at unravel the subsurface geology and its associated features that are favourable for groundwater development at Idi-oro Apete, Southwestern Nigeria, for the purpose of serving as a working guide for future groundwater development in the area.
each of the ten (10) sites showed the presence of the conductive zones in the re- sistant base. These zones probably correspond to fractures that are excellent flux-conductive. The observation and interpretation of the panels of the various profiles made, allows good location of the discontinuities zones and if necessary stakes is repositioned in order to maximize the success rate of drillings. A similar approach conducted by Vouillamoz (2003) in Moznmbique and Alle et al. (2018) in Benin in the basement area strongly recommended the use of ERT for im- proving the success rate in drilling implementation. With the ERT, we clearly see in 2D conductive zones in the resistant basement rocks, which show the lateral extension of these discontinuities, and the thickness of the crack-alteration zone as well as the fractured zones which are the groundwater circulation corridors. The knowledge of these elements contributes to precise implantation of bore- holes. However, the actual hydrogeological characteristics of each site can only be obtained through the execution of mechanical survey. With the mechanical or confirmation survey, one obtains punctual and local information from the im- planted point. This makes it easier judgment of the reliability of the implantation studies.
Geothermics of the Baikal region is of special interest because of the confluence of its major tectonic units of different age and origin. These include a craton (Siberian Platform), two folded areas (Sayan-Baikal and Trans-Baikal), and an evolving rift (Duchkov et al, 1987; Lysak, 1984; Lysak and Dorofeeva, 1997; Dorofeeva et al, 1995). It was hypothesized that the long-term development of the territory is related to the Indo-Eurasian continental collision and variations in mantle heat flow. The focus of the present work is on the southern segment of the Siberian platform (known as the “Irkutsk amphitheater”), which is often considered tectonically stable. It has a two-layer structure, with primarily a lower Paleozoic sedimentary cover overlying Archean- Proterozoic crystallinebasement. The results are based on field data collected from about 70 boreholes in the study area. It includes lithological sections, borehole temperature logs of different depths, geothermal gradient determinations. In addition, core samples were selected for further determination of thermal and physical properties of the sediments. Well- known averaging schemes were employed in determining thermal conductivity coefficient for sections of boreholes for
Here, we reconstruct the relative chronology of the frontal part of the Aar Massif in 3-D. We focus on the central part presently exposed in the central Swiss Alps, where this con- tact is exposed approximately 12 km along the strike of the basement cover interface (Fig. 1). We proceed through (i) es- tablishing a synthesized lithostratigraphic framework for the region, (ii) collecting new structural data and samples on the surface and along the Jungfraubahn railway tunnel that crosses the mountain range and (iii) modeling the tectonic architecture with geographic information system (GIS) and Midland Valley’s (now Petex) Move ™ software package. We differentiate the sedimentary cover rocks based on strati- graphic criteria, which in turn allow us to reconstruct the ge- ometry of the exposed units. Structural data enable us to un- ravel their relative deformation, while Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM) yields estimates on peak metamorphic temperature. Our synthesis of existing data to- gether with new observations finally allows us to link the fab- ric of the sedimentary cover rocks with the underlying base- ment units’ evolution for some of the Alps’ most famous sceneries. This results in a new picture of how the differ- ences in rheology have controlled both mesoscale deforma- tion structures and microscale deformation style as well as the bedrock fabric of the crystallinebasement and the over- lying sedimentary cover lithologies.
The three Cl/Br values of the Upper Muschelkalk aquifer are in the order of Cl/Br = 300 (milligram basis) showing modern seawater signature (Cl/Br = 288). The chloride-sodium plot in Figure 8 illustrates that waters with lower concentration (Cl < 800 mmol(eq)/kg) follow exclusively the halite dissolution line, whereas waters with higher TDS stick as well to the seawater dissolution line. Higher TDS waters in greater depth occur in the SE of the investigation area, where Cl-rich water from the crystallinebasement is most likely infiltrating into the Upper Muschelkalk aquifer to mix there with a water of lower concen- tration and halite signature (Figure 8). Thus, the high salinity in the Upper Muschelkalk aquifer might be caused by upwelling of saline waters of different origin. The results indi- cate that the thermal waters contain a salinity component from deeper reservoirs (Middle Muschelkalk in NW, crystallinebasement in SE). The general groundwater flow direction in the Upper Muschelkalk aquifer in this area is from SE to NW.
Int J Dev BioI 39 781 787 (1995) 781 Structure and function of basement membranes EVA ENGVALL * Department of Developmental BiologV, The Wenner Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden[.]
Parking has been a major user of developable land since the 1960s. There are prevalent multi-store car parks, underground or basement car parks, and multi-functional construction car parks. Although multi-store vehicle parks are found primarily in city and city centres, they also feature in airports, retail centres, conference centres, hotels, residential developments, workplaces (both offices and factories), entertainment venues, railway stations, and sports facilities. Underground parking offers many long-term advantages such as maintaining prime real estate, providing convenient, centrally located parking, and removing street front parking structures. Deep underground basements that were early incorporated into the general project layout in urban development projects give many intrinsic changes to the overall quality and value of the project and its surrounding community. The present research includes the seismic conduct with the retention of reinforced concrete buildings walls. The research includes an analysis of the conduct of the retention wall in the RCC multi-storey construction during the earthquake.
For this five models of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 stories with beams and columns of basement are buried in perimeter walls along with the soil around the structure. The peripheral basement wall modelled using the fibre and to define the beam column that is biaxial elements the Kent-Scott-Park concrete is to form concrete and steel is modelled with uniaxial Giuffre-Menegotto-Pinto steel material [8,9].
saccular size. Measurement of chord length confirmed the increase in the Lamc2-/- (25 µm) as compared to litter- mate control (20 µm) saccule size, however this difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.07, Student's t-Test). Basement membrane composition and ultrastructure Perturbation of laminin expression often leads to com- pensation by another laminin chain [21,22]. Previously, we found that deletion of laminin α5 expression by lung epithelial cells was associated with ectopic deposition of laminin α4 in airway basement membranes . To determine if deficiency of laminin γ2 is associated with changes in appearance of other laminin chains, we exam- ined the lungs of Lamc2-/- mice by immunofluorescence for laminin α1–5, β1, and γ1–2 chains. Targeted deletion of laminin γ2 was confirmed by lack of staining for lam- inin γ2 in the Lamc2-/- lungs (Fig 2o). In the absence of laminin γ2, expression of laminin α3A (Fig 2e) and α3B (Fig 2g) chains were markedly diminished but not absent and the expression of other laminin chains was similar to littermate controls (Fig 2). Since the laminin γ2 chain is found only in laminin-332, this result is expected and par- allels the finding in the skin of Lamc2-/- mice . Immunofluorescence staining was also performed with antibody against entactin/nidogen but no differences were noted between Lamc2-/- and littermate controls (data not shown).
leukocytes with focal exfoliation of endothelium. The leukocytic infiltration subsided by the third day and was followed by progressive thickening of basement membranes, focal mesangial cell proliferation, increase in mesangial matrix, and accumulation of monocytes. Focal knob-like thickening of glomerular basement membrane was observed from the 15th day onward. Regularly-spaced electrondense deposits were seen in the lamina rara interna and externa of glomerular basement membranes […]
The physics behind hand the polymer materials are much closer to the amorphous inorganic material than crystalline ones. It is just as a result of the amorphous nature of polymer material. Nevertheless, one property is communal to all organic semiconductors i.e. the occurrence of localized states whose beginning their band nature. Electrical models do not contemplate such localized states so that it appears unfeasible the use of these electrical models.
immunofluorescence on the renal glomeruli and at the basement membrane area of both normal and involved skin. Acid eluates from glomeruli and from normal-appearing skin of three patients with systemic lupus erythematosus contained an antinuclear antibody. This antibody fixes complement and produces a mixed immunofluorescent pattern. Anti-
The development of embryos up to E10-E11 demonstrates that the collagen α1.α1.α2(IV) network is not crucial for blastocyst formation, maturation, implantation and initial morphogenetic events. The constraints on the intrinsic stability of basement membranes to maintain its barrier functions increase gradually in the embryo during progressive proliferation of cells and the differentiation and expansion of cell layers. Therefore, the observed local disintegration of basement membranes in collagen IV-deficient embryos later in development is probably due to reduced stability of matrix aggregates. One example is the vascular bleeding in the heart and arteries as the cell-cell contacts are not sufficient to stabilize the tissue architecture. A second example is the fracture of the Reichert’s membrane and accordingly, insufficient barrier between maternal and embryonic environments causes excessive bleeding into the yolk sac cavity and resorption of embryos. The loss of barrier function is also reflected in the development of neuronal ectopias in E11.5 mutant embryos because of the local disintegration of the basement membrane separating the embryonal neuroectoderm from the surrounding mesenchyme. Similar cortical defects have been described for mice lacking perlecan, mutations inhibiting the laminin-nidogen interaction or upon inactivation of cell surface receptors (Costell et al., 1999; Georges-Labouesse et al., 1998; Graus-Porta et al., 2001; Halfter et al., 2002; Moore et al., 2002). These defects cause fragmented pial basement membrane between E10.5-12.5 (Halfter et al., 2002) through which Cajal Retzius cells and other neuronal cells migrate into the surrounding mesenchyme. Together, these phenotypes support the notion that collagen IV has an essential role to maintain the structural integrity of basement membranes at stages associated with increasing mechanical demands. Yet, we cannot exclude, at the moment, the possibility that impaired cell-matrix interactions cause the detachment of basement membranes from underlying cell layers and contributes to the observed phenotypes. Loss of cell- matrix contact, as seen at many sites, could also be an explanation for the gradual increase of growth retardation preceding the lethality around E10-E11 and it may influence proliferation and differentiation of cells. Alternatively, impaired placental development and the observed local distortion of the capillary networks may decrease nutrition of the embryos.
The low-lying plains of the study area are essentially mantled by lateritic pebbly soils resulting from in-situ weathering of the crystalline rocks. Where exposed by erosion, the soil profile consists of a laterite topsoil underlain by a clay horizon which in turn is underlain by partially weathered parent rock materials. Talus and deposits of alluvial pebbles and sands are abundant. The talus is found on the alluvial deposits of river channels and the river banks.
Also, Abdullahi and Udensi (2008), said that areas with depth to basement >45m might be buried valleys or underground structural traps, which might be suitable for usage as seawage or disposal sites. Hence, areas on the map coloured yellow are recommended for construction of waste disposal structures. However, due to their relatively high basement resistivity values, VES L 1/4 , VES L 1/5 , VES L 2/4 and VES 2/5 have been found to be
The terrain in the study area is moderately undulating, with topographic elevation ranging from 200m to 360m above sea level. The area is situated within the tropical rain forest region, with a climate characterized by dry and wet seasons. Annual rainfall ranges between 100 and 1500 mm, with average wet days of about 100. The annual temperature varies between 18 0 C to 34 0 C. The study area lies within the basement complex of south-western Nigeria and is characterized by migmatite gneiss and pelitic schist with quartzite layers (Figure 3). The local geological mapping of the study area revealed that the area is underlain mainly by quartzite. The overburden is relatively thick within the study area ranging from 9m to 34m. The study area occurs within the basement complex of south- western Nigeria and it is Precambrian in age. Rahaman (1976) classified the rocks into five major groups which include the following Migmatite-Gneiss Complex, Meta-igneous rocks, Charnockitic rocks, Older granites and Unmetamorphosed dolerite dykes. The basement complex rocks are poor aquifers as they are characterized by low porosity and negligible